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About transport impacts over urban land

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  • Javier Pacheco Raguz
    Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a request for information about the impacts of transportation (with special focus on mass
    Message 1 of 11 , Jun 12 1:33 AM
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      Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
      request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
      special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
      value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
      will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
      literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.

      Javier Pacheco
      ITC UPLA.2 Student
      Enschede, The Netherlands
    • Graham Fletcher
      Javier, Are you aware of: http://www.rics.org/downloads/research_reports/land_value.pdf This may be of some interest. Best wishes, Graham ... From: Javier
      Message 2 of 11 , Aug 1, 2003
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        Javier,
         
        Are you aware of:
         
         
         
        This may be of some interest.
         
        Best wishes,
         
        Graham
         

        ----- Original Message -----
        Sent: Thursday, June 12, 2003 9:33 AM
        Subject: [WorldTransport] About transport impacts over urban land

        Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
        request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
        special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
        value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
        will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
        literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.

        Javier Pacheco
        ITC UPLA.2 Student
        Enschede, The Netherlands




        The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
        Consult at: http://wTransport.org
        To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
        To subscribe:  WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com 
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        Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.
      • Todd Alexander Litman
        See the report DOES PUBLIC TRANSIT RAISE SITE VALUES AROUND ITS STOPS ENOUGH TO PAY FOR ITSELF (WERE THE VALUE CAPTURED)? by Jeffery J. Smith, posted at our
        Message 3 of 11 , Aug 1, 2003
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          See the report "DOES PUBLIC TRANSIT RAISE SITE VALUES AROUND ITS STOPS
          ENOUGH TO PAY FOR ITSELF (WERE THE VALUE CAPTURED)?" by Jeffery J. Smith,
          posted at our website (www.vtpi.org/smith.htm), which summarizes
          considerable literature on the effects of public transit on property
          values. Also see the "Transit Evaluation" (www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm62.htm),
          "Economic Development" (www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm54.htm) and "Land Use
          Evaluation (www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm104.htm) chapters of our Online TDM
          Encyclopedia, which discuss some of the transport, land use and economic
          impacts of public transit.

          Please let me know if you have any questions or comments about this
          information, or if you find anything to add.


          Best wishes,
          -Todd Litman


          At 08:33 AM 6/12/2003 +0000, Javier Pacheco Raguz wrote:
          >Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
          >request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
          >special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
          >value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
          >will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
          >literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.
          >
          >Javier Pacheco
          >ITC UPLA.2 Student
          >Enschede, The Netherlands
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
          >Consult at: http://wTransport.org
          >To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
          >To subscribe: WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
          >To unsubscribe: WorldTransport-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
          >
          >Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/


          Sincerely,
          Todd Litman, Director
          Victoria Transport Policy Institute
          "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
          1250 Rudlin Street
          Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
          Phone & Fax: 250-360-1560
          Email: litman@...
          Website: http://www.vtpi.org
        • Wetzel Dave
          Javier Right up my street. I ll forward some articles to you and any other person on the World Transport yahoo group who let s me know they re interested.
          Message 4 of 11 , Aug 1, 2003
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            Javier
            Right up my street.
            I'll forward some articles to you and any other person on the World
            Transport yahoo group who let's me know they're interested.
            Perhaps some of the friends who I have copied this to will also add relevant
            items for you.

            Dave

            Dave Wetzel
            Vice-Chair
            Transport for London
            42-50 Victoria Street. London.
            SW1H 0TL. UK

            020 7941 4200


            -----Original Message-----
            From: Javier Pacheco Raguz [mailto:jpraguz@...]
            Sent: 12 June 2003 09:33
            To: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: [WorldTransport] About transport impacts over urban land


            Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
            request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
            special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
            value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
            will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
            literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.

            Javier Pacheco
            ITC UPLA.2 Student
            Enschede, The Netherlands




            The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
            Consult at: http://wTransport.org
            To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
            To subscribe: WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
            To unsubscribe: WorldTransport-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com

            Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/



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          • john.holtzclaw@sierraclub.org
            Hi Javier, We have information on that in the U.S. on our website, http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl Go to Transportation; then Articles and Research; then
            Message 5 of 11 , Aug 1, 2003
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              Hi Javier,

              We have information on that in the U.S. on our website,
              http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
              Go to Transportation; then Articles and Research; then Smart Growth -- As
              Seen From the Air
              or How Compact Neighborhoods Affect Modal Choice




              John Holtzclaw
              415-977-5534
              John.Holtzclaw@...
              sprawl and transportation action -- http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
              This View of Density -- www.sflcv.org/density


              "Javier Pacheco Raguz" <jpraguz@...>

              06/12/2003 01:33 AM



              Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
              request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
              special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
              value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
              will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
              literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.

              Javier Pacheco
              ITC UPLA.2 Student
              Enschede, The Netherland
            • Lee Schipper
              I think the issue is the other way around: How much does a given size home cost in a dense neighborhood, in a sprawling neighborhood, in an older development,
              Message 6 of 11 , Aug 9, 2003
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                I think the issue is the other way around: How much does a given size
                home cost in a dense neighborhood, in a sprawling neighborhood, in an
                older development, in a newer development, as a function of the location
                of that neighborhood, its local population density, its jobs to housing
                ratio etc? Then, if good transit service is establish, how much do
                housing costs rise (if at all); conversely, how do housing costs vary as
                a function of distance from a good transit line.
                On a very practical basis, 150 sq meters in Georgetown, Washington DC
                costs about twice to three times what it costs i Cleveland Park (two
                long metro stops away) and four times what it costs in Tenley town. The
                latter two actually have metro stops, Georgetown is 300 to 2000 meters
                from the nearest Metro station (buses in DC are a slow burning
                disaster). Housing close in to the suburb of Bethesda, which has good
                Metro and bus service, costs more than housing farther from the main
                metro stop, but how much more.
                Could it simply be that consumers figured out that the farther out you
                go, the more land and home you get for a unit of investment, and, aided
                by US policies that encourage borrowing for home ownership, make a
                tradeoff of a little more in cheap fuel and insurance in exchange for a
                lot more land? Could it also be that car insurance is cheaper in the
                low-density suburbs than it is in the higher density city core (it is)?

                In the end I think we paid $50K extra to be two blocks from Cleveland
                Park Metro; lots of options 500-2000 meters farther away offerred more
                house for less money. Since I cycle to work those extra 2000 meters,
                which would have been a long uphill grind, would have been a real ordeal
                day after day. But the hill I do have to climb is worth it, since I
                could not afford to live in Georgetown (where I rented) and pay around
                $1mn for a large three bedroom home rather than $780K for a much larger
                5bdr home (yes, with the study etc all the home is filled up already). I
                could have lived i the farther burbs for half as much, had a larger lot,
                driven or taken public transport 45 minutes each way, paid to go to a
                gym rather than cycled.. You all get my drift.

                That may be the trade off. Why do the various reports on sprawl in the
                US focus only on transport costs and fuel, but consistently omit all the
                other characteristics AND COSTS of residential location? Life is more
                than one-dimensional, is it not?

                >>> john.holtzclaw@... 08/01/03 05:08PM >>>

                Hi Javier,

                We have information on that in the U.S. on our website,
                http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                Go to Transportation; then Articles and Research; then Smart Growth --
                As
                Seen From the Air
                or How Compact Neighborhoods Affect Modal Choice







                John Holtzclaw
                415-977-5534
                John.Holtzclaw@...
                sprawl and transportation action -- http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                This View of Density -- www.sflcv.org/density


                "Javier Pacheco Raguz" <jpraguz@...>

                06/12/2003 01:33 AM



                Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
                request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
                special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
                value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
                will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
                literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.

                Javier Pacheco
                ITC UPLA.2 Student
                Enschede, The Netherland




                ------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor

                The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
                Consult at: http://wTransport.org
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              • Tramsol@aol.com
                Metroland (1920-1930 London) Glasgow suburban network c 1870 Southern (& LBSC/LSWR pre 1923) electrification - again dominant development ca 1930. Indeed the
                Message 7 of 11 , Aug 9, 2003
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                  Metroland (1920-1930 London) Glasgow suburban network c 1870 Southern (&
                  LBSC/LSWR pre 1923) electrification - again dominant development ca 1930.

                  Indeed the effects might even be tracable back to Shillibeers omnibuses,
                  expanding the commute catchment for London or fly-boats on the canals of the
                  preceding century.

                  Dave Holladay
                  Glasgow
                • Michael Yeates
                  There is also more to this ... using some Australian info. 1. Often the price of a site per se reflects not only the current but also any potential development
                  Message 8 of 11 , Aug 25, 2003
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                    There is also more to this ... using some Australian info.

                    1. Often the price of a site per se reflects not only the current but also
                    any potential development rights so people may be buying both a current
                    utility as well as a future redevelopment option ... ie in the second case,
                    gaining a speculative windfall on the greater cost achieveable from the land
                    value only without any betterment tax ... incidentally in doing so, the
                    complete "cost" of the existing building changes from being an asset to a
                    liability or cost simply on that decision whether to redevelop or not.

                    2. The other issue is the view that good public transport and walking and
                    cycling is not necessarily linked to housing and population density ie that
                    good other-than-car alternatives can be provided at suburban densities ... I
                    would suggest that the reason that these facilities seem expensive is that
                    roads and the real full costs thereof are grossly underpriced eg one is the
                    cost impacts of children no longer able or allowed to walk or cycle to
                    school but how do we price the social and educational disbenefits? It does
                    however require a different type of suburban road network to that
                    traditionally designed buy Oz and US traffic and subdivision engineers. So
                    what also tends to happen here in some areas is an inverse relationship
                    where in some parts of Australia, poorer people pay less for houses at the
                    outer edges of the older areas but then pay much more per dollar income per
                    household member for car use and have a much poorer or almost useless public
                    transport service.

                    Cities and urbanising areas are very complex ... and very diverse ... almost
                    defying generalised rules... but the "trends" are pretty clear...!

                    Paul Mees' book "A Very Public Solution" is worth a read on this topic...

                    Michael Yeates
                    Brisbane Oz

                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "Lee Schipper" <SCHIPPER@...>
                    To: <WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Sunday, August 10, 2003 4:57 AM
                    Subject: Re: [WorldTransport] About transport impacts over urban land


                    > I think the issue is the other way around: How much does a given size
                    > home cost in a dense neighborhood, in a sprawling neighborhood, in an
                    > older development, in a newer development, as a function of the location
                    > of that neighborhood, its local population density, its jobs to housing
                    > ratio etc? Then, if good transit service is establish, how much do
                    > housing costs rise (if at all); conversely, how do housing costs vary as
                    > a function of distance from a good transit line.
                    > On a very practical basis, 150 sq meters in Georgetown, Washington DC
                    > costs about twice to three times what it costs i Cleveland Park (two
                    > long metro stops away) and four times what it costs in Tenley town. The
                    > latter two actually have metro stops, Georgetown is 300 to 2000 meters
                    > from the nearest Metro station (buses in DC are a slow burning
                    > disaster). Housing close in to the suburb of Bethesda, which has good
                    > Metro and bus service, costs more than housing farther from the main
                    > metro stop, but how much more.
                    > Could it simply be that consumers figured out that the farther out you
                    > go, the more land and home you get for a unit of investment, and, aided
                    > by US policies that encourage borrowing for home ownership, make a
                    > tradeoff of a little more in cheap fuel and insurance in exchange for a
                    > lot more land? Could it also be that car insurance is cheaper in the
                    > low-density suburbs than it is in the higher density city core (it is)?
                    >
                    > In the end I think we paid $50K extra to be two blocks from Cleveland
                    > Park Metro; lots of options 500-2000 meters farther away offerred more
                    > house for less money. Since I cycle to work those extra 2000 meters,
                    > which would have been a long uphill grind, would have been a real ordeal
                    > day after day. But the hill I do have to climb is worth it, since I
                    > could not afford to live in Georgetown (where I rented) and pay around
                    > $1mn for a large three bedroom home rather than $780K for a much larger
                    > 5bdr home (yes, with the study etc all the home is filled up already). I
                    > could have lived i the farther burbs for half as much, had a larger lot,
                    > driven or taken public transport 45 minutes each way, paid to go to a
                    > gym rather than cycled.. You all get my drift.
                    >
                    > That may be the trade off. Why do the various reports on sprawl in the
                    > US focus only on transport costs and fuel, but consistently omit all the
                    > other characteristics AND COSTS of residential location? Life is more
                    > than one-dimensional, is it not?
                    >
                    > >>> john.holtzclaw@... 08/01/03 05:08PM >>>
                    >
                    > Hi Javier,
                    >
                    > We have information on that in the U.S. on our website,
                    > http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                    > Go to Transportation; then Articles and Research; then Smart Growth --
                    > As
                    > Seen From the Air
                    > or How Compact Neighborhoods Affect Modal Choice
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > John Holtzclaw
                    > 415-977-5534
                    > John.Holtzclaw@...
                    > sprawl and transportation action -- http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                    > This View of Density -- www.sflcv.org/density
                    >
                    >
                    > "Javier Pacheco Raguz" <jpraguz@...>
                    >
                    > 06/12/2003 01:33 AM
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
                    > request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
                    > special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
                    > value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
                    > will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
                    > literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.
                    >
                    > Javier Pacheco
                    > ITC UPLA.2 Student
                    > Enschede, The Netherland
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > ------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
                    >
                    > The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
                    > Consult at: http://wTransport.org
                    > To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
                    > To subscribe: WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
                    > To unsubscribe: WorldTransport-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                    >
                    > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                    > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
                    > Consult at: http://wTransport.org
                    > To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
                    > To subscribe: WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
                    > To unsubscribe: WorldTransport-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                    >
                    > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                  • Wetzel Dave
                    What you have identified is not the difference in the cost of a home - but the difference in the value of the land on which the home sits. Of course you are
                    Message 9 of 11 , Aug 27, 2003
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                      What you have identified is not the difference in the cost of a home - but
                      the difference in the value of the land on which the home sits.

                      Of course you are right, transport is not the only factor to give land its
                      value - transport is just one of many influences.

                      However, what we do know is that the individual landowner does not create
                      land value. It is the community's demand for land in a specific location
                      that gives land its value. If Government's collected this location benefit
                      as a levy or a tax on site values, they could pay for their services and
                      reduce taxes on trade and incomes.

                      Let me know if any reader wants more information (appropriate web-sites
                      etc.)

                      Dave

                      Dave Wetzel
                      Vice-chair, TfL.
                      Windsor House, 42-50 Victoria Street.
                      London. SW1H 0TL. UK.
                      Tel 020 7941 4200


                      -----Original Message-----
                      From: Lee Schipper [mailto:SCHIPPER@...]
                      Sent: 09 August 2003 19:57
                      To: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Re: [WorldTransport] About transport impacts over urban land


                      I think the issue is the other way around: How much does a given size
                      home cost in a dense neighborhood, in a sprawling neighborhood, in an
                      older development, in a newer development, as a function of the location
                      of that neighborhood, its local population density, its jobs to housing
                      ratio etc? Then, if good transit service is establish, how much do
                      housing costs rise (if at all); conversely, how do housing costs vary as
                      a function of distance from a good transit line.
                      On a very practical basis, 150 sq meters in Georgetown, Washington DC
                      costs about twice to three times what it costs i Cleveland Park (two
                      long metro stops away) and four times what it costs in Tenley town. The
                      latter two actually have metro stops, Georgetown is 300 to 2000 meters
                      from the nearest Metro station (buses in DC are a slow burning
                      disaster). Housing close in to the suburb of Bethesda, which has good
                      Metro and bus service, costs more than housing farther from the main
                      metro stop, but how much more.
                      Could it simply be that consumers figured out that the farther out you
                      go, the more land and home you get for a unit of investment, and, aided
                      by US policies that encourage borrowing for home ownership, make a
                      tradeoff of a little more in cheap fuel and insurance in exchange for a
                      lot more land? Could it also be that car insurance is cheaper in the
                      low-density suburbs than it is in the higher density city core (it is)?

                      In the end I think we paid $50K extra to be two blocks from Cleveland
                      Park Metro; lots of options 500-2000 meters farther away offerred more
                      house for less money. Since I cycle to work those extra 2000 meters,
                      which would have been a long uphill grind, would have been a real ordeal
                      day after day. But the hill I do have to climb is worth it, since I
                      could not afford to live in Georgetown (where I rented) and pay around
                      $1mn for a large three bedroom home rather than $780K for a much larger
                      5bdr home (yes, with the study etc all the home is filled up already). I
                      could have lived i the farther burbs for half as much, had a larger lot,
                      driven or taken public transport 45 minutes each way, paid to go to a
                      gym rather than cycled.. You all get my drift.

                      That may be the trade off. Why do the various reports on sprawl in the
                      US focus only on transport costs and fuel, but consistently omit all the
                      other characteristics AND COSTS of residential location? Life is more
                      than one-dimensional, is it not?

                      >>> john.holtzclaw@... 08/01/03 05:08PM >>>

                      Hi Javier,

                      We have information on that in the U.S. on our website,
                      http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                      Go to Transportation; then Articles and Research; then Smart Growth --
                      As
                      Seen From the Air
                      or How Compact Neighborhoods Affect Modal Choice







                      John Holtzclaw
                      415-977-5534
                      John.Holtzclaw@...
                      sprawl and transportation action -- http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                      This View of Density -- www.sflcv.org/density


                      "Javier Pacheco Raguz" <jpraguz@...>

                      06/12/2003 01:33 AM



                      Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
                      request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
                      special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
                      value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
                      will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
                      literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.

                      Javier Pacheco
                      ITC UPLA.2 Student
                      Enschede, The Netherland




                      ------------------------ Yahoo! Groups Sponsor

                      The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
                      Consult at: http://wTransport.org
                      To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
                      To subscribe: WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
                      To unsubscribe: WorldTransport-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com

                      Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                      http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/





                      The Journal of World Transport Policy and Practice
                      Consult at: http://wTransport.org
                      To post message to group: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
                      To subscribe: WorldTransport-subscribe@yahoogroups.com
                      To unsubscribe: WorldTransport-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com

                      Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/



                      ***********************************************************************************
                      The contents of the e-mail and any transmitted files are confidential and intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom they are addressed. Transport for London hereby exclude any warranty and any liability as to the quality or accuracy of the contents of this email and any attached transmitted files. If you are not the intended recipient be advised that you have received this email in error and that any use, dissemination, forwarding, printing or copying of this email is strictly prohibited.

                      If you have received this email in error please notify postmaster@....

                      This footnote also confirms that this email message has been swept for the presence of computer viruses.
                      ***********************************************************************************
                    • Chris Bradshaw
                      This is a very important topic to discuss here. I think it is a general rule that location costs more housing-wise, but the buyer gets benefits that, at
                      Message 10 of 11 , Aug 31, 2003
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                        This is a very important topic to discuss here.

                        I think it is a general rule that "location" costs more housing-wise,
                        but the buyer gets benefits that, at least to him, appear to be equal to
                        or better than the higher margin.

                        "Location" refers to both being near that which is desirable, and NOT
                        being near to that which is undesirable. Those marketing the suburbs
                        have always emphasized the latter (crime, street traffic, noise, poor
                        schools, lower-income neighbours), while treating the longer distances
                        to desirable services as being very easy to overcome (owning/using one
                        or more cars).

                        Transit is one of the factors that are part of the positive side of
                        "location," however, one does not want to have to use it for more than a
                        narrow range of trips (e.g., commuting), while needing the full range of
                        services within walking distance (clustered and along a fully walkable
                        street).

                        All of suburbia in our city has transit, but only for those residents
                        limiting their use to commuting (and having regular 9-5 jobs located
                        along the peak-hour routes, wanting to avoid transfers) rely on it.
                        Only those living in these areas unwillingly (youth, live-in help,
                        dependent seniors) will use the off-peak transit service for other kinds
                        of trips.

                        Most New Urbanism development is of this latter category, since they
                        lack internal services and are located too far from where the true urban
                        "fabric" of main streets and mixed uses ends. For that reason, they
                        still have as much yard space given over to the owners' cars, but this
                        space is at the rear, along a laneway, with the house pushed forward to
                        the street.

                        What our industry needs to do is to educate housing consumers (and
                        government officials and developers) to the following:

                        1. Walking is everyone's favourite mode, and the destinations which can
                        be walked to is at the highest level of "location." There is growing
                        awareness that, although driving is seen as superior to transit, it is
                        significantly inferior to walking.

                        2. Housing price is related to transportation costs; the two must be
                        considered as a unit. "Location" reduces the amount of "fleet" the
                        household needs, and the distance each vehicle is driven. The
                        perception (and much of the reality) is that car-ownership is almost as
                        high in high-location areas as poor-location areas (see also next).

                        3. People facing low driving needs cannot, in today's market, buy a
                        "fraction" of a car; they can only buy older cars (I have found,
                        although I have seen no research, that the distance a vehicle is driven
                        is in reverse proportion to its age; with age, it becomes less reliable
                        and less "presentable"; also, with age, the driving costs shift from
                        fixed to variable, gaining some of the costing advantages of
                        carsharing). [One way to offer carsharing to those owning older cars is
                        to ask, "What is better, owning all of a partial car, or owning part of
                        a whole car?"]

                        4. Living in high-location areas requires a smaller house and yard,
                        since there are more nearby communal areas, e.g., parks, churches,
                        schools, coffee shops, bars (cf.: Oldenberg, R. _The Great Good
                        Place_). These provide not only out-of-house social spaces, but the
                        higher density makes sharing things easier. A walkable area can also
                        reduce expenses for health clubs and reduce the time adults spend
                        driving other household members. With carsharing, the "fleet" can be
                        reduced, further reducing the house's need to provide indoor and outdoor
                        amenities and space for vehicles.

                        Ironically, as consumers start getting this point, the first symptom
                        will be that the location-sensitive price differential for housing will
                        actually increase. The second one should be that those in low-location
                        neighbourhoods will organize to "invite in" -- through a neighbourhood
                        plan -- the services and employment they lack. They will need to "tame"
                        their streets to attract the growing number of entrepreneurs who are
                        interested in operating small-scale main-street businesses.

                        Chris Bradshaw
                        Vrtucar, Ottawa
                      • Wetzel Dave
                        Michael - Sorry it s taken me so long to come back to you. I agree with your observations. To summarise: the sale price of a site is dependent on three
                        Message 11 of 11 , Sep 16, 2003
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Michael -
                          Sorry it's taken me so long to come back to you.

                          I agree with your observations.

                          To summarise: the sale price of a site is dependent on three factors:

                          1. The optimum use that the new owner can make of the site.
                          2. The permitted use allowed by the community/planning authority/restrictive
                          covenant etc.
                          3. Any hope value that the seller can add and the purchaser is willing to
                          pay.

                          Improved access (public transport or new roads) adds to 1 above.

                          Thus, landowners are creaming off the location value of their sites which
                          they do nothing to create.

                          If Governments were to tax land values to pay for transport then a virtuous
                          circle is created.
                          The tax would need to be an annual levy on the rental value of each site.
                          The value would be assessed on the optimum permitted use of the site
                          ignoring the value of buildings or improvements.
                          Thus, people receiving the financial benefit of a valuable location make a
                          contribution to the rest of the community.
                          Unlike other taxes, a land value tax is cheap to collect and difficult to
                          avoid.
                          Owners will make better use of their sites and society will avoid urban
                          sprawl.
                          The property cycle will be evened out.

                          Therefor in your second example, the land tax on the owners of land occupied
                          by the poorer people living out of town will be less.
                          However, if a new motorway or mass transit is built, reducing their
                          transport costs, then both the land value, and the land tax would increase.
                          If this location benefit value is not taxed, then landowners will collect
                          the benefit as they increase their rents to poor people after their
                          transport costs have been reduced.

                          Happy to supply more information if required.

                          Dave

                          Dave Wetzel
                          Vice-Chair
                          Transport for London
                          42-50 Victoria Street. London.
                          SW1H 0TL. UK

                          Tel: 020 7941 4200


                          -----Original Message-----
                          From: Michael Yeates [mailto:michaelm@...]
                          Sent: 25 August 2003 14:07
                          To: WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [WorldTransport] About transport impacts over urban land


                          There is also more to this ... using some Australian info.

                          1. Often the price of a site per se reflects not only the current but also
                          any potential development rights so people may be buying both a current
                          utility as well as a future redevelopment option ... ie in the second case,
                          gaining a speculative windfall on the greater cost achieveable from the land
                          value only without any betterment tax ... incidentally in doing so, the
                          complete "cost" of the existing building changes from being an asset to a
                          liability or cost simply on that decision whether to redevelop or not.

                          2. The other issue is the view that good public transport and walking and
                          cycling is not necessarily linked to housing and population density ie that
                          good other-than-car alternatives can be provided at suburban densities ... I
                          would suggest that the reason that these facilities seem expensive is that
                          roads and the real full costs thereof are grossly underpriced eg one is the
                          cost impacts of children no longer able or allowed to walk or cycle to
                          school but how do we price the social and educational disbenefits? It does
                          however require a different type of suburban road network to that
                          traditionally designed buy Oz and US traffic and subdivision engineers. So
                          what also tends to happen here in some areas is an inverse relationship
                          where in some parts of Australia, poorer people pay less for houses at the
                          outer edges of the older areas but then pay much more per dollar income per
                          household member for car use and have a much poorer or almost useless public
                          transport service.

                          Cities and urbanising areas are very complex ... and very diverse ... almost
                          defying generalised rules... but the "trends" are pretty clear...!

                          Paul Mees' book "A Very Public Solution" is worth a read on this topic...

                          Michael Yeates
                          Brisbane Oz

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Lee Schipper" <SCHIPPER@...>
                          To: <WorldTransport@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Sunday, August 10, 2003 4:57 AM
                          Subject: Re: [WorldTransport] About transport impacts over urban land


                          > I think the issue is the other way around: How much does a given size
                          > home cost in a dense neighborhood, in a sprawling neighborhood, in an
                          > older development, in a newer development, as a function of the location
                          > of that neighborhood, its local population density, its jobs to housing
                          > ratio etc? Then, if good transit service is establish, how much do
                          > housing costs rise (if at all); conversely, how do housing costs vary as
                          > a function of distance from a good transit line.
                          > On a very practical basis, 150 sq meters in Georgetown, Washington DC
                          > costs about twice to three times what it costs i Cleveland Park (two
                          > long metro stops away) and four times what it costs in Tenley town. The
                          > latter two actually have metro stops, Georgetown is 300 to 2000 meters
                          > from the nearest Metro station (buses in DC are a slow burning
                          > disaster). Housing close in to the suburb of Bethesda, which has good
                          > Metro and bus service, costs more than housing farther from the main
                          > metro stop, but how much more.
                          > Could it simply be that consumers figured out that the farther out you
                          > go, the more land and home you get for a unit of investment, and, aided
                          > by US policies that encourage borrowing for home ownership, make a
                          > tradeoff of a little more in cheap fuel and insurance in exchange for a
                          > lot more land? Could it also be that car insurance is cheaper in the
                          > low-density suburbs than it is in the higher density city core (it is)?
                          >
                          > In the end I think we paid $50K extra to be two blocks from Cleveland
                          > Park Metro; lots of options 500-2000 meters farther away offerred more
                          > house for less money. Since I cycle to work those extra 2000 meters,
                          > which would have been a long uphill grind, would have been a real ordeal
                          > day after day. But the hill I do have to climb is worth it, since I
                          > could not afford to live in Georgetown (where I rented) and pay around
                          > $1mn for a large three bedroom home rather than $780K for a much larger
                          > 5bdr home (yes, with the study etc all the home is filled up already). I
                          > could have lived i the farther burbs for half as much, had a larger lot,
                          > driven or taken public transport 45 minutes each way, paid to go to a
                          > gym rather than cycled.. You all get my drift.
                          >
                          > That may be the trade off. Why do the various reports on sprawl in the
                          > US focus only on transport costs and fuel, but consistently omit all the
                          > other characteristics AND COSTS of residential location? Life is more
                          > than one-dimensional, is it not?
                          >
                          > >>> john.holtzclaw@... 08/01/03 05:08PM >>>
                          >
                          > Hi Javier,
                          >
                          > We have information on that in the U.S. on our website,
                          > http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                          > Go to Transportation; then Articles and Research; then Smart Growth --
                          > As
                          > Seen From the Air
                          > or How Compact Neighborhoods Affect Modal Choice
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > John Holtzclaw
                          > 415-977-5534
                          > John.Holtzclaw@...
                          > sprawl and transportation action -- http://www.SierraClub.org/sprawl
                          > This View of Density -- www.sflcv.org/density
                          >
                          >
                          > "Javier Pacheco Raguz" <jpraguz@...>
                          >
                          > 06/12/2003 01:33 AM
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > Hello everybody, I am glad to meet you all. I would like to make a
                          > request for information about the impacts of transportation (with
                          > special focus on mass transit systems) over urban land in terms of
                          > value, density, pollution, etc. I am doing research about it and I
                          > will be thankful if somebody can provide me some tips about related
                          > literature. Thanks in advance for your kind help.
                          >
                          > Javier Pacheco
                          > ITC UPLA.2 Student
                          > Enschede, The Netherland
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
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