Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Re: WorldTransport Forum local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized

Expand Messages
  • Richard Layman
    1.  Well, in the US, there were a number of pedestrianized malls created in the 1960s and 1970s.  With a couple of exceptions, most have been removed.  They
    Message 1 of 6 , Jun 23, 2012
    • 0 Attachment
      1.  Well, in the US, there were a number of pedestrianized malls created in the 1960s and 1970s.  With a couple of exceptions, most have been removed.  They weren't successful for multiple reasons: (1) cities were depopulating; (2) locally-owned stores in downtowns were decamping to the suburbs; (3) community mental health facilities weren't created as a part of the deinstitutionalization movement and so center cities became a kind of holding place for "street people" (people with health and substance abuse issues that made it difficult for them to live "normally"); (4) locally owned department stores failed, further reducing the impact of downtown as a commercial destination.

      So basically, streets were pedestrianized simultaneously with a severe decrease in the number of pedestrians, and an increase in other problems.  As someone said on a now defunct Project for Public Spaces e-list on public space (maybe it's another list topic to pick up and run with as part of the New Mobility Agenda), plants don't animate places, people do.  And so having motorized traffic has been considered to be an important albeit not lovingly component of place activation.

      The places in the US where pedestrian malls continue to be successful are limited, but are in places where there are great numbers of pedestrians, either as college students (Boulder, CO; Burlington, VT; to some extent Charlottesville, VA--there are vacancies there) or in tourist areas (Santa Monica, CA; Miami Beach, FL [I think]).  I wrote a blog entry about Boulder's pedestrian mall a few years ago, which is cited within this entry: http://urbanplacesandspaces.blogspot.com/2009/04/todays-trends-with-pedestrian-malls.html

      Boulder's mall in fact is highly managed to be active, which is key to its success.

      2.  David Feehan, formerly director of the Intl. Downtown Assn., co-authored a journal article on the topic (I don't know if it was accepted), and I can ask him if I can forward it to the list.  He also distinguishes between "transit malls" like Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis and 16th St. in Denver, where transit is part of the mall, just not motor vehicles.  (There is also the bus mall in Portland, OR, although cars do go on it too.  It has been recently redesigned.  When I was there in 2005, I thought it was grim.)

      A professor, Kent Robertson, wrote a bunch of articles on the topic in the 1990s.  E.g., http://uar.sagepub.com/content/26/2/250.abstract

      3.  As far as one way streets go, interestingly, I read an article in the Ann Arbor Observer more than 20 years ago about the impact of making Glen St. one way in the late 1960s.  The gas station located on the street had a 50% drop in business.  In fact, the IRS audited them because they didn't believe it.

      4.  When I was in Montreal for vacation in July 2010, some merchants on St. Catherine Street had a campaign against the Art Festival on the street, which banned cars for many blocks (from the Rue Berri-UQAM station pretty far down but not all the way (I think) to the Papineau Station.

      http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/story.html?id=bc8e730d-3ee8-46bd-8e7f-2073b0102417

      And Montreal has a number of other pedestrian street initiatives--near McGill U, and in the Old City.  I bet Zvi Leve could offer some insights as to what merchants think today.

      Richard Layman



      From: eric britton <eric.britton@...>
      To: Sustran-discuss@...; NewMobilityCafe@yahoogroups.com; worldtransport@yahoogroups.com; LandCafe@yahoogroups.com; UTSG Mailing List (Z UTSG Mailing List -) <utsg@...>
      Sent: Saturday, June 23, 2012 4:37 AM
      Subject: WorldTransport Forum local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized

       
      Has anyone here ever run across a solid report or study showing that local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized or made bike accessible?
       
      Or that real estate prices take a nose dive when such improvements are made?
       
      Most of us here know about the other side of this coin, but it occurred to me that this such references might be useful to us all, given that these local conflicts and claims come up time and time again in cities around the work..
       
      Kind thanks/Eric Britton
       
       
       
       
      PS.  Please note new addresses and phone numbers as of 24 April 2012
       
      _____________________________________________________________
        Francis  Eric Knight-Britton, Managing Director /  Editor
        9, rue Gabillot   69003 Lyon France  |  T. +339 8326 9459| M. +336 5088 0787  | E. eric.britton@...   S. newmobility
        9440 Readcrest Drive. Los Angeles, CA  90210  |   Tel. +1 213  985 3501  |  eric.britton@...  |  Skype: ericbritton
          
      P Avant d'imprimer, pensez à l'environnement
       


    • Craig Townsend
      I don t have a clear answer, but I might be able to contribute with some references which might provide leads: 1. There was some recent debate concerning
      Message 2 of 6 , Jun 24, 2012
      • 0 Attachment
        I don't have a clear answer, but I might be able to contribute with some references which might provide leads:

        1. There was some recent debate concerning Montreal's largest seasonal pedestrian street earlier this year:
        http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/regional/montreal/201203/08/01-4503523-rue-sainte-catherine-lespace-pietonnier-pourrait-etre-ampute.php
        http://w5.montreal.com/mtlweblog/?p=17558

        2. Montreal has an extensive underground city that has been well-studied (for a recent article see https://www.jtlu.org/index.php/jtlu/article/view/176/176) and comprises mainly commercial space.

        3. Carmen Hass-Klau had a book (The Pedestrian and City Traffic) that I have not read, but which may help address these questions.

        4. My colleague John Zacharias has studied pedestrian zones in many cities. He had a 2007 International Journal of Sustainable Transportation article on Tianjin's pedestrian core ( http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15568310601068120).

        Craig Townsend

        -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Craig Townsend, Ph.D.
        Associate Professor
        Department of Geography, Planning and Environment
        Concordia University

        Tel         514-848-2424 ext. 5191
        E-mail      townsend@...

        1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West, H 1255-27
        Montreal, Quebec Canada H3G 1M8

        gpe.concordia.ca
        www.concordia.ca



        At 09:34 AM 23/06/2012, you wrote:
         

        1.  Well, in the US, there were a number of pedestrianized malls created in the 1960s and 1970s.  With a couple of exceptions, most have been removed.  They weren't successful for multiple reasons: (1) cities were depopulating; (2) locally-owned stores in downtowns were decamping to the suburbs; (3) community mental health facilities weren't created as a part of the deinstitutionalization movement and so center cities became a kind of holding place for "street people" (people with health and substance abuse issues that made it difficult for them to live "normally"); (4) locally owned department stores failed, further reducing the impact of downtown as a commercial destination.

        So basically, streets were pedestrianized simultaneously with a severe decrease in the number of pedestrians, and an increase in other problems.  As someone said on a now defunct Project for Public Spaces e-list on public space (maybe it's another list topic to pick up and run with as part of the New Mobility Agenda), plants don't animate places, people do.  And so having motorized traffic has been considered to be an important albeit not lovingly component of place activation.

        The places in the US where pedestrian malls continue to be successful are limited, but are in places where there are great numbers of pedestrians, either as college students (Boulder, CO; Burlington, VT; to some extent Charlottesville, VA--there are vacancies there) or in tourist areas (Santa Monica, CA; Miami Beach, FL [I think]).  I wrote a blog entry about Boulder's pedestrian mall a few years ago, which is cited within this entry: http://urbanplacesandspaces.blogspot.com/2009/04/todays-trends-with-pedestrian-malls.html

        Boulder's mall in fact is highly managed to be active, which is key to its success.

        2.  David Feehan, formerly director of the Intl. Downtown Assn., co-authored a journal article on the topic (I don't know if it was accepted), and I can ask him if I can forward it to the list.  He also distinguishes between "transit malls" like Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis and 16th St. in Denver, where transit is part of the mall, just not motor vehicles.  (There is also the bus mall in Portland, OR, although cars do go on it too.  It has been recently redesigned.  When I was there in 2005, I thought it was grim.)

        A professor, Kent Robertson, wrote a bunch of articles on the topic in the 1990s.  E.g., http://uar.sagepub.com/content/26/2/250.abstract

        3.  As far as one way streets go, interestingly, I read an article in the Ann Arbor Observer more than 20 years ago about the impact of making Glen St. one way in the late 1960s.  The gas station located on the street had a 50% drop in business.  In fact, the IRS audited them because they didn't believe it.

        4.  When I was in Montreal for vacation in July 2010, some merchants on St. Catherine Street had a campaign against the Art Festival on the street, which banned cars for many blocks (from the Rue Berri-UQAM station pretty far down but not all the way (I think) to the Papineau Station.

        http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/story.html?id=bc8e730d-3ee8-46bd-8e7f-2073b0102417

        And Montreal has a number of other pedestrian street initiatives--near McGill U, and in the Old City.  I bet Zvi Leve could offer some insights as to what merchants think today.

        Richard Layman



        From: eric britton <eric.britton@...>
        To: Sustran-discuss@...; NewMobilityCafe@yahoogroups.com; worldtransport@yahoogroups.com; LandCafe@yahoogroups.com; UTSG Mailing List (Z UTSG Mailing List -) <utsg@...>
        Sent: Saturday, June 23, 2012 4:37 AM
        Subject: WorldTransport Forum local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized

         
        Has anyone here ever run across a solid report or study showing that local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized or made bike accessible?
         
        Or that real estate prices take a nose dive when such improvements are made?
         
        Most of us here know about the other side of this coin, but it occurred to me that this such references might be useful to us all, given that these local conflicts and claims come up time and time again in cities around the work..
         
        Kind thanks/Eric Britton
         
         
         
         
        PS.  Please note new addresses and phone numbers as of 24 April 2012
         
        _____________________________________________________________
          Francis  Eric Knight-Britton, Managing Director /  Editor
          New Mobility Partnerships   | World Streets The Equity/Transport Project
          9, rue Gabillot   69003 Lyon France  |  T. +339 8326 9459| M. +336 5088 0787  | E. eric.britton@...  |  S. newmobility
          9440 Readcrest Drive. Los Angeles, CA  90210  |   Tel. +1 213  985 3501  |  eric.britton@...  |  Skype: ericbritton
           
        P Avant d'imprimer, pensez à l'environnement
         



      • Todd Alexander Litman
        Here is information on walkability impacts local economic development impacts from the Walkability chapter of our Online TDM Encyclopedia
        Message 3 of 6 , Jun 24, 2012
        • 0 Attachment

          Here is information on walkability impacts local economic development impacts from the "Walkability" chapter of our Online TDM Encyclopedia (www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm92.htm )

           

          Pedestrian Malls and Districts

          ==============================

          Pedestrianized commercial districts can support urban revitalization and economic development by creating a lively and friendly environment that attracts residents and visitors, although they must be carefully implemented to be effective (Rodriguez 2010). Some are closed to motor vehicle traffic altogether, at least during certain time periods such as evenings or weekends, while others allow automobile traffic but use traffic calming design strategies to control traffic speeds and volumes. Success varies depending on specific conditions. Many pedestrian-only commercial streets created in North American towns and cities during the 1970s failed to attract customers, and many were subsequently reopened to automobile travel, but others thrived, particularly in resort communities or as part of overall downtown redevelopment. Below are guidelines for creating successful pedestrianized streets and districts:

           

          •     It is generally better to calm vehicle traffic and improve non-motorized conditions throughout an area, than to let high speed and volume motor vehicle traffic dominate except on a token pedestrian street.

           

          •     Pedestrian areas require a critical mass of users. They should be both a destination and a thoroughfare that connects diverse attractions (housing, shops, offices, etc.). Encourage development that attracts a broad range of customers and clients, including retail, housing, education and employment. Apartments and offices can often be located over shops.

           

          •     Develop a pleasant environment, with greenery, shade and amenities. Building features and street furniture should be pedestrian scale and attractive. Maintain high standards for security, cleanliness and physical maintenance. Minimize blank building walls.

           

          •     Allow motor vehicles as required for access, with appropriate restrictions based on need, time and vehicle type. This may include unrestricted motor vehicle traffic during morning hours, transit vehicles, resident and hotel pickup, service and emergency vehicles, or other appropriate categories.

           

          •     Pedestrian streets should be located in pedestrian-friendly areas with good access to public transit and parking. Slow and restrict vehicle traffic on cross-streets.

           

          •     Develop a variety of artistic, cultural and recreational amenities (statues, fountains, playgrounds) and activities (concerts, fairs, markets). Highlight historical features.

           

          Mark Byrnes (2012), “The Uncertain Legacy of America's Pedestrian Malls,” Atlantic Cities (www.theatlanticcities.com); at www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2012/05/uncertain-legacy-americas-pedestrian-malls/1929

           

          Luis Rodriguez (2011), Pedestrian-Only Shopping Streets Make Communities More Livable, Planetizen (www.planetizen.com); at www.planetizen.com/node/47517.

          ======================================================================================

           

          Here is information on car-free streets impacts local economic development impacts from the "Car-Free Planning" chapter of our Online TDM Encyclopedia (www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm6.htm )

           

           

          Pedestrian-Oriented Commercial Areas

          ---------------------------------------

          Pedestrianized commercial districts can support urban revitalization and economic development, although they must be carefully implemented to be effective (West 1990; Robertson 1990; “Pedestrian Malls,” Wikipedia). They can help create a lively and friendly environment that attracts residents and visitors (Rodriguez 2010). Some are closed to motor vehicle traffic altogether, at least during certain time periods such as evenings or weekends, while others allow automobile traffic but use Traffic Calming design strategies to control traffic speeds and volumes (Boyd 1998). Success varies depending on specific conditions. Many pedestrian-only commercial streets created during the 1970s in North American towns and cities failed to attract customers, and many were subsequently reopened to automobile travel. However, some pedestrian-only streets succeeded, particularly in Resort communities or as part of appropriate downtown redevelopment (Rodriguez 2010).

           

          Retail areas often subsidize vehicle parking on the assumption that customers need to drive to make large purchases. This may sometimes be true, but not always. Many cities find that a significant portion of shoppers arrive without a car and those who arrive by alternative modes are good shoppers. A study of Prince Street (Schaller Consulting 2006), a commercial street in SoHo, New York City found that: 

          •     89% of Prince Street users arrive by subway, bus, walking or bicycle. Only 9% arrive by car.

          •     By a ratio of 5:1 shoppers said they would come to Prince Street more often if they had more space to walk, even if it meant eliminating parking spaces. This ratio was nearly identical for visitors and those who live and work in the area.

          •     Most shoppers would rather see space taken away from parked cars rather than street vendors.

          •     The shoppers who value wider sidewalks over parking spent about five times as much money, in aggregate, as those who value parking over sidewalks. 

           

           

          Similarly, a study of downtown San Francisco shoppers that found less than one-fifth drive to shop, and that they spend less money in aggregate than shoppers using other transportation modes (Bent 2006). The study indicates drivers spend more each trip than transit riders, but visit less often and account for far fewer total visits and therefore spend less in total. Walkers average eight downtown shopping trips a month, spending $36 per trip and $291 per month. Motorists average four downtown shopping trips a month, spending $88 per trip and $259 per month. Transit riders average seven shopping trips per month, spending $40 per trip and $274 per month. Overall, 60% of shoppers arrive by public transit, 20% arrive by walking, 19% by automobile and 1% by bicycle, yet downtown merchants surveyed in the study estimated that 90% of their customers arrive by car.

           

          A study of consumer expenditures in British towns found that customers who walk actually spend more than those who drive, and transit and car travelers spend about the same amounts.

           

          Business and residents should be involved in planning and managing pedestrian commercial streets. Often, a downtown business organization or Transportation Management Association will oversee Streetscape development, as well as parking management and promotion activities. Below are recommended guidelines for creating a successful pedestrian commercial street or district:

          •     Pedestrian streets are only successful in areas that are attractive and lively. They require a critical mass of users. They should serve as both a destination and a thoroughfare by forming a natural connection route between diverse attractions (housing, shops, offices, etc.).

          •     Develop a pleasant environment, with greenery, shade and rain covers. Use brick, block pavement or textured cement instead of asphalt, if possible. Street-level building features and street furniture should be pedestrian scale and attractive. Minimize blank building walls.

          •     Encourage the development of diverse pedestrian-oriented activities that attract a broad range of customers and clients, including retail and commercial services, housing and employment. Apartments and offices can often be located over shops.

          •     Allow motor vehicles as required for access, with appropriate restrictions based on need, time and vehicle type. This may include unrestricted motor vehicle traffic during morning hours, transit and HOV vehicles, pickup and drop-off for residents and hotels, service and emergency vehicles, or other categories deemed appropriate.

          •     Pedestrian streets should have good access to public transit and parking. They should be located in pedestrian-friendly areas. Mid-block walkways and buildings open to through public traffic should be developed and enhanced as much as possible.

          •     Develop a variety of artistic, cultural and recreational amenities (statues, fountains, playgrounds) and activities (concerts, fairs, markets). Highlight historical features.

          •     Pedestrian streets should generally be small and short, typically just a few blocks in length, although this may increase over time if appropriate.

          •     Security, cleanliness and physical maintenance standards must be high.

          •     Vehicle traffic on cross-streets should be slowed or restricted.

           

          ======================================================

          Here is information on bicycle facility impacts local economic development impacts from the "Cycling Improvements" chapter of our Online TDM Encyclopedia (www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm93.htm )

           

           

          "In a survey of business owners in an urban retail district, Drennen (2003) found that 65% consider arterial bike lanes to provide overall economic development benefits, compared with 4% that consider it overall negative, and 65% support expansion of the program in their area."

           

          Emily Drennen (2003), "Economic Effects of Traffic Calming on Urban Small Businesses," Masters Thesis, San Francisco State University (www.emilydrennen.org); at www.emilydrennen.org/TrafficCalming_full.pdf.

           

           

          "Merchants on a particular street often object to parking-to-bike-lane conversions out of fear that they will lose customers who use on-street parking. This is often untrue or inappropriate. In many cases, on-street parking serves only a small portion of their total customers, alternative parking is available nearby, and some of their customers who currently drive will shift to cycling if suitable facilities are available (Sztabinski 2009). This is actually a debate between very local costs (the merchants who lose a few parking spaces) versus widely distributed benefits (businesses throughout the area who will benefit from reduced automobile parking demand, travelers who benefit from financial savings and health benefits, and all residents who benefit from reduced traffic congestion, accident risk and pollution emissions)."

           

          Fred Sztabinski (2009), "Bike Lanes, On-Street Parking and Business A Study of Bloor Street in Toronto’s Annex Neighbourhood," The Clean Air Partnership (www.cleanairpartnership.org); at www.cleanairpartnership.org/pdf/bike-lanes-parking.pdf.

           

          =============================================================

           

          From my report, "Evaluating Transportation Economic Development Impacts" (www.vtpi.org/econ_dev.pdf )

           

          "Walkability can affect retail area attractiveness and therefore economic success (Hass-Klau 1993). Retailers sometimes favor automobile access (traffic and parking lanes) over non-motorized access (such as wider sidewalks, bike lanes and traffic calming) because they assume motorists spend more than customers who travel by other modes, but in many urban areas a majority of customers arrive by alternative modes, and although motorists tend to spent more per trip, pedestrians and cyclists shop more frequently and spend more per capita over a month or year (Transportation Alternatives & Schaller Consulting 2006; Sztabinski 2009; Malatest & Associates 2010). Because bicycle parking is space efficient it generates about five times as much spending per square meter as automobile parking (Lee and March 2010).

           

          Although tourism requires transport, excessive emphasis on motor vehicle access (for example, expanding highways, parking facilities and airports) can spoil the attributes that attract visitors. Unique transport activities, such as walking, cycling and train travel, can help attract tourists (Tourism Vermont 2007)."

           

           

          European Commission (1999), "Cycling: The Way Ahead For Towns And Cities: A Handbook for Local Authorities," Environment DG, European Commission (http://europa.eu.int/comm/images/language/lang_en3.gif).

           

          C. Hass-Klau (1993), “Impact Of Pedestrianisation And Traffic Calming On Retailing, A Review Of The Evidence From Germany And The UK,” Transport Policy, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 21-31.

           

          Alison Lee and Alan March (2010), “Recognising The Economic Role Of Bikes: Sharing Parking In Lygon Street, Carlton,” Australian Planner, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 85 - 93; at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07293681003767785; also see http://colabradio.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Value_of_Bike_Parking_Alison_Lee.pdf.

           

          Malatest & Associates (2010), "Victoria Regional Rapid Transit: Survey Of Businesses, Property Owners, And Customers," BC Transit (www.transitbc.com); at www.transitbc.com/vrrt/displaypdf/Business_Survey_Results.pdf.

           

          TA (2006), "Curbing Cars: Shopping, Parking and Pedestrian Space in SoHo," Transportation Alternatives & Schaller Consulting (www.transalt.org); at www.transalt.org/files/newsroom/reports/soho_curbing_cars.pdf.

           

          Tourism Vermont  (2007), "Travel and Tourism Industry in Vermont: A Benchmark Study of the Economic Impact of Visitor Expenditures on the Vermont Economy," Vermont Department of Tourism & Marketing, Vermont Partners (www.vermontpartners.org); at www.vermontpartners.org/pdf/Research_Brochure_2007.pdf; methodology at www.uvm.edu/~snrvtdc/publications/implan_method.pdf.

           

           

          Also see:

           

          CPF (2008), "Economic Benefits of Cycling for Australia," Cycling Promotion Fund (www.cyclingpromotion.com.au); at www.cyclingpromotion.com.au/images/stories/downloads/CPF_CyclingBenefits.pdf.

           

           

           

          Sincerely,

          Todd Litman

          Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)

          litman@...

          facebook.com/todd.litman

          Phone & Fax 250-360-1560

          1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA

          “Efficiency - Equity - Clarity”

           

           

           

          Sincerely,
          Todd Litman
          Victoria Transport Policy Institute (www.vtpi.org)
          litman@...

          facebook.com/todd.litman
          Phone & Fax 250-360-1560
          1250 Rudlin Street, Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA
          “Efficiency - Equity - Clarity”

           

          From: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com [mailto:WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Richard Layman
          Sent: June-23-12 6:34 AM
          To: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com; Sustran-discuss@...; NewMobilityCafe@yahoogroups.com; LandCafe@yahoogroups.com; UTSG Mailing List (Z UTSG Mailing List -)
          Subject: Re: WorldTransport Forum local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized

           




          1.  Well, in the US, there were a number of pedestrianized malls created in the 1960s and 1970s.  With a couple of exceptions, most have been removed.  They weren't successful for multiple reasons: (1) cities were depopulating; (2) locally-owned stores in downtowns were decamping to the suburbs; (3) community mental health facilities weren't created as a part of the deinstitutionalization movement and so center cities became a kind of holding place for "street people" (people with health and substance abuse issues that made it difficult for them to live "normally"); (4) locally owned department stores failed, further reducing the impact of downtown as a commercial destination.

           

          So basically, streets were pedestrianized simultaneously with a severe decrease in the number of pedestrians, and an increase in other problems.  As someone said on a now defunct Project for Public Spaces e-list on public space (maybe it's another list topic to pick up and run with as part of the New Mobility Agenda), plants don't animate places, people do.  And so having motorized traffic has been considered to be an important albeit not lovingly component of place activation.

           

          The places in the US where pedestrian malls continue to be successful are limited, but are in places where there are great numbers of pedestrians, either as college students (Boulder, CO; Burlington, VT; to some extent Charlottesville, VA--there are vacancies there) or in tourist areas (Santa Monica, CA; Miami Beach, FL [I think]).  I wrote a blog entry about Boulder's pedestrian mall a few years ago, which is cited within this entry: http://urbanplacesandspaces.blogspot.com/2009/04/todays-trends-with-pedestrian-malls.html

           

          Boulder's mall in fact is highly managed to be active, which is key to its success.

           

          2.  David Feehan, formerly director of the Intl. Downtown Assn., co-authored a journal article on the topic (I don't know if it was accepted), and I can ask him if I can forward it to the list.  He also distinguishes between "transit malls" like Nicollet Mall in Minneapolis and 16th St. in Denver, where transit is part of the mall, just not motor vehicles.  (There is also the bus mall in Portland, OR, although cars do go on it too.  It has been recently redesigned.  When I was there in 2005, I thought it was grim.)

           

          A professor, Kent Robertson, wrote a bunch of articles on the topic in the 1990s.  E.g., http://uar.sagepub.com/content/26/2/250.abstract

           

          3.  As far as one way streets go, interestingly, I read an article in the Ann Arbor Observer more than 20 years ago about the impact of making Glen St. one way in the late 1960s.  The gas station located on the street had a 50% drop in business.  In fact, the IRS audited them because they didn't believe it.

           

          4.  When I was in Montreal for vacation in July 2010, some merchants on St. Catherine Street had a campaign against the Art Festival on the street, which banned cars for many blocks (from the Rue Berri-UQAM station pretty far down but not all the way (I think) to the Papineau Station.

           

           

          And Montreal has a number of other pedestrian street initiatives--near McGill U, and in the Old City.  I bet Zvi Leve could offer some insights as to what merchants think today.

           

          Richard Layman

           

           


          From: eric britton <eric.britton@...>
          To: Sustran-discuss@...; NewMobilityCafe@yahoogroups.com; worldtransport@yahoogroups.com; LandCafe@yahoogroups.com; UTSG Mailing List (Z UTSG Mailing List -) <utsg@...>
          Sent: Saturday, June 23, 2012 4:37 AM
          Subject: WorldTransport Forum local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized

           

           

          Has anyone here ever run across a solid report or study showing that local businesses suffer financially when a zone is pedestrianized or made bike accessible?

           

          Or that real estate prices take a nose dive when such improvements are made?

           

          Most of us here know about the other side of this coin, but it occurred to me that this such references might be useful to us all, given that these local conflicts and claims come up time and time again in cities around the work..

           

          Kind thanks/Eric Britton

           

           

           

           

          PS.  Please note new addresses and phone numbers as of 24 April 2012

           

          _____________________________________________________________

            Francis  Eric Knight-Britton, Managing Director /  Editor

            9, rue Gabillot   69003 Lyon France  |  T. +339 8326 9459| M. +336 5088 0787  | E. eric.britton@...   S. newmobility

            9440 Readcrest Drive. Los Angeles, CA  90210  |   Tel. +1 213  985 3501  |  eric.britton@...  |  Skype: ericbritton

              

          P Avant d'imprimer, pensez à l'environnement

           

           




        • Glotz-Richter, Michael (SUBV)
          Some feedback from Germany: we see some at first glance contradictory trends: in larger cities, the pedestrian areas are of big success and are/will be
          Message 4 of 6 , Jun 25, 2012
          • 0 Attachment
            Some feedback from Germany:
             
            we see some at first glance contradictory trends:
             
            in larger cities, the pedestrian areas are of big success and are/will be extended. The combination with nice historic and leisure sites (tourism, restaurants, museums etc) increases the 'gravitation' of the city centre. In my city (Bremen/Northern Germany), we are now discussing an extension of the pedestrianised area in order to allow (more) loops for pedestrians - even considering to take away a parking garage!
             
            smaller cities and towns suffer under the reallocation of shopping to the periphery (shopping centres). Here we can see that pedestrianised areas are or will be re-opened for cars but in a "traffic calmed" way (partly shared space). But I think that the decline of these city centres are nor due to the pedestrian zone but would have happened anyway with the (planned) growth of peripheral shopping centres / malls. There is not much you can do in the town centre.
             
            In total, "gravitation" is a crucial point - and this depends on more than the number of shops.
             
            Best regards from Bremen
            Michael
             

            Michael Glotz-Richter
            Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
            Senate Department for Environment, Construction and Transport
            Senior Advisor "Sustainable Mobility"
            Ansgaritorstr. 2
            28195 Bremen
            Germany

            Phone:     +49.421 361 6703
            Fax.:        +49 421 496 6703
            Mobile:     +49 173 6 123 178

             
          • Zvi Leve
            I would like to expand a bit on a few points which Todd has already made: ... I think that there are two fundamentally different types of development here:
            Message 5 of 6 , Jun 26, 2012
            • 0 Attachment
              I would like to expand a bit on a few points which Todd has already made: 

              On 24 June 2012 19:23, Todd Alexander Litman <litman@...> wrote:


              •     Pedestrian areas require a critical mass of users. They should be both a destination and a thoroughfare that connects diverse attractions (housing, shops, offices, etc.). Encourage development that attracts a broad range of customers and clients, including retail, housing, education and employment. Apartments and offices can often be located over shops.



              I think that there are two fundamentally different types of development here: specific places such as a square or even and individual street, or along entire corridors which are crucial for providing continuity (car drivers do not like stop and go traffic, why should this be the norm for pedestrians?). Many European cities have entire networks of contiguous pedestrian areas which permit people to move about the city without being exposed to vehicular traffic at every intersection. These are truly separate networks, not just individual streets....

              Concerning mixed uses, it is hugely important to bring more than just commercial and housing to the area! Office space, services (health and even educational), and cultural uses can all animate the area at different times of day. 
               


              •     Allow motor vehicles as required for access, with appropriate restrictions based on need, time and vehicle type. This may include unrestricted motor vehicle traffic during morning hours, transit vehicles, resident and hotel pickup, service and emergency vehicles, or other appropriate categories.
               

              It is very important to provide some flexibility in access and to recognize that there are different needs at different times of day.

               
              "Merchants on a particular street often object to parking-to-bike-lane conversions out of fear that they will lose customers who use on-street parking. This is often untrue or inappropriate. In many cases, on-street parking serves only a small portion of their total customers, alternative parking is available nearby, and some of their customers who currently drive will shift to cycling if suitable facilities are available (Sztabinski 2009). This is actually a debate between very local costs (the merchants who lose a few parking spaces) versus widely distributed benefits (businesses throughout the area who will benefit from reduced automobile parking demand, travelers who benefit from financial savings and health benefits, and all residents who benefit from reduced traffic congestion, accident risk and pollution emissions)."

              In Montreal, most of the pedestrian projects are in central areas which have quite high property values. The small commerce owners often cannot afford to live in such areas, and have moved to more distant car-oriented suburbs. Thus, the owners arrive at their commerces by car and naturally assume that most of their clientele arrive in a similar manner. Access to parking spaces is a very important concern for these people.... But in my opinion, the larger issue is the fact that small business owners cannot afford to live in the area where their businesses are located. 

              Richard has also made a number of excellent points. The link between pedestrian and cycling improvements (or any transportation project) and economic "development" is far from direct. There are many other factors at work, and many perverse incentives which encourage or discourage certain development outcomes..... 
               


              1.  Well, in the US, there were a number of pedestrianized malls created in the 1960s and 1970s.  With a couple of exceptions, most have been removed.  They weren't successful for multiple reasons: (1) cities were depopulating; (2) locally-owned stores in downtowns were decamping to the suburbs; (3) community mental health facilities weren't created as a part of the deinstitutionalization movement and so center cities became a kind of holding place for "street people" (people with health and substance abuse issues that made it difficult for them to live "normally"); (4) locally owned department stores failed, further reducing the impact of downtown as a commercial destination.



              So basically, streets were pedestrianized simultaneously with a severe decrease in the number of pedestrians, and an increase in other problems.  As someone said on a now defunct Project for Public Spaces e-list on public space (maybe it's another list topic to pick up and run with as part of the New Mobility Agenda), plants don't animate places, people do.  And so having motorized traffic has been considered to be an important albeit not lovingly component of place activation.



              4.  When I was in Montreal for vacation in July 2010, some merchants on St. Catherine Street had a campaign against the Art Festival on the street, which banned cars for many blocks (from the Rue Berri-UQAM station pretty far down but not all the way (I think) to the Papineau Station.


              And Montreal has a number of other pedestrian street initiatives--near McGill U, and in the Old City.  I bet Zvi Leve could offer some insights as to what merchants think today.



              Pedestrian and cyclist development in Montreal has become a *highly* contentious topic. Projet Montréal which won all of the seats in the central Plateau Mont-Royal borough has been pushing non-stop to get as many progressive transportation things done while they can, but they are encountering significant push-back from many directions (from merchants on one of the pedestrian streets for example).  On the other hand, Jimmy Zoubris who is a small commerce owner on Parc Ave (a long-struggling commercial artery) recognizes that we are in for a "rough ride" but he has thrown his support fully behind the Projet Montreal team. 

              Best,

              Zvi
            Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.