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SV: [WorldTransport Forum] car sharing

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  • martin.strid@vv.se
    Sorry I don t know anything about english tax system. In Sweden we have had for many years a fastighetsskatt , or land property tax. The valuation of land
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 21, 2004
      Sorry I don't know anything about english tax system.
      In Sweden we have had for many years a "fastighetsskatt", or land property tax. The valuation of land which Dave outlines resembles the swedish model, which every houseowner is aware of.
      Every porperty has a taxation value, slightly less than the current market value though usually more than half of market value. The values are revised every few years.
      The tax is between 0,5% and 1,5% of taxation value, depending on kind of property (one family house, apartment building, industrial etc.
      There is a recently introduced rule that the property tax should not exceed a certain percentage of the person's income.
      As far as I know there has been no real discussion on the impacts of property tax on transport system or traffic amount.
      The reason may be lack of political will (or courage) to curb urbanisation.
      Though of course many believe the tax has a slight impact on settlement pattern. But the impact of market prices is much greater.

      # :-)

      -----Ursprungligt meddelande-----
      Från: Wetzel Dave [mailto:davewetzel@...]
      Skickat: den 21 april 2004 13:31
      Till: 'WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com'
      Ämne: RE: [WorldTransport Forum] car sharing

      Happy to answer Simon's question put to me personally.

      The Land Value Tax (LVT) would apply to all sites, residential, commercial, agriculture, open space etc. e.g. not using a site that has permission for houses, a factory or offices to be built on it, would not be an excuse for avoiding the tax.

      The valuation of the land would be based upon the "optimum permitted use". This means that the valuation is dependent upon the market's demand to use the site and the community's decision on how that site may be used. e.g. If the site has permission only to be used as public open space, then the valuation would be zero and the tax liability would be zero. If, however the decision is that the same site should be used for offices of a certain size, then the valuation would depend on the market's need for offices, of that size and in that location. Close to a major road or rail station this value would be higher than a similar sized site, with the same permission but farther away from the transport (all other things being equal). However, if the site was up a mountain there would be no market value for offices and the site value would probably depend upon farming (Sheep grazing?) or tourism.

      So, in this instance:
      If society insists no or few car spaces on a residential development, this could affect the value of the site.

      Depending on the site's location, such a policy may increase or reduce the land value and hence the annual income from LVT. e.g. If the site is in the middle of nowhere and is not served by public transport, then a policy to restrict car use may deter buyers and reduce the land value. Of course this may be slightly offset by being able to provide more houses or for each house to be built with more rooms and/or bigger gardens (using the land which would otherwise have been used for car parking).

      However, if the site is in a town centre with excellent public transport, many bus routes and a station close by then the unwanted car parking space now available for development will probably mean that this site is worth more than a comparable sized site enjoying the same location benefits but also having to find space for car parking either on the surface or by building an underground car park at much greater expense.

      LVT is sometimes referred to as "The Smart Tax". If your land value goes up then you pay more but if it goes down then you pay less. Used well this could encourage better use of land. For example, a farm restricted to organic farming with higher costs and a reduced output is likely to produce lower rents than if it were used for intensive farming. The lower LVT could encourage farmers to switch.

      Similarly with housing policy. LVT would be payable on empty sites so the owners would have an incentive to build the houses. This would protect green land from urban sprawl and enable our towns and cities to work more efficiently. (20 on a bus instead of 10).

      I hope this helps but happy to forward more information to anyone requesting it from me personally.


      Dave Wetzel
      Transport for London
      Windsor House, 42-50 Victoria Street.
      London. SW1H 0TL. UK.
      Tel 020 7941 4200

      Close to New Scotland Yard.
      Buses 11,24,148,211,N11 pass the door.
      Nearest Underground - St James's Park tube station.

      -----Original Message-----
      From: Simon Norton [mailto:s.norton@...]
      Sent: 18 April 2004 17:56
      To: worldtransport@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [WorldTransport Forum] car sharing

      I think that the key issue as far as developed societies are concerned is to link car sharing with car-free living.

      A certain proportion of new housing should be built without any facilities whatsoever for individual car ownership, except possibly the odd space or so that might be needed by people who move in and then achieve some kind of disability for which an individual car is the most appropriate solution. All other residents of these developments would rely on car sharing for access to private transport.

      Given that in the UK three major issues are the lack of affordable housing, the amount of countryside being eaten up by new developments, and the effects of the traffic they generate, we should surely take urgent steps to pursue such a policy which could tackle all three problems simultaneously.

      The provision of new car-free developments would go together with public transport improvements. This would provide a secure financial underpinning for rail network development and rural bus provision -- both sadly lacking at the moment.

      And, as I have already recommended for London, vehicles used in car sharing schemes could be offered discounts, denied to other local residents, on
      congestion charging schemes within the local area.

      Can Dave Wetzel let us know how his land tax proposals would relate to this policy ?

      Incidentally, as one who has never left the industrialised world, I would like to be enlightened as to the land use implications of rising car ownership in other countries, i.e. do motorists have problems finding somewhere to keep their cars ? Do they, perhaps, resort (not necessarily deliberately, but in a process which ends up that way) to driving poorer people into remote shanty towns so as to create space for garages ?

      Simon Norton

      The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
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