Yoga Sutras 1.40-1.51: After stabilizing the mind
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Mind becomes like a transparent crystal: Once the mind is reasonably
stabilized and clear (1.33-1.39), the deeper process of Yoga can
begin. The mind eventually becomes like a transparent crystal (1.41),
and is a purified tool for the subtler explorations of the gross and
subtle levels. Such a mind can explore the whole range of objects,
even the smallest or largest (1.40).
Four levels of meditation on an object: There are only four levels of
meditation on an object. These are systematically experienced, all
the way to the level of unmanifest matter (1.45):
1. With gross thoughts, savitarka samapattih (1.42)
2. Without gross thoughts, nirvitarka samapattih (1.43)
3. With subtle thoughts, savichara samapattih (1.44)
4. Without subtle thoughts, nirvichara samapattih (1.44)
Fruits of the meditations: From these meditations on gross and subtle
objects come purity and inner luminosity (1.47), higher wisdom
(1.48), reducing of the impressions that drive karma (1.50), and the
experience of objectless samadhi (1.51)
Accompanying practices: Along with these practices are the whole
range of meditation practices in Chapters 2-4, including minimizing
gross colorings (2.1-2.9), dealing with subtle thoughts (2.10-2.11),
the eight rungs of Yoga (2.26-2.29), and the subtler explorations
through samyama (3.4-3.6).
1.40 When, through such practices, the mind develops the power of
becoming stable on the smallest size object as well as on the
largest, then the mind truly comes under control.
1.41 When the modifications of mind have become weakened, the mind
becomes like a transparent crystal, and thus can easily take on the
qualities of whatever object observed, whether that object be the
observer, the means of observing, or an object observed, in a process
of engrossment called samapatti.
1.42 One type of such an engrossment (samapatti) is one in which
there is a mixture of three things, a word or name going with the
object, the meaning or identity of that object, and the knowledge
associated with that object; this engrossment is known as savitarka
samapatti (associated with gross objects).
1.43 When the memory or storehouse of modifications of mind is
purified, then the mind appears to be devoid of its own nature and
only the object on which it is contemplating appears to shine
forward; this type of engrossment is known as nirvitarka samapatti.
1.44 In the same way that these engrossments operate with gross
objects in savitarka samapatti, the engrossment with subtle objects
also operates, and is known as savichara and nirvichara samapatti.
1.45 Having such subtle objects extends all the way up to unmanifest
1.46 These four varieties of engrossment are the only kinds of
concentrations (samadhi) which are objective, and have a seed of an
1.47 As one gains proficiency in the undisturbed flow in nirvichara,
a purity and luminosity of the inner instrument of mind is developed.
1.48 The experiential knowledge that is gained in that state is one
of essential wisdom and is filled with truth.
1.49 That knowledge is different from the knowledge that is
commingled with testimony or through inference, because it relates
directly to the specifics of the object, rather than to those words
or other concepts.
1.50 This type of knowledge that is filled with truth creates latent
impressions in the mind-field, and those new impressions tend to
reduce the formation of other less useful forms of habitual latent
1.51 While even these latent impressions from truth filled knowledge
recede along with the other impressions, then there is objectless