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Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

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  • Dave Rooney
    Hi William, I m curious... you received responses on the XP group from people who were around when the term was coined and others who have been in the XP
    Message 1 of 23 , Mar 26 3:42 AM
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      Hi William,

      I'm curious... you received responses on the XP group from people who were around when the term was coined and others who have been in the XP 'world' for well over a decade.  Were       those responses not good enough?

      Have you considered contacting Kent directly to ask him?

      Dave Rooney


      On 13-03-26 5:56 AM, william.syntagm wrote:
       

      I've been working in Agile UCD for some years, but only just thought to see if there was a Yahoo group on the subject (and there is!).

      At the moment, I'm trying to research the origins of 'user stories' as we know and love them in Agile<g>. So far I've got the source back to 1996:

      "I was on the first XP project, starting in 1996. We had "user stories" from the very beginning. AFAIK, Kent invented the term." -- Ron Jeffries (referring to Kent Beck)

      Does anyone know of references to the term prior to this? I've already done quite a bit of research so I'm not looking for Google search results (unless there's a really relevant one I've missed).

      BTW - minor plug - we have a couple of Agile UCD courses at CHI 2013 in Paris this April. One from me and one from Karen Holtzblatt & Hugh Beyers. See http://chi2013.acm.org/attending/courses/ (they are very inexpensive for anyone attending the conference)

      Regards,

      William Hudson
      User Experience Strategist, Syntagm Ltd
      Courses Co-Chair, CHI 2013 (Paris)
      Conference Committee, UCD 2013 (London)

      Guerrilla UCD – Usability & User-Experience Webinars
      www.guerrillaucd.com | @guerrillaucd


    • william.syntagm
      Dave - Like I said, I ve got the source back to 1996 but I don t think I would be very effective as a researcher if I didn t question whether the term and
      Message 2 of 23 , Mar 26 3:54 AM
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        Dave -

        Like I said, I've got the source back to 1996 but I don't think I would be very effective as a researcher if I didn't question whether the term and concept just suddenly materialized at that date.

        I have emailed Kent, but so far no joy. If you're in a position to encourage him to reply please do so!

        Regards,

        William

        PS - Comments in the XP group about Jack Carrol's scenario-based design (and other HCI/UCD thinking) are not really relevant. I'm trying to find out where 'user story' comes from in the way we currently use it. If it did suddenly materialize in 1996, that's fine, but I'd like to be sure.

        --- In agile-usability@yahoogroups.com, Dave Rooney <daverooneyca@...> wrote:
        >
        > Hi William,
        >
        > I'm curious... you received responses on the XP group from people who
        > were around when the term was coined and others who have been in the XP
        > 'world' for well over a decade. Were those responses not good enough?
        >
        > Have you considered contacting Kent directly to ask him?
        >
        > Dave Rooney
        >
        >
        [snipped]
      • Larry Constantine
        AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when
        Message 3 of 23 , Mar 26 4:14 AM
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          AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.

           

          ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

              Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

           

              Lior Samson, novelist

              Active (Professional) Member, SFWA

              Simon Rockower Award (2010), American Jewish Press Association

              Author of The Rosen Singularity (Gesher Press, 2011) and The Homeland Connection novels:

              Bashert, The Dome, Web Games (Gesher Press, 2010) and Chipset (Gesher Press, 2012)

           

           

           

           

          From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of william.syntagm
          Sent: Tuesday, 26 March, 2013 05:56
          To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

           

           

          I've been working in Agile UCD for some years, but only just thought to see if there was a Yahoo group on the subject (and there is!).

          At the moment, I'm trying to research the origins of 'user stories' as we know and love them in Agile<g>. So far I've got the source back to 1996:

          "I was on the first XP project, starting in 1996. We had "user stories" from the very beginning. AFAIK, Kent invented the term." -- Ron Jeffries (referring to Kent Beck)

          Does anyone know of references to the term prior to this? I've already done quite a bit of research so I'm not looking for Google search results (unless there's a really relevant one I've missed).

          BTW - minor plug - we have a couple of Agile UCD courses at CHI 2013 in Paris this April. One from me and one from Karen Holtzblatt & Hugh Beyers. See http://chi2013.acm.org/attending/courses/ (they are very inexpensive for anyone attending the conference)

          Regards,

          William Hudson
          User Experience Strategist, Syntagm Ltd
          Courses Co-Chair, CHI 2013 (Paris)
          Conference Committee, UCD 2013 (London)

          Guerrilla UCD – Usability & User-Experience Webinars
          www.guerrillaucd.com | @guerrillaucd

        • Adrian Howard
          ... Which brings me back to my question when you asked this on the CHI list ;-) What exactly do you mean by user story . The C3 teams stories are fairly
          Message 4 of 23 , Mar 26 4:40 AM
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            On 26 March 2013 10:54, william.syntagm <william.hudson@...> wrote:
            > PS - Comments in the XP group about Jack Carrol's scenario-based design (and other HCI/UCD thinking) are not really relevant. I'm trying to find out where 'user story' comes from in the way we currently use it. If it did suddenly materialize in 1996, that's fine, but I'd like to be sure.

            Which brings me back to my question when you asked this on the CHI list ;-)

            What exactly do you mean by "user story". The C3 teams stories are
            fairly different from the way many folk structure user stories now...
            and IIRC they were called "Customer Stories" at that point.

            Scrum teams were sticking things on cards on walls before 96. Do they
            count as user stories?

            Hell - I was putting sh*t that need doing on cards in the 80's - which
            I copied from my Dad the engineer when I was a kid. Do they count as
            user stories?

            Which user story are you after?

            Cheers,

            Adrian
            --
            http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
            t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
          • William Hudson
            Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you. I have since come across a document entitled User Stories Done Right: Requirements by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a
            Message 5 of 23 , Mar 26 4:48 AM
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              Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.

               

              I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be the earlier date.

               

              Regards,

               

              William

               

              From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
              Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
              To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

               




              AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.

               

              ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

                  Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

               

              [snipped]

            • William Hudson
              Adrian - I only just found your reply to my note to CHI-WEB (my email filter stuck it somewhere I wasn t expecting). So sorry for ignoring you earlier . I
              Message 6 of 23 , Mar 26 5:09 AM
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                Adrian -

                I only just found your reply to my note to CHI-WEB (my email filter stuck it
                somewhere I wasn't expecting). So sorry for ignoring you earlier<g>.

                I don't mind that different people do different things and still call them
                user stories. The basic idea is that you put a story of use on a small card.
                I'm thinking now that it might have come from Scrum (see my reply to Larry
                Constantine - you also hinted at this in your earlier note). Their
                development into the current 'As a <role>...' format is interesting and of
                course, part of the picture.

                Just to fill people in on the motive - if you are going to write on a topic,
                you start with what we already know and the background leading up to it.
                When I did this for the card sorting article I wrote for the Interaction
                Design Encyclopedia
                (http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/card_sorting.html), I found
                references to card sorting (in psychology) as far back as 1886. The term
                'user story' is not that uncommon, but coupled with writing them on small
                cards in a software development process it becomes more specific.

                So I may have it back to Jeff Sutherland in 1993 now. Interestingly, in the
                ACM Digital Library there is almost no mention prior to 1999.

                Regards,

                William


                -----Original Message-----
                From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                Sent: 26 March 2013 11:41
                To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Re: Origins of user stories

                On 26 March 2013 10:54, william.syntagm <william.hudson@...>
                wrote:
                > PS - Comments in the XP group about Jack Carrol's scenario-based design
                (and other HCI/UCD thinking) are not really relevant. I'm trying to find out
                where 'user story' comes from in the way we currently use it. If it did
                suddenly materialize in 1996, that's fine, but I'd like to be sure.

                Which brings me back to my question when you asked this on the CHI list ;-)

                What exactly do you mean by "user story". The C3 teams stories are fairly
                different from the way many folk structure user stories now...
                and IIRC they were called "Customer Stories" at that point.

                Scrum teams were sticking things on cards on walls before 96. Do they count
                as user stories?

                Hell - I was putting sh*t that need doing on cards in the 80's - which I
                copied from my Dad the engineer when I was a kid. Do they count as user
                stories?

                Which user story are you after?

                Cheers,

                Adrian
                --
                http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh


                ------------------------------------

                Yahoo! Groups Links
              • Larry Constantine
                I believe Jeff Sutherland presented that particular talk at GBC/ACM in 2007 (April 28 according to GBC/ACm site). The copyright claim spans back to earlier
                Message 7 of 23 , Mar 26 6:25 AM
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                  I believe Jeff Sutherland presented that particular talk at GBC/ACM in 2007 (April 28 according to GBC/ACm site). The copyright claim spans back to earlier material. I do not believe he coined the card-based modeling term.

                   

                  Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

                  Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

                   

                   

                  From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of William Hudson
                  Sent: Tuesday, 26 March, 2013 07:49
                  To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                   

                  Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.

                   

                  I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be the earlier date.

                   

                  Regards,

                   

                  William

                   

                  From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                  Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                  To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                   



                  AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.

                   

                  ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

                      Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

                   

                  [snipped]

                • William Hudson
                  Larry - Thanks for the clarification. I was coming to that conclusion myself even though the Google result in question seems to be dated 1993. Regards, William
                  Message 8 of 23 , Mar 26 6:44 AM
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                    Larry –

                     

                    Thanks for the clarification. I was coming to that conclusion myself even though the Google result in question seems to be dated 1993.

                     

                    Regards,

                     

                    William

                     

                    From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                    Sent: 26 March 2013 13:25
                    To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                    Cc: William Hudson
                    Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                     




                    I believe Jeff Sutherland presented that particular talk at GBC/ACM in 2007 (April 28 according to GBC/ACm site). The copyright claim spans back to earlier material. I do not believe he coined the card-based modeling term.

                     

                    Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

                    Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

                     

                     

                    From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of William Hudson
                    Sent: Tuesday, 26 March, 2013 07:49
                    To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                     

                    Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.

                     

                    I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be the earlier date.

                     

                    Regards,

                     

                    William

                     

                    From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                    Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                    To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                     

                     

                    AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.

                     

                    ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow

                        Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute

                     

                    [snipped]




                  • Adrian Howard
                    I m moderately the certain that the term user story came out of the XP crowd (possibly via being called customer stories first - my memory is poor). The
                    Message 9 of 23 , Mar 26 9:09 AM
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                      I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                      XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                      memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                      and Sprint Backlog Items.

                      The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                      early Scrum team folk to be sure.

                      So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.

                      The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                      define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                      something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                      impression I had in the late 90's.

                      Adrian

                      On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                      > Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                      > Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                      > reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                      > date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                      > the earlier date.
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > Regards,
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > William
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                      > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                      > Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                      > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                      > Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                      > course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                      > when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                      > days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                      >
                      > Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > [snipped]



                      --
                      http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                      t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                    • spbyh
                      I may have some of the original WIKI postings and emails from the CCC project back in the 90s where the term was used by Beck, Jeffries, Astels, Cunningham, et
                      Message 10 of 23 , Mar 26 6:57 PM
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                        I may have some of the original WIKI postings and emails from the CCC project back in the 90s where the term was used by Beck, Jeffries, Astels, Cunningham, et al. I do have some original Ron Jeffries user stories on cards and they are not in the Rachel Davis format which apparently started around 2005.  Ron put the estimate on the front of the card and the acceptance test on the back of the card, something that we didn't do.  I don't know who actually came up with the idea of using cards.
                        If it can be traced back before CCC, you might have to go to the Smalltalk world, but I have the distinct impression the concept evolved out of the work done on CCC.
                        =steve



                        -----Original Message-----
                        From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                        To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                        Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                        Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                        I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                        XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                        memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                        and Sprint Backlog Items.
                        
                        The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                        early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                        
                        So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                        
                        The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                        define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                        something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                        impression I had in the late 90's.
                        
                        Adrian
                        
                        
                        On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote: > Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you. > > > > I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: > Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that > reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real > date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be > the earlier date. > > > > Regards, > > > > William > > > > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine > Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15 > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories > > > > > > > AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of > course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially > when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early > days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns. > > > > ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow > > Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute > > > > [snipped] -- http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh ------------------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Links <*> To visit your group on the web, go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/ <*> Your email settings: Individual Email | Traditional <*> To change settings online go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/join (Yahoo! ID required) <*> To change settings via email: agile-usability-digest@yahoogroups.com agile-usability-fullfeatured@yahoogroups.com <*> To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to: agile-usability-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com <*> Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to: http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                      • spbyh
                        Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a paper at OOPSLA89 which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the
                        Message 11 of 23 , Mar 26 7:09 PM
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                          Just a bit more.  In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a paper at OOPSLA89 which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                          =steve



                          -----Original Message-----
                          From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                          To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                          Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                          I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                          XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                          memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                          and Sprint Backlog Items.
                          
                          The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                          early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                          
                          So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                          
                          The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                          define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                          something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                          impression I had in the late 90's.
                          
                          Adrian
                          
                          
                          On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote: > Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you. > > > > I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right: > Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that > reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real > date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be > the earlier date. > > > > Regards, > > > > William > > > > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine > Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15 > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com > Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories > > > > > > > AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of > course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially > when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early > days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns. > > > > ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow > > Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute > > > > [snipped] -- http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh ------------------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Links <*> To visit your group on the web, go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/ <*> Your email settings: Individual Email | Traditional <*> To change settings online go to: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/agile-usability/join (Yahoo! ID required) <*> To change settings via email: agile-usability-digest@yahoogroups.com agile-usability-fullfeatured@yahoogroups.com <*> To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to: agile-usability-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com <*> Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to: http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                        • Gerard Meszaros
                          I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in 1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                          Message 12 of 23 , Mar 26 8:35 PM
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                            I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in
                            1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                            understanding of the origins of XP and User Stories based on my direct contacts
                            with them in that time frame.

                            CRC cards (co-invented by Ward and were used in domain modeling and represent a
                            single domain object class and its responsibilities and collaborators. (See
                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-responsibility-collaboration_card) The user
                            story card represents something the Customer wanted the Dev Team to build for
                            them. Other than both being written on cards, there is really no similarity. So
                            the 1989 OOPSLA paper is a red herring.

                            You might take a look at the PLOP 1995 paper called Episodes which is the first
                            writing I'm aware of that describes the process that came to be called eXtreme
                            Programming. (see http://c2.com/ppr/episodes.html) It doesn't mention User
                            Stories by name but refer to "Implied Requirement" and "Work Split" for the
                            seeds of the user story concept.

                            Best wishes,

                            Gerard


                            On 3/26/2013 8:09 PM, spbroi@... wrote:
                            > Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a
                            > paper at OOPSLA89which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the
                            > CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more
                            > 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                            > =steve
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > -----Original Message-----
                            > From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                            > To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                            > Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                            > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                            >
                            > I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                            > XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                            > memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                            > and Sprint Backlog Items.
                            >
                            > The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                            > early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                            >
                            > So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                            >
                            > The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                            > define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                            > something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                            > impression I had in the late 90's.
                            >
                            > Adrian
                            >
                            > On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@... <mailto:william.hudson@...>> wrote:
                            >> Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                            >> Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                            >> reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                            >> date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                            >> the earlier date.
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> Regards,
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> William
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> From:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                            >> [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com?>] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                            >> Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                            >> To:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                            >> Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                            >> course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                            >> when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                            >> days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                            >>
                            >> Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                            >>
                            >>
                            >>
                            >> [snipped]
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > --
                            > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... <mailto:adrianh@...> twitter.com/adrianh
                            > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                            >
                            >
                            > ------------------------------------
                            >
                            > Yahoo! Groups Links
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >

                            --
                            Gerard Meszaros
                            Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                            http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                            1-403-827-2967

                            Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                            Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                            competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html
                          • Adam Sroka
                            I can t remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and
                            Message 13 of 23 , Mar 26 9:03 PM
                            • 0 Attachment
                              I can't remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and that when stories came along it was just a natural fit. 

                              The CRC paper is no smoking gun, but it is evidence that using cards to think about the software they were creating was something they were already doing at least that early. 


                              On Tue, Mar 26, 2013 at 8:35 PM, Gerard Meszaros <yahoo@...> wrote:
                               

                              I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in
                              1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                              understanding of the origins of XP and User Stories based on my direct contacts
                              with them in that time frame.

                              CRC cards (co-invented by Ward and were used in domain modeling and represent a
                              single domain object class and its responsibilities and collaborators. (See
                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-responsibility-collaboration_card) The user
                              story card represents something the Customer wanted the Dev Team to build for
                              them. Other than both being written on cards, there is really no similarity. So
                              the 1989 OOPSLA paper is a red herring.

                              You might take a look at the PLOP 1995 paper called Episodes which is the first
                              writing I'm aware of that describes the process that came to be called eXtreme
                              Programming. (see http://c2.com/ppr/episodes.html) It doesn't mention User
                              Stories by name but refer to "Implied Requirement" and "Work Split" for the
                              seeds of the user story concept.

                              Best wishes,

                              Gerard



                              On 3/26/2013 8:09 PM, spbroi@... wrote:
                              > Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a
                              > paper at OOPSLA89which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the

                              > CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more
                              > 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                              > =steve
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > -----Original Message-----
                              > From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                              > To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                              > Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                              > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                              >
                              > I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                              > XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                              > memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                              > and Sprint Backlog Items.
                              >
                              > The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                              > early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                              >
                              > So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                              >
                              > The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                              > define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                              > something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                              > impression I had in the late 90's.
                              >
                              > Adrian
                              >
                              > On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@... <mailto:william.hudson@...>> wrote:
                              >> Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                              >> Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                              >> reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                              >> date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                              >> the earlier date.
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> Regards,
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> William
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> From:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                              >> [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com?>] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine

                              >> Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15
                              >> To:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>

                              >> Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                              >> course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                              >> when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                              >> days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                              >>
                              >> Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                              >>
                              >>
                              >>
                              >> [snipped]
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > --
                              > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... <mailto:adrianh@...> twitter.com/adrianh

                              > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                              >
                              >
                              > ------------------------------------
                              >
                              > Yahoo! Groups Links
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              >

                              --
                              Gerard Meszaros
                              Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                              http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                              1-403-827-2967

                              Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                              Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                              competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html


                            • William Hudson
                              Many thanks to Steve, Gerard and Adam for their helpful additions. As an OO developer in the 1990 s I have heard of CRC cards, but it seems something of a jump
                              Message 14 of 23 , Mar 27 4:34 AM
                              • 0 Attachment

                                Many thanks to Steve, Gerard and Adam for their helpful additions.

                                 

                                As an OO developer in the 1990’s I have heard of CRC cards, but it seems something of a jump (conceptually) to user stories. However, I have come across a 1994 paper at Interact that uses the term ‘user stories’ in the correct sense. The authors of that paper have adapted the term ‘war stories’ used in a 1986 paper from Xerox Parc called ‘Narratives at Work’ (does *everything* we do today come from Xerox Parc<g>?)

                                 

                                I’d be really interested to see some of the original user stories if possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a benefit to users so it would be good to plot that development. Email me at whudson@... (if you’d prefer not to post them to the list).

                                 

                                Regards,

                                 

                                William

                                 

                                From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adam Sroka
                                Sent: 27 March 2013 04:04
                                To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                Cc: spbroi@...
                                Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                                 




                                I can't remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and that when stories came along it was just a natural fit. 

                                 

                                The CRC paper is no smoking gun, but it is evidence that using cards to think about the software they were creating was something they were already doing at least that early. 

                                 

                                On Tue, Mar 26, 2013 at 8:35 PM, Gerard Meszaros <yahoo@...> wrote:

                                 

                                I was a member of the Hillside Group along with Kent Beck and Ward Cunningham in
                                1995/1996 and was present at the first 4 PLOP conferences. The following is my
                                understanding of the origins of XP and User Stories based on my direct contacts
                                with them in that time frame.

                                CRC cards (co-invented by Ward and were used in domain modeling and represent a
                                single domain object class and its responsibilities and collaborators. (See
                                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-responsibility-collaboration_card) The user
                                story card represents something the Customer wanted the Dev Team to build for
                                them. Other than both being written on cards, there is really no similarity. So
                                the 1989 OOPSLA paper is a red herring.

                                You might take a look at the PLOP 1995 paper called Episodes which is the first
                                writing I'm aware of that describes the process that came to be called eXtreme
                                Programming. (see http://c2.com/ppr/episodes.html) It doesn't mention User
                                Stories by name but refer to "Implied Requirement" and "Work Split" for the
                                seeds of the user story concept.

                                Best wishes,

                                Gerard



                                On 3/26/2013 8:09 PM, spbroi@... wrote:
                                > Just a bit more. In 1989 Ward Cunningham and Kent Beck (then at Apple) gave a

                                > paper at OOPSLA89which included the concept of the CRC card. I suspect that the


                                > CRC card evolved into the user story at CCC as a way to make it more
                                > 'user-friendly'. The concepts are similar.
                                > =steve
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > -----Original Message-----
                                > From: Adrian Howard <adrianh@...>
                                > To: agile-usability <agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>
                                > Sent: Tue, Mar 26, 2013 9:09 am
                                > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                                >
                                > I'm moderately the certain that the term "user story" came out of the
                                > XP crowd (possibly via being called "customer stories" first - my
                                > memory is poor). The Scrum world talked about Product Backlog Items
                                > and Sprint Backlog Items.
                                >
                                > The things on the cards may well be similar though. You'd need to ask
                                > early Scrum team folk to be sure.
                                >
                                > So you may be looking for the same practice with a different name.
                                >
                                > The focus on the card being the token for the conversations that
                                > define the spec - rather than being the spec artefact in toto was
                                > something that came from the XP folk more. At least that was the
                                > impression I had in the late 90's.
                                >
                                > Adrian
                                >

                                > On 26 March 2013 11:48, William Hudson <william.hudson@... <mailto:william.hudson@...>> wrote:
                                >> Hi, Larry. Nice to hear from you.
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> I have since come across a document entitled “User Stories Done Right:
                                >> Requirements” by Jeff Sutherland. However, it has a copyright footer that
                                >> reads ‘1993 – 2007’ so I’m trying to get in touch with Jeff to find the real
                                >> date. Since the term is in the article title I’m supposing that it might be
                                >> the earlier date.
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> Regards,
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> William
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> From:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>

                                >> [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com?>] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine


                                >> Sent: 26 March 2013 11:15

                                >> To:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com <mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com>


                                >> Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> AFAIK, Kent Beck first introduced the term with its contemporary usage. Of
                                >> course, meanings evolve, and the user stories of the new century, especially
                                >> when written by the IxD team, are quite different from those from the early
                                >> days, which were far less focused and informed by IxD concerns.
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> ~~Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                                >>
                                >> Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                                >>
                                >>
                                >>
                                >> [snipped]
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > --

                                > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... <mailto:adrianh@...> twitter.com/adrianh


                                > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                                >
                                >
                                > ------------------------------------
                                >
                                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >

                                --
                                Gerard Meszaros
                                Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                                http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                                1-403-827-2967

                                Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                                Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                                competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html

                                 




                              • Adrian Howard
                                Hey William, ... That s an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it? Adrian -- http://quietstars.com adrianh@quietstars.com
                                Message 15 of 23 , Mar 27 4:38 AM
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  Hey William,

                                  On 27 March 2013 11:34, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                                  > I’d be really interested to see some of the original user stories if
                                  > possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a benefit
                                  > to users so it would be good to plot that development.

                                  That's an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it?

                                  Adrian
                                  --
                                  http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                                  t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                                • William Hudson
                                  A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the inter-role
                                  Message 16 of 23 , Mar 27 5:03 AM
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of
                                    the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                                    inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                                    and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                                    roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                                    one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                                    same role in a different context.

                                    Regards,

                                    William


                                    -----Original Message-----
                                    From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                    [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                                    Sent: 27 March 2013 11:39
                                    To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                    Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                                    Hey William,

                                    On 27 March 2013 11:34, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                                    > I'd be really interested to see some of the original user stories if
                                    > possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a
                                    > benefit to users so it would be good to plot that development.

                                    That's an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it?

                                    Adrian
                                    --
                                    http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                                    t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh


                                    ------------------------------------

                                    Yahoo! Groups Links
                                  • Adrian Howard
                                    I d question whether the role slot in user stories often gets used in that way. The use-case role and the user story role tend to be used fairly
                                    Message 17 of 23 , Mar 27 5:10 AM
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      I'd question whether the role slot in user stories often gets used in
                                      that way. The use-case "role" and the user story "role" tend to be
                                      used fairly differently in my experience.

                                      We hit the same name - different usage problem again.

                                      They're normally much closer to customer archetypes / persona in my
                                      experience (indeed most agile ux folk I know who adopt the story
                                      format slot persona into the role hole).

                                      Cheers,

                                      Adrian

                                      On 27 March 2013 12:03, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                                      > A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of
                                      > the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                                      > inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                                      > and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                                      > roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                                      > one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                                      > same role in a different context.
                                      >
                                      > Regards,
                                      >
                                      > William
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > -----Original Message-----
                                      > From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                      > [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                                      > Sent: 27 March 2013 11:39
                                      > To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                      > Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories
                                      >
                                      > Hey William,
                                      >
                                      > On 27 March 2013 11:34, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                                      >> I'd be really interested to see some of the original user stories if
                                      >> possible. From a UCD perspective the shift to roles is not really a
                                      >> benefit to users so it would be good to plot that development.
                                      >
                                      > That's an interesting statement to me. Could you expand upon it?
                                      >
                                      > Adrian
                                      > --
                                      > http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                                      > t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > ------------------------------------
                                      >
                                      > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                      >
                                      >
                                      >



                                      --
                                      http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                                      t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                                    • William Hudson
                                      Agilists who know little or nothing about usability/UCD do try to take roles literally. I was talking with a client just a couple of weeks ago who pointed this
                                      Message 18 of 23 , Mar 27 5:22 AM
                                      • 0 Attachment
                                        Agilists who know little or nothing about usability/UCD do try to take roles
                                        literally. I was talking with a client just a couple of weeks ago who
                                        pointed this out as a problem with their introduction of UX design.

                                        Regards,

                                        William


                                        -----Original Message-----
                                        From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                        [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Adrian Howard
                                        Sent: 27 March 2013 12:11
                                        To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                        Subject: Re: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                                        I'd question whether the role slot in user stories often gets used in that
                                        way. The use-case "role" and the user story "role" tend to be used fairly
                                        differently in my experience.

                                        We hit the same name - different usage problem again.

                                        They're normally much closer to customer archetypes / persona in my
                                        experience (indeed most agile ux folk I know who adopt the story format slot
                                        persona into the role hole).

                                        Cheers,

                                        Adrian

                                        [snipped]
                                      • Adrian Howard
                                        ... My experiences differ. It does happen - of course - but my experiences of teams, even those without UX input, is that the roles are more often treated as
                                        Message 19 of 23 , Mar 27 5:29 AM
                                        • 0 Attachment
                                          On 27 March 2013 12:22, William Hudson <william.hudson@...> wrote:
                                          > Agilists who know little or nothing about usability/UCD do try to take roles
                                          > literally. I was talking with a client just a couple of weeks ago who
                                          > pointed this out as a problem with their introduction of UX design.

                                          My experiences differ.

                                          It does happen - of course - but my experiences of teams, even those
                                          without UX input, is that the roles are more often treated as market
                                          segments / archetypes / etc.

                                          They're certainly seem to treated much more generally than use-case type roles.

                                          Possibly you're seeing teams who are primarily transferring from
                                          use-cases to stories? In those situations it's certainly a common
                                          problem.

                                          Cheers,

                                          Adrian
                                          --
                                          http://quietstars.com adrianh@... twitter.com/adrianh
                                          t. +44 (0)7752 419080 skype adrianjohnhoward pinboard.in/u:adrianh
                                        • Larry Constantine
                                          ... the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict and so on.
                                          Message 20 of 23 , Mar 27 6:05 AM
                                          • 0 Attachment
                                            William said:

                                            > A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs of
                                            the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                                            inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                                            and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                                            roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                                            one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                                            same role in a different context. <

                                            The user role concept traces back to contributions from Rebecca Wirfs-Brock
                                            and was developed and elaborated in usage-centered design and later
                                            model-driven activity-centered design (Constantine and Lockwood). A role is
                                            a relationship between users and a system or service and is defined (ala
                                            Wirfs-Brock) by a characteristic set of needs, expectations, interests, and
                                            responsibilities in relation to the system/service and in the context of the
                                            activity in which the user is participating. As such, a user role focuses
                                            precisely on those issues most salient to effective interaction design (see
                                            my chapter in The Persona Lifecycle for persuasive support). That it blurs
                                            or compresses "individual differences" is precisely why it is a more compact
                                            and efficient model, particularly for agile design and development.
                                            Individual incumbents in a role vary immensely; the role itself is are far
                                            less variable. Individuals are extremely complicated; roles are far simpler.
                                            A well-formulated role absolutely does make allowance for the needs of the
                                            individual, but not as an individual, not as a person, but rather as an
                                            individual in a particular activity and in a particular relationship to a
                                            designed artifact.

                                            The critical issue in modeling for agile IxD/UxD is to model only what is
                                            most important to model, compactly and concisely, to focus on what is likely
                                            to yield the biggest payoff in guidance toward an effective design in the
                                            least amount of time. The templated user role profiles employed in
                                            usage-centered design and human activity modeling do just that,
                                            concentrating the modeler/designer's attention on those things that are most
                                            likely to directly impact and shape the design.

                                            The issues you mention-role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role
                                            conflict-are interesting from an intellectual standpoint and often play some
                                            part in a complete analysis of human activity (we incorporate them in our
                                            application of activity-theory to educational research, for instance), but
                                            the relationship of the actor in role to the designed artifact is far more
                                            relevant to designing that system or service. Inter-role issues that may be
                                            important in organizational dynamics or social psychology are typically far
                                            less central to getting the design right.

                                            In the most recent incarnation of the user role profile that we use in
                                            model-driven agile design (not yet written up), we have reduced the template
                                            further to include just 3 categories (ORB): Orientation, Responsibilities,
                                            and Background. Orientation and attitude of the actor in role to focal
                                            activities and to the designed artifact; Responsibilities of the actor in
                                            role within focal activities and with the designed artifact; Background
                                            characteristics expected in relation to use of the designed artifact within
                                            focal activities. This is a vast simplification from the concept of role in
                                            activity theory and role theory, but it zeroes in on the stuff that is most
                                            likely to make a difference, covering the bases on a single index card.

                                            Modeling efficiency and design leverage are behind most of my work and the
                                            usage/activity-centered design community. It is why we favor concise role
                                            profiles over the decorative embellishments of personas, why essential use
                                            cases win out over traditional concrete use cases and scenarios.

                                            Psychologists and humanists can plead for attention to the individual, but,
                                            as Don Norman and I pointed out some years ago, that is precisely the
                                            problem. It is the focus on humans, on individuals, that diverts our
                                            attention from the more important focus on what people are doing and trying
                                            to do, that is, on activity as mediated by designed artifacts. This badly
                                            needed shift in focus was behind my development of human activity modeling
                                            (with Don's encouragement and contributions) and then its adaptation to
                                            agile design and development. We drive AD&D by activity models not to
                                            capture a complete analysis embodied in those models but to move as quickly
                                            and efficiently as possible toward good designs. That means concentrating on
                                            roles and activities and glossing over stuff that is less critical to speedy
                                            solutions.

                                            Prof. Larry Constantine, IDSA, ACM Fellow
                                            Universidade da Madeira | Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute
                                          • William Hudson
                                            Thanks, Larry. Very interesting. Do you know when Rebecca first started talking about roles? I have a paper here from Jacobson dated 1987 that describes their
                                            Message 21 of 23 , Mar 27 7:09 AM
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                                              Thanks, Larry. Very interesting. Do you know when Rebecca first started
                                              talking about roles? I have a paper here from Jacobson dated 1987 that
                                              describes their use in OO development.

                                              BTW, I wasn't suggesting that designers of information systems should
                                              thoroughly research roles and their interrelationships. My point is more
                                              that roles are not a very useful focus of attention in many systems.

                                              Regards,

                                              William


                                              -----Original Message-----
                                              From: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                              [mailto:agile-usability@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Larry Constantine
                                              Sent: 27 March 2013 13:06
                                              To: agile-usability@yahoogroups.com
                                              Subject: RE: [agile-usability] Origins of user stories

                                              William said:

                                              > A role is a systemizing concept so really makes no allowance for needs
                                              > of
                                              the individual. Using it to represent users glosses over many of the
                                              inter-role issues like role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role conflict
                                              and so on. Of course, we have Ivar Jacobson and use cases to thank for
                                              roles, and they're not entirely without merit, but someone filling role A in
                                              one context of use may have quite different needs to someone filling the
                                              same role in a different context. <

                                              The user role concept traces back to contributions from Rebecca Wirfs-Brock
                                              and was developed and elaborated in usage-centered design and later
                                              model-driven activity-centered design (Constantine and Lockwood). A role is
                                              a relationship between users and a system or service and is defined (ala
                                              Wirfs-Brock) by a characteristic set of needs, expectations, interests, and
                                              responsibilities in relation to the system/service and in the context of the
                                              activity in which the user is participating. As such, a user role focuses
                                              precisely on those issues most salient to effective interaction design (see
                                              my chapter in The Persona Lifecycle for persuasive support). That it blurs
                                              or compresses "individual differences" is precisely why it is a more compact
                                              and efficient model, particularly for agile design and development.
                                              Individual incumbents in a role vary immensely; the role itself is are far
                                              less variable. Individuals are extremely complicated; roles are far simpler.
                                              A well-formulated role absolutely does make allowance for the needs of the
                                              individual, but not as an individual, not as a person, but rather as an
                                              individual in a particular activity and in a particular relationship to a
                                              designed artifact.

                                              [snipped]
                                            • Gerard Meszaros
                                              ... Yes, they used cards for all sorts of purposes including organizing presentations by putting each thing they wanted to talk about onto a card. Easy to
                                              Message 22 of 23 , Mar 27 8:57 AM
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                                                On 3/26/2013 10:03 PM, Adam Sroka wrote:
                                                > I can't remember who said it or the exact context, but I remember hearing that
                                                > Ward and Kent really liked using cards for a variety of different things and
                                                > that when stories came along it was just a natural fit.
                                                >
                                                >

                                                Yes, they used cards for all sorts of purposes including organizing
                                                presentations by putting each thing they wanted to talk about onto a card. Easy
                                                to reorganize the content simply by moving the card. Other agilist/OO people
                                                have adopted this style of presentation "notes" most notably (Uncle) Bob Martin
                                                (who rarely uses visuals in presentation) and Ron Jeffries (another CCC team
                                                member.)

                                                Gerard

                                                --
                                                Gerard Meszaros
                                                Lean/Agile Coach/Mentor/Trainer
                                                http://www.gerardmeszaros.com
                                                1-403-827-2967

                                                Author of the Jolt Productivity Award winning book "xUnit Test Patterns -
                                                Refactoring Test Code" and winner of the "Programming with the Stars"
                                                competition at Agile 2009. Learn more at http://xunitpatterns.com/index.html
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