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Transantiago - Is this a project of which we all need to k now more?

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  • Eric Britton
    I have been getting a number of requests from people and groups asking if I can help them get a handle on the Transantiago project, and recently someone –
    Message 1 of 1 , May 3, 2007

      I have been getting a number of requests from people and groups asking if I can help them get a handle on the Transantiago project, and recently someone – might it have been you Lloyd? – said that it would be a good idea if we created some kind of repository of information or references which might help in an informed and neutral way.


      One idea that comes to mind would be to invite all of those of you who have good knowledge on what is going on to jump in and help make the entries in both the English and Spanish versions of Wikipedia more authoritative, accurate and complete.  The Spanish profile is at http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transantiago and looks to me to be a fine beginning, and this despite the fact that one of the “editors” has challenged it authenticity and neutrality (NPOV). I copy below the shorter English version from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transantiago to give you a whiff of what they think it’s all about.


      At the very least it strikes me as a cautionary tale, and certainly one that is worthy of the attention of those of us who may harbor ambitious ideas about how to bring on the New Mobility Agenda.  And I am sure that some of our friends in the sutp-lac group will have some interesting observations and references to add to this.


      Eric Britton












      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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      This article documents a current event.
      Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.

      An articulated bus of the new Transantiago system

      An articulated bus of the new Transantiago system

      Transantiago is the public transport system that serves Santiago, capital city of Chile. It was introduced on 10 February 2007, replacing the previous chaotic system run by thousands of independent bus operators. The system works by combining local bus lines, main bus lines and the Metro (subway) network. It includes an integrated fare system, which allows passengers to make bus-to-bus or bus-to-metro transfers for the price of one ticket, using a single contactless smartcard.

      Transantiago's implementation has been problematic. Some of the bus companies have not put out the required fleet in operation, making the bus headway irregular and generating large crowds and long queues outside Metro stations and bus stops. The fleet management software (which includes the use of GPS) has not been implemented. Segregated bus corridors have also not been constructed and "paid zones" have been improvised. The lack of trust by users in the bus system has overcrowded the Metro. There is also criticism of a lack of line coverage in the citiy's peripheral areas, which were well covered under the previous system.



      [edit] 1 Details

      Transantiago's first stage of implementation began on 22 October 2005, when a group of ten new companies took control of the capital's bus system, immediately introducing 1,181 new modern low-floor buses (approximately half of them being articulated) made by Volvo in Brazil, replacing 461 yellow-colored buses from the old system. The new buses will temporarily coexist with the over 7,000 existing older buses, that will be gradually withdrawn from the system until 2010. In October 2006 a users' information system was introduced.

      Transantiago became fully operational on 10 February 2007 by the introduction of a new route system dividing bus lines into two complementary groups: main and local lines. In addition, a new fare structure was implemented, allowing transfers at small or zero fares between buses and metro, when using the new contactless smartcard. 1,776 new buses will operate at this stage. The older yellow-colored (now painted over) buses will only operate through the secondary local lines in conjunction with new but simpler buses. It is expected that by 2010, the older buses will be completely replaced by over 4,600 new vehicles.

      [edit] 1.1 Objectives

      • Encouraging the use of public transport.
      • Enhancing the quality of public transport, eliminating the on-the-street competition and replacing the existing bus fleet.
      • Palliating the city's high air pollution and sound pollution levels by reducing the number of buses from over 7,000 to about 4,600, and by reducing the emission levels of the buses.
      • Reducing travel times.

      [edit] 1.2 New lines structure

      Bus services were divided into two subsystems. The first subsystem corresponds to the main bus lines, which complementing the metro network allow long trips between different zones of the city. The second subsystem corresponds to the local (or feeder) bus lines, which allow short trips and feed the metro and main bus lines. Local services are organized in ten units, each of one corresponding to one or more municipalities of Santiago.


      Santiago Centro


      Conchalí, Huechuraba, Independencia, Quilicura, Recoleta, Renca


      Las Condes, Lo Barnechea, Providencia, Vitacura


      La Reina, Macul, Ñuñoa, Peñalolén


      La Florida, La Granja


      Puente Alto


      El Bosque, La Cisterna, La Pintana, San Bernardo, San Ramón


      Lo Espejo, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, San Joaquín, San Miguel


      Cerrillos, Estación Central, Maipú


      Cerro Navia, Lo Prado, Pudahuel, Quinta Normal

      Map of the zones of Transantiago

      The details of both the main bus lines and the local bus lines can be seen in the official maps and route descriptions.

      [edit] 1.3 New fare structure

      An integrated fares scheme was introduced for buses and metro, allowing to transfer for free or paying a small transfer charge. During the first six months of operation, up to three transfers are completely free. The definitive fare scheme considers two basic fares (local and main fares), in addition to the transfer fares.

      The local fare will allow local trips inside a local area, also allowing free transfers between local services in that area. The main fare will be a little higher and will allow trips both in the main bus lines and metro, including free transfers between them. Finally, a transfer fare will have to be paid when transferring between a main bus service (or metro) and a local service. This transfer fare will be much smaller than the basic fares. As was before, students will be allowed to pay reduced fares, at 35% of the normal ones.

      Fares will be adjusted periodically, according to the changes in the main input prices (fuel, etc.) of the operators. The way in which the fare adjustments is calculated has been established in the operation contracts. Therefore, neither operators nor the authorities are able to change the fares at will.

      [edit] 1.4 Payment system and finance administration

      The main payment system of Transantiago is a contactless smartcard called tarjeta Bip! similar to the Multivia card, which was previously operated by the metro. This card is used both in buses and metro as a prepaid card. The access to the reduced or free transfer fares is only possible when using this card, as the electronic system associated to the card automatically recognizes if the user is starting his trip or just making a transfer. In this way, the system can decide if the basic fare has to be charged or if a transfer or free fare applies. Passengers who do not have the card may pay in cash (only in feeder buses), but a higher fare without possibility of reduced transfers.

      The operation of the payment system was tendered to a private company. Its main tasks are the distribution and charging of the card, the administration of the revenues and the payment to the operators, according to the rules established in the contracts.

      [edit] 1.5 Users' information

      Another component of the system is the information manager and users' information provider, which was tendered and awarded to the private company Tata Consultancy Services Chile in 2006. Its main tasks are: provide information for the users both before and after the implementation of the system, provide information about the localization of the buses to the operators and coordinate emergencies with the relevant bodies.

      [edit] 2 Vehicles

      Until 2010 there will be both new Transantiago-standard and old buses in operation. In comparison to the old buses of Santiago, at least half the new ones have a low floor, and all have a blocking system that does not allow the movement of the bus before all doors are closed. Since 2003, all new buses in Santiago fulfill the emission norm Euro III.

      After the implementation of the new lines structure, the main bus lines will be operated with articulated (18 meters long) and normal buses, while the local services will be operated with normal buses and minibuses.

      [edit] 2.1 Technical characteristics of the vehicles

      Most of the low-floor buses for Transantiago were built by Volvo. Several operating companies of Transantiago bought 1,157 articulated buses B9SALF and 510 normal (12 meters long) buses B7RLE.

      The articulated B9SALF Volvo bus has a capacity of approximately 160 passengers, four double doors, 100% low floor, a length of 18.5 meters and a width of 2.5 meters. The engine is on the left side between the first and second axles (i.e. behind the driver) and 340hp hp. (More technical information can be found in the technical specifications of the Volvo B9SALF.)

      The Volvo B7RLE bus, with a capacity of approximately 80 passengers, has three double doors and low floor between the first and second doors. It has a length of 12 meters and a wide of 2.5 meters. The engine is in the back of the vehicle and has 7,000 cm³. (Additional technical information can be found in the technical specifications of the Volvo B7RLE.)

      [edit] 3 Problems and criticism

      There are several problems with the design and implementation of the plan. Bus owners' contracts offer no incentive to improve service; they receive a fixed payment no matter how many passengers they transport. The centralized system for controlling frequency of buses is not working (the GPS system is non-operational), which was a main point in the original design. Passenger fare evasion is high (30% or more). Many people consider the service to be poor and are not willing to pay for it. Others are taking advantage of the situation. Routes were poorly defined. For example, when the system launched, there weren't bus stops by many hospitals.

      Although polls have shown the citizens of Santiago were overwhelmingly in favor of a new transport system[1], its implementation was heavily criticized for not meeting up to people's expectations. The system's first days in operation were chaotic at many of the bus stops, since there were not enough buses to cope with the demand. Additionally, many complained that the old bus routes were easier and faster, a claim confirmed to an extent in an investigation by El Mercurio, which found that most of the new routes took more time than the ones in the older system. Politicians in both sides of the political spectrum —from Communist Party Secretary General Guillermo Tellier to right-wing UDI deputy Iván Moreira— criticized the implementation of the new system, labeling it "improvised" and "unprofessional."

      Support for President Michelle Bachelet's government in Santiago fell from 55.2% in February to 42.7% in March, after the Transantiago began operating, according to the monthly Adimark polls. Political analysts attributed the fall solely to the Transantiago, saying that there is no other possible cause for the dramatic fall in support [2]. A poll taken by Benchmark agency, requested by the opposition, showed that 47% did not approve of the implementation of Transantiago, 64% labeled the implementation as "improvised", and 53% disapproved of the way President Bachelet handled the situation. Many people have also blamed former president Ricardo Lagos, because it was his government that was responsible for the system's design.

      One consequence of Transantiago is that the Metro system, which was to be a backbone of the system, has been overwhelmed with over six users per square meter. The increase in usage was reported by La Tercera on 21 March 2007 as having increased from 1,300,000 to 2,200,000 and Metro president Blas Tomic was quoted as saying: "The capacity of metro has reached its limit" and recommended that the elderly and users with medical conditions stay off the system.

      The government has defended the plan as necessary for a better transport system, adding it will improve as people become more used to it, adding everything is being done to improve it.

      [edit] 4 References

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