VTPI NEWS - Summer 2007
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
Summer 2007 Vol. 10, No. 3
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org ) has many resources addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also provides consulting services.
ONLINE TDM ENCYCLOPEDIA
The VTPI "Online TDM Encyclopedia" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm ) is a comprehensive information resource to help identify and evaluate innovative management solutions to transport problems, available for free on our website. Many of the chapters have recently been updated with new information.
The Encyclopedia has a new feature titled, "Organizations and Stakeholder Groups" ( http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/index.php#stakeholders ). This section indicates the best mobility management strategies for various types of organizations and stakeholder groups, including businesses, and local, state/provincial and federal government agencies.
SMART TRANSPORTATION EMISSION REDUCTIONS
Many governments and organizations are now evaluating climate change emission reduction options. There are many possible ways to reduce transportation emissions, but some provide far more total benefits than others. Emission reduction strategies that reduce vehicle travel also reduce congestion, roadway and parking costs, accidents and sprawl.
"Win-Win Transportation Solutions" are cost-effective, technically feasible market reforms that help solve transportation problems by improving mobility options and removing market distortions that stimulate excessive motor vehicle travel. They provide many economic, social and environmental benefits. If implemented to the degree economically justified, our analysis indicates that Win-Win solutions could achieve the transport component of Kyoto emission reduction targets while supporting other economic and social objectives. Critics are wrong to claim that meeting emission reduction goals would harm the economy: by choosing the right strategies we can achieve both environmental goals and economic development goals.
However, conventional tends to consider a limited set of impacts and so tends to undervalue Win-Win strategies. Only by applying more comprehensive analysis can their full benefits be recognized. VTPI has updated its reports concerning Win-Win strategies.
For more information:
"Win-Win Emission Reduction Strategies: Smart Transportation Strategies Can Achieve Emission Reduction Targets And Provide Other Important Economic, Social and Environmental Benefits," ( http://www.vtpi.org/wwclimate.pdf )
"Win-Win Transportation Solutions: Cooperation for Economic, Social and Environmental Benefits," (http://www.vtpi.org/winwin.pdf )
"Efficient Vehicles Versus Efficient Transportation: Comparing Transportation Energy Conservation Strategies," (http://www.vtpi.org/cafe.pdf ).
"Guide To Calculating Mobility Management Benefits" ( http://www.vtpi.org/tdmben.pdf )
This Guide provides instructions for estimating the benefits of a specific Mobility Management (also called Transportation Demand Management or TDM) strategy or program.
"Evaluating Accessibility for Transportation Planning" ( http://www.vtpi.org/access.pdf ).
This paper discusses the concept of 'accessibility' and how it can be incorporated in transport planning. Many factors affect accessibility, including mobility (physical movement), the quality and affordability of transport options, transport system connectivity, mobility substitutes, and land use patterns. More comprehensive analysis of accessibility in planning expands the scope of potential solutions to transport problems.
"Build for Comfort, Not Just Speed: Valuing Service Quality Impacts In Transport Planning" ( http://www.vtpi.org/quality.pdf )
This paper examines practical ways to evaluate qualitative transport improvements such as increased convenience, comfort and security in transport planning. Conventional transport planning and evaluation practices tend to focus on quantitative impacts and undervalue qualitative impacts. Improving qualitative analysis can expand the range of impacts and options considered in transport evaluation, leading to better planning decisions.
"Evaluating Transportation Affordability" ( http://www.vtpi.org/affordability.pdf )
This paper investigates the concept of 'transportation affordability,' its importance to society, how to evaluate it for transport planning, and practical ways to improve it. Conventional planning tends to consider a relatively limited range of transport affordability impacts and objectives. More comprehensive analysis can help decision makers better understand affordability impacts and identify more effective strategies for improving transport affordability.
"Pay-As-You-Drive Pricing in British Columbia: Backgrounder" ( http://www.vtpi.org/paydbc.pdf ).
Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) pricing means that a vehicles insurance premiums and registration fees are based directly on the amount it is driven. PAYD pricing is particularly appropriate in British Columbia because the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) insures all vehicles in the province and has a mandate to maximize social benefits, including traffic safety, insurance affordability and emission reductions (due to the provinces aggressive climate change emission reduction targets). This short paper describes PAYD, summarizes its history in BC, and describes how PAYD pricing can help achieve provincial objectives. This is part of a new campaign to encourage ICBC to implement a PAYD pilot project to evaluate the concept.
"Designing Pay-Per-Mile Auto Insurance Regulatory Incentives Using the NHTSA Light Truck CAFE Rule as a Model" ( http://www.vtpi.org/07-3457.pdf ), by Allen Greenberg
This paper, presented at the 2007 Transportation Research Board annual meeting, describes the concept of Pay-As-You-Drive-And-You-Save (PAYDAYS) insurance, which converts premiums into distance-based fees, and evaluates its value as an energy conservation strategy based on the method used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
to develop new fuel economy rules for light trucks.
"Pavement Busters Guide: Why and How to Reduce the Amount of Land Paved for Roads and Parking Facilities," (www.vtpi.org/pavbust.pdf )
This guide identifies ways to reduce the amount of land devoted to roads and parking facilities. It identifies current policies and planning practices that unintentionally contribute to economically excessive road and parking requirements, and specific strategies for reducing the amount of land paved for roads and parking facilities. This analysis indicates that road and parking pavement area can often be reduced in ways that are cost effective and maintain adequate levels of accessibility.
VTPI will participate in these upcoming events:
'A City Built for Everyone: A Sustainable, Equitable and Smart Transportation Forum,' Sustainable Calgary ( http://www.sustainablecalgary.ca )
September 29, 2007, Calgary, Alberta
'WALK21 2007 - Putting Pedestrians First' (http://www.toronto.ca/walk21 )
October 1st To 4th, Toronto, Canada
Walk21 Toronto 2007 is the 8th annual conference on walkable and livable communities.
Monday, Oct. 1, all day workshop, 'Measuring walking: Towards internationally standardized monitoring methods of walking and public space'
Wednesday, Oct. 3, 10:45-11:15, 'Economic Value of Walking'
Wednesday, Oct. 3, 2:00-3:30, 'Can You Spy the Signs: How Walking with Children Can Change the World' (Suzanne Kort-Litman)
Cotter Debate on Transportation Policy and the Environment ( http://www.colby.edu/news_events/calendar )
Monday October 8, 2007, 7:00 p.m.
Debate between Todd Litman (Victoria Transport Policy Institute) and Samuel Staley (Reason Foundation)
Canadian TDM Summit ( http://www.actcanada.com/EN/Conference2007 )
November 25-28, 2007, Calgary, Alberta
'Sustainable Transportation Indicators Listserve'
The Transportation Research Boards Sustainable Transportation Indicators Subcommittee (ADD40) now has an active listserve. We are currently working to develop recommendations for a preferred definition of sustainable transportation, and development of a recommended set of indicators, which could be adopted by TRB. This list is open to anybody interested in these issues. To subscribe, go to http://lists.cutr.usf.edu/read/?forum=sti .
The GTZ "Sustainable Transport Sourcebook" is now available in HTML format ( http://www.sutp.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=566&Itemid=40&lang=en ). These versions are identical in content (and virtually identical in format) to the PDF versions, but easier to download with low band width Internet.
"Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide" ( http://www.itdp.org/STe/ste24/new_pub.html ). After over two years of effort, 800 pages of text, and nearly 1000 images and graphics. The document is currently in English, but it will be translated to Spanish, Portuguese, French, Chinese, and Indonesian.
"Transit Oriented Development; Chapter 17, Travel Response To Transportation System Changes," ( http://www.trb.org/TRBNet/ProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=1034 ), by John E. Evans and Richard H. Pratt.
This latest volume of this comprehensive study of factors that affect travel behavior. It indicates that transit-oriented development can provide significant reductions in per capita vehicle ownership and use, and increase walking and public transit travel.
"WalkScore" ( http://www.WalkScore.com) automatically calculates a neighborhoods walkability rating by identifying the distance to public services such as grocery stores and schools. It works for any street address in the United States of America and Canada, assigning points based on the distance to local amenities, using Google maps and business listings.
"Economics of Travel Demand Management: Comparative Cost Effectiveness and Public Investment" ( www.nctr.usf.edu/pdf/77704.pdf ).
This document by the Center for Urban Transportation Research provides guidelines for applying benefit/cost analysis to mobility management programs. It describes TRIMMS (Trip Reduction Impacts for Mobility Management Strategies), a software program that automates economic evaluation.
"Impact of Employer-based Programs on Transit System Ridership and Transportation System Performance," ( http://www.nctr.usf.edu/pdf/77605.pdf).
This study by the Center for Urban Transportation Research uses a traffic model to evaluate the impacts of Commute Trip Reduction programs on transportation system performance. It finds that such programs can provide significant reductions in traffic congestion delay and fuel consumption.
"Getting Up To Speed (GUTS): A Conservationists Guide to Wildlife and Highways," ( http://www.GettingUpToSpeed.org) provides a foundation for evaluating roadway environmental impacts and incorporating this information into transport planning.
"Economic Benefits of Land Conservation" ( www.tpl.org/content_documents/econbens_landconserve.pdf ).
This document by the Trust for Public Lands describes how land conservation and parks can help communities grow smart, attract investment, revitalize cities, boost tourism, protect farms and ranches, prevent flood damage, and safeguard the environment. It includes monetized estimates of some impacts.
"Portlands Green Dividend," ( http://www.ceosforcities.org/internal/files/PGD%20FINAL.pdf ), by Joe Cortright. This study by CEOs for Cities finds that as a result of innovative transportation and land use policies, Portland, Oregon area residents drive about 20% fewer annual miles and use alternative modes about twice as much as in comparable cities, and as a result enjoy various benefits, including more regional economic development, consumer cost savings, reduced air pollution, better health and more livable urban neighborhoods. Also see, 'Less driving is more cash for Portland' "The Oregonian" ( http://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/index.ssf?/base/news/1187576751202450.xml&coll=7 )
"Smart Parking Seminar Developing Policies for Your Community" ( http://www.mtc.ca.gov/planning/smart_growth/parking_seminar.htm ), by the San Francisco region Metropolitan Transportation Commission. This website contains materials developed for a training seminar on parking policies to support smart growth.
The Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) has an excellent e-newsletter called Sustainable Transport ( http://www.itdp.org/STe/index.html ).
Ian W. H. Parry, Margaret Walls and Winston Harrington (2007), Automobile Externalities and Policies, ( http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/RFF-DP-06-26-REV.pdf )
This paper discusses the nature, and magnitude, of externalities associated with automobile use, including local and global pollution, oil dependence, traffic congestion and traffic accidents. It discusses current federal policies affecting these externalities, including fuel taxes, fuel-economy and emissions standards, and alternative fuel policies; discusses emerging pricing policies, including congestion tolls, and pay-as-you-drive insurance reform; and summarizes what appears to be the appropriate combination of policies to address automobile externalities.
Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our email list. And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.
Todd Alexander Litman
Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)
Phone & Fax 250-360-1560
1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA
Efficiency - Equity - Clarity