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Yoga Sutras 3.13-3.16: Samyama on form, time, characteristics

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  • Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati
    Yoga Sutras 3.13-3.16 SAMYAMA ON FORM, TIME, CHARACTERISTICS http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras-30916.htm#3.13 ************************ YOGA SUTRAS 3.13-3.16:
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 4, 2007
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      Yoga Sutras 3.13-3.16
      SAMYAMA ON FORM, TIME, CHARACTERISTICS
      http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras-30916.htm#3.13

      ************************
      YOGA SUTRAS 3.13-3.16:
      ************************

      These three transition processes also explain the three
      transformations of form, time, and characteristics, and how these
      relate to the material elements and senses. There is an unmanifest,
      indescribable substratum or existence that is common or contained
      within all of the other forms or qualities. Change in the sequence of
      the characteristics is the cause for the different appearances of
      results, consequences, or effects. By samyama on the three-fold
      changes in form, time, and characteristics, there comes knowledge of
      the past and future.

      ************************
      YOGA SUTRA 3.13:
      ************************

      These three transition processes also explain the three
      transformations of form, time, and characteristics, and how these
      relate to the material elements and senses.
      (etena bhuta indriyasau dharma laksana avastha parinamah vyakhyatah)

      etena = by this, by these
      bhuta = elements
      indriyasau = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)
      dharma = form, quality
      laksana = time characteristics
      avastha = state of old or new, condition
      parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result,
      consequence, mutative effect, alteration
      vyakhyatah = are described

      THE TRANSITIONS DETERMINE THE MORE EXTERNAL:

      Three extremely subtle transitions have been explained in the
      preceding sutras. This current sutra is emphasizing the fact that
      those subtle transitions, in turn, directly impact the perception of
      the slightly less subtle, or less internal processes of form, time,
      and condition.

      MASTERY OVER THE ELEMENTS AND SENSES:

      While this sutra describes, in part, how the transition process
      relate to the elements and the senses, the mastery of the elements
      (bhutas) is explained in sutra 3.45, and the mastery of the senses
      (indriyas) is explained in sutra 3.48.

      ************************
      YOGA SUTRA 3.14:
      ************************

      There is an unmanifest, indescribable substratum or existence that is
      common or contained within all of the other forms or qualities.
      (shanta udita avyapadeshya dharma anupati dharmi)

      shanta = latent past
      udita = arising
      avyapadeshya = indescribable, unpredictable, unmanifest
      dharma = form, quality, characteristics
      anupati = closely following, common, conforming with all, contained in
      dharmi = the object containing the characteristics, substratum,
      existence

      WHAT IS UNDERNEATH ALL OF THIS?:

      Three transitions have been described in the sutras above, as well as
      three subsequent transformations, along with the fact that these
      affect the elements and the senses. There is surely something in
      common, within, a part of, or underneath all of them.

      FIND THE SUBSTRATUM:

      The point of witnessing all of those subtle processes is to find that
      substratum, the object underneath, that is common to all, is
      continuously existent within them all, and unchanging in any of them.
      This is a further refinement of the process described throughout Yoga
      of witnessing and setting aside that which is not the eternal,
      indivisible reality of our true nature that we are seeking. After
      everything else is eliminated (1.2), we experience the true Self
      (1.3).

      ************************
      YOGA SUTRA 3.15:
      ************************

      Change in the sequence of the characteristics is the cause for the
      different appearances of results, consequences, or effects.
      (krama anyatvam parinamah anyatve hetu)

      krama = sequence, succession, order
      anyatvam = distinctness, different phases
      parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result,
      consequence, mutative effect, alteration, natural laws or functions
      of nature
      anyatve = for the distinctness, differentiation
      hetu = the reason

      NATURAL ORDER:

      There is a natural flow or transformation in all levels of nature,
      whether in gross or subtle planes of reality. These transitions are
      the foundations of the principle of cause yielding effect. Some of
      these are known at the surface level by all of us. The subtler
      transitions are known to the Yogis.

      REMEMBER NON-ATTACHMENT:

      Recall that one of the foundation principles of Yoga is non-
      attachment (1.12-1.16). Also, recall that this is a process that
      evolves in stages, and that here, in this section we are talking
      about extremely subtle processes. Though the processes are subtle,
      the principles are the same. You witness, notice an underlying
      reality, and let go of the more surface attachment.

      A PARTICULAR FORM COMES FROM THE SEQUENCE OF STATES:

      Imagine that you are able to meditate so quietly that you recognize
      that all of the objects of your attachment were simply a result of a
      change of sequence in states. For example, clay turns into pot (while
      remaining clay), and then, eventually turns back into clay. So it is
      with all of the objects, whether objects in the external world, or
      object in the mind. It is all a matter of changing form, or the
      sequence in which those forms are seen. Gradually, the unchanging
      truth is revealed, underneath all of the apparent change in
      successions of transformations of that uniform oneness.

      ************************
      YOGA SUTRA 3.16:
      ************************

      By samyama on the three-fold changes in form, time, and
      characteristics, there comes knowledge of the past and future.
      (parinimah traya samyama atita anagata jnana)

      parinimah = transition, transformation, of change, result,
      consequence, mutative effect, alteration
      traya = three
      samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi
      taken together
      atita = past
      anagata = future
      jnana = knowledge

      WITNESSING TRANSITIONS TELLS THE PAST AND FUTURE:

      If you know the current state of the transformations related to form,
      time, and characteristics (3.13), then you also have an understanding
      of the past from which they evolved, and the future towards which
      they are evolving. The question is the degree to which you have
      clarity about the current moment of these three.

      IMAGINE A POT OF BOILING WATER:

      Imagine that you put a pot of cold water on a stove, and you wondered
      how long it would take to come to a boil. If you knew the nature of
      the current form, the time factors, and the characteristics you were
      dealing with, you could calculate an answer (Of course, the principle
      of samyama is much subtler). If you knew the exact temperature of the
      water, the BTU's of heat from the fire, the barometric pressure, the
      heat conductivity of the pot, and other such factors, you'd be able
      to calculate when the water would boil (presuming you understood the
      formulas).

      LETTING GO OF THE SUBTLE ABILITIES:

      This sutra is the first of many in Chapter 3 that describe
      attainments, abilities, or powers that come with practices. The wise
      yogi does not seek out such powers, but recognizes that they come
      along the way. Where they are encountered, their value is in
      uncovering the potential colorings of attraction and aversion (2.3),
      and the avidyas (2.5), so that these can be set aside in non-
      attachment (1.15-1.16). Sutra 3.38 clearly points out the principle
      of renouncing such powers.

      http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras.htm
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