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Yoga Sutra 2.5: Four types of ignorance or veiling

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  • Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati
    Yoga Sutra 2.5: Four types of ignorance or veiling http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras/yoga-sutras-20109.htm#2.5 (for more info) ... 2.5 Ignorance (avidya) is of
    Message 1 of 1 , Mar 30, 2004
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      Yoga Sutra 2.5: Four types of ignorance or veiling
      http://www.swamij.com/yoga-sutras/yoga-sutras-20109.htm#2.5
      (for more info)

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      2.5 Ignorance (avidya) is of four types: 1) regarding that which is
      transient as eternal, 2) mistaking the impure for pure, 3) thinking
      that which brings misery to bring happiness, and 4) taking that which
      is not-self to be self.

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      Vidya is WITH knowledge: Vidya means knowledge, specifically the
      knowledge of Truth. It is not a mere mental knowledge, but the
      spiritual realization that is beyond the mind. When the "A" is put in
      front of Vidya (to make it Avidya), the "A" means without.

      Avidya is WITHOUT knowledge: Thus, Avidya means without Truth or
      without knowledge. It is the first form of forgetting the spiritual
      Reality. It is not just a thought pattern in the conventional sense of
      a thought pattern. Rather, it is the very ground of losing touch with
      the Reality of being one with the ocean of Oneness, of pure
      Consciousness.

      Meaning of ignorance: Avidya is usually translated as ignorance,
      which is a good word, so long as we keep in mind the subtlety of the
      meaning. It is not a matter of gaining more knowledge, like going to
      school, and having this add up to receiving a degree. Rather,
      ignorance is something that is removed, like removing the clouds that
      obstruct the view. Then, with the ignorance (or clouds) removed, we
      see knowledge or Vidya clearly.

      Even in English, this principle is in the word ignorance. Notice that
      the word contains the root of ignore, which is an ability that is not
      necessarily negative. The ability to ignore allows the ability to
      focus. Imagine that you are in a busy restaurant, and are having a
      conversation with your friend. To listen to your friend means both
      focusing on listening, while also ignoring the other conversations
      going on around you. However, in the path of Self-realization, we want
      to see past the veil of ignorance, to no longer ignore, and to see
      clearly.

      The four major forms of ignorance or avidya described in the Yoga
      Sutras are:

      1. Seeing the temporary as eternal: For example, thinking that the
      earth and moon are permanent, or behaving as if our possessions are
      permanently ours, forgetting that all of them will go, and that our
      so-called ownership is only relative.

      2. Mistaking the impure for the pure: For example, believing that our
      thoughts, emotions, opinions, or motives in relation to ourselves,
      some other person, or situation are purely good, healthy, and
      spiritual, when they are actually a mixture of tendencies or
      inclinations.

      3. Confusing the painful to be pleasureful: For example, in our
      social, familial, and cultural settings there are many actions that
      seem pleasure filled in the moment, only later to be found as painful
      in retrospect.

      4. Thinking the not-self to be the self: For example, we may think of
      our country, name, body, profession, or deep predispositions to be
      "who I am," confusing these with who I really am at the deepest level,
      the level of our eternal Self.

      A mistake of direction: Avidya is a sort of mistake of direction (not
      meaning that manifestation of people or the universe is a mistake).
      One direction leads you into greater suffering, while the other leads
      towards the eternal joy.
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