World Transport Policy & Practice - Volume 12, Number 1, 2006
World Transport Policy & Practice
Volume 12, Number 1, 2006
3 Abstracts & Keywords
5 Levying charges on private parking: lessons from existing practice
Dr Marcus Enoch and Dr Stephen Ison
15 Suburban bypass roads and interjurisdictional politics: a case study
Allan Lichtenstein, Jeremy Nemeth & Stephan Schmidt
30 Public transport subsidies in the UK: evidence of distributional effects
40 Innovative ways of financing public transport
47 Delivery services for urban shopping: experiences & perspectives
Susanne Böhler and Oscar Reutter
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We are back. There has been a gap in production of WTPP for approximately 6 months as we took stock of where we have got to and what we would like to do in the future. This has also involved a change of web hosting and we are once again back with “EcoPlan” in Paris and in the capable hands of Eric Britton.
This taking stock has produced some changes in the way we operate. We will continue to publish articles of real quality and policy significance as we strive to shift global transport thinking in the direction of scientific, ethical, economic and human scale values. Our commitment to inject fresh, vigorous and paradigm-shifting ideas into the stale world of traditional transport planning is stronger than ever. We now want to add value to this and in future issues we would like short opinion pieces, commentaries on our published articles and suggestions for new initiatives. We want WTPP to be more interactive and to support other initiatives that are in tune with our own ideas and principles. This will only work if our readers join in and we hope that this will happen.
We have also planned a special issue on China to take account of the massive changes in economy, society and transport in this country. In this issue we have invited Chinese experts to give us their views and we hope that many of our readers can add their own ideas about development in China especially in the context of what we must do in Europe or North America to support China. Clearly there is very little point in wealthy Americans or Europeans bemoaning the rise of motorisation, pollution and climate changing gases in China if our own wealth resulted from doing similar things at a more forgiving time in the development of the planet. A former British Minister of Transport once famously said, “Those of us who have risen must not pull up the ladder behind us”. We need to remember this and we need to remember that the best way to lead is by example. So what are Americans or Europeans going to do in partnership with China to bring about a new world compact for transport, equity and sustainable development?
We are also producing a special issue on cycling and are looking for material that can demonstrate the enormous potential for this mode of transport to improve health both human and societal. The majority of trips that we all make in most countries of the world are well within the range of a bike ride so why don’t we do it? More importantly from a policy point of view what would it take in Atlanta (USA) or a British city to get up to a cycling rate of one third of all journeys? I hope we can supply the answer.
This issue of WTPP is volume 12, Number 1. In case you are worried 11, 3 and 11, 4 did not happen and in the future we may continue to vary the number of issues each year as we respond to suggestions for special issues or join in with social movements and global transport initiatives. If we receive good quality articles they will be published but we see no need to stick to an artificially derived number of issues.
As always we welcome your ideas. Please contact the editor if you have any ideas for special issues or for partnerships with transport initiatives.
Abstracts & Keywords
Levying charges on private parking: lessons from existing practice
Dr Marcus Enoch and Dr Stephen Ison
Managing parking is a well-established mechanism for controlling car use. But in many countries, a significant proportion of parking space is owned or leased by the private sector and so is beyond the direct control of the local transport authority.
One solution currently being considered in the UK is the idea of imposing a levy on businesses for utilising private parking spaces. However, while the legislation enabling local authorities to introduce such a charge was passed in 2000, only one local authority (Nottingham) retains an interest in the measure and it is still uncertain as to whether it will eventually be implemented.
This paper briefly reviews the private parking problem and the range of policy instruments currently utilised throughout the world where private parking spaces are controlled by Local Authorities. It then draws on a number of vignettes where private parking levies have been introduced elsewhere in the world examining how the use of such policy options might be utilised more extensively and effectively. Finally the paper offers lessons that can be of use when seeking to implement a private parking levy scheme.
Parking policy & legislation; private sector; parking control mechanisms; private parking levy
Suburban bypass roads and interjurisdictional politics: a case study
Allan Lichtenstein, Jeremy Nemeth, Stephan Schmidt
This before and after case study examines the impacts of a suburban bypass road in New Jersey where the impacts are embedded in a broader regional context.
Unlike many other studies that have focused on rural bypasses, this study found that in a fragmented jurisdictional context, such as New Jersey, where a bypass is designed to relieve traffic in one municipal centre but passes through the jurisdiction of another municipality, competing municipal interests can yield unforeseen traffic flows, land use developments, and economic activities. Planners of bypass roads need to be cognisant of the possibility of unforeseen and induced outcomes that can jeopardise the intended goals of a bypass project.
Most studies of bypass roads in the > lang==EN-GB style=='font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'>United States have focused on rural bypasses. Few have examined bypass roads that pass through suburban communities. Unlike many rural bypasses, suburban bypass roads often pass through more than one jurisdiction. Because of the incorporated geography of the suburban environment, the use of suburban bypass roads is likely to be set by the interjuristdictional relations among the affected communities. Their impacts affect not only the bypassed community, but also the communities through which they pass. An examination of the impacts of suburban bypass roads, thus, needs to take into account interjuristdictional politics.
This before and after case study examines the impacts of a suburban New Jersey bypass road that are embedded in a broader regional context. At the outset, we summarise the literature on bypass studies, emphasising that few studies have examined the effect of interjuristdictional politics on the impacts of bypass roads.
The methodology and background of the study are then described briefly. In the fourth section, the outcomes are discussed in relation to four analytical categories-traffic flows, land use development, economic revitalisation, and social and community development. In the next section, we discuss the role of interjuristdictional politics in mediating the impacts of the bypass road.
Finally, in the concluding section, we note that the outcomes of a suburban bypass road can jeopardise the intended goals of a bypass project.
Suburban bypass roads; interjurisdictional politics; land use development; community development; economic revitalisation
Public transport subsidies in the UK: evidence of distributional effects
A travel propensity analysis is applied on UK data to determine how much different population groups benefit from public transport subsidies. General bus subsidies are found to predominantly benefit lower-income households, women, and those aged below 24 or above 60. Railway subsidies, on the other hand, benefit the rich, the working age commuter and business travellers and the young adults making shopping, social and other trips. The distributional effects of bus subsidies have become more progressive over time. The opposite is evident for rail.
Distribution; propensity; public transport; subsidy; UK
Innovative ways of financing public transport
New public transport routes and infrastructure bring a wide range of economic benefits that increase land values and increase the wealth of property owners near to lines and interchange points. These windfall gains are large enough to pay for the infrastructure but are not captured or taxed by government. A location benefit levy or land value tax is suggested to overcome this problem. This would reduce urban sprawl and provide funds for public transport improvement.
Land value tax; location benefit levy; urban sprawl; public transport investment
Delivery services for urban shopping: experiences and perspectives
Susanne Böhler and Oscar Reutter
This article explores delivery services for urban shopping in Germany.
It presents the results of a pilot project in Bonn and outlines a number of recommendations for the future development of delivery services intended to de-couple the growth of car use and mobility from shopping.
Urban delivery; shopping; consumer behaviour; de-coupling.
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