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VTPI News - Winter 2003

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  • Todd Alexander Litman
    ... VTPI NEWS ... Victoria Transport Policy Institute Efficiency - Equity - Clarity ... Winter 2003 Vol. 6, No. 1 ... The Victoria Transport Policy
    Message 1 of 2 , Mar 14 9:41 AM
    • 0 Attachment
      -----------
      VTPI NEWS
      -----------
      Victoria Transport Policy Institute
      "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
      ------------------------------------
      Winter 2003 Vol. 6, No. 1
      ----------------------------------

      The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research
      organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation
      problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org) has many resources
      addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also
      provides consulting services.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      TRANSPORTATION COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS GUIDEBOOK
      ==================================================
      VTPI continues to update the Online edition of "Transportation Cost And
      Benefit Analysis: Techniques, Estimates And Implications"
      (http://www.vtpi.org/tca). This free guidebook provides comprehensive
      information on transportation economic impacts for use in planning and
      policy analysis. We have also updated the Cost Analysis Spreadsheet that
      automates costing calculations and allows values to be easily modified to
      reflect a particular situation or analysis perspective.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      VTPI ONLINE TDM ENCYCLOPEDIA - UPDATES
      ======================================
      The VTPI "Online TDM Encyclopedia" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm) is the most
      comprehensive resource available anywhere to help identify and evaluate
      innovative solutions to transport problems. It has dozens of chapters with
      hundreds of pages of text and thousands of Internet links, providing
      convenient information for Transportation Demand Management (TDM) planning,
      evaluation and implementation. We have been busy expanding and updating the
      Encyclopedia. Below are highlights.

      * Fuel Tax Increases (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm17.htm) - This chapter
      discusses various justifications for increasing fuel taxes and the impacts
      this has on fuel consumption and vehicle travel.

      * TDM Marketing (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm23.htm) - This chapter
      discusses how to implement marketing and promotion campaigns, and the
      effect they can have on travel behavior. Includes several examples.

      * Smart Growth (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm38.htm) - This chapter discusses
      Smart Growth land use policies, their benefits and costs, and their impacts
      on mobility and accessibility.

      * Measuring Transportation (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm55.htm) - This
      chapter discusses various ways of measuring transportation activities and
      conditions, and how different quantification methods affect transport
      decision-making.

      * Emission Reduction Strategies (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm59.htm) - This
      chapter describes and evaluates various strategies for reducing transport
      energy consumption and pollution emissions. Also see the revised report
      "Efficient Vehicles Versus Efficient Transportation"
      (http://www.vtpi.org/cafe.pdf), which compares the total benefits and costs
      of strategies that increase vehicle fuel efficiency with mobility
      management strategies.

      * Sustainable Transportation and TDM (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm67.htm) -
      This chapter discusses sustainability and the role TDM can play in creating
      more sustainable transport systems. Sustainability is a planning
      perspective that accounts for economic, social and environmental impacts,
      including those that are indirect and difficult to measure.

      * Smart Growth Policy Reforms (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm95.htm) - This
      chapter describes various planning, regulatory and fiscal reforms that help
      create more efficient land use. These reforms correct current practices
      that encourage lower-density, urban periphery, automobile-dependent
      development patterns.

      * Health and Fitness (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm102.htm) - This chapter
      discusses the potential of improving public health and fitness through more
      active transportation, including walking, cycling, running and skating.
      Transportation and land use policies that result in even modest increases
      in aerobic exercise could provide significant health benefits. Many TDM
      strategies increase active transportation by improving nonmotorized travel
      conditions, creating land use patterns more suitable for nonmotorized
      travel, and by encouraging shifts from driving to nonmotorized travel.

      * Managing Nonmotorized Facilities (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm108.htm) -
      This chapter describes best practices for managing nonmotorized facilities
      such as walkways, sidewalks and paths. It provides guidelines for sharing
      such facilities among different types of users, public education and
      enforcement programs, and facility maintenance standards.

      * Wit and Humor (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm94.htm) - This chapter adds a
      little fun by linking to jokes and witty quotes scattered around the
      Encyclopedia.


      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      NEW AND UPDATED REPORTS
      =======================
      The following documents are posted at the VTPI website.

      "Economic Value of Walkability"
      (http://www.vtpi.org/walkability.pdf). This paper, presented at the
      Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, received the Pedestrian
      Committee's 2003 Outstanding Paper Award. It uses standard economic
      evaluation methods to investigate the value of walking (the activity) and
      walkability (the quality of walking conditions). It indicates that current
      transport planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive
      analysis techniques are likely to justify increased support for walking.

      "Sustainable Transportation Indicators" (http://www.vtpi.org/sus-indx.pdf).
      This revised paper describes various sustainable transportation performance
      indicators, including a proposed set that accounts for various economic,
      social and environmental impacts.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      SPECIAL PROJECTS
      ================

      PAYDAYS Insurance Pricing
      -------------------------
      Pay-As-You-Drive-And-You-Save (PAYDAYS) is a new insurance pricing concept
      that directly links vehicle insurance premiums to the amount a vehicle is
      driven by giving motorists a rebate based on annual mileage: the less you
      drive the larger your rebate. A coalition of national organizations
      including Environmental Defense, the Conservation Law Foundation, Oregon
      Environmental Council, King County Metro, Northwest Environment Watch,
      Sierra Club, Natural Resources Defense Council, Surface Transportation
      Policy Project, Clean Air and Transportation, Inc., and the U.S.
      Environmental Protection Agency is working with a private insurance broker
      to develop this concept. At least one major insurance company has already
      submitted a proposal to provide insurance services to the coalition, based
      on the PAYDAYS concept. We hope to have a specific program ready by this
      Summer.

      A workshop will be held for interested parties on Thursday, March 20, 2003
      at Environmental Defense's Washington DC office. For information on this
      event contact Tracy Freuder, tfreuder@... or call
      202-387-3500.

      VTPI is working on this and other efforts to develop Pay-As-You-Drive
      vehicle insurance. For more information see:

      Environmental Defense PAYD Insurance Program
      (http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?contentid=2205)

      The Oregon Environmental Council's PAYD campaign
      (http://www.orcouncil.org/Laws/PAYDFactsheet.PDF)


      Transportation and Social Exclusion
      -----------------------------------
      VTPI Director Todd Litman will present a paper titled "Social Inclusion As
      A Transport Planning Issue in Canada" at a seminar on social exclusion and
      transportation at the University of Westminster in London, April 3-4.
      Representatives from each of the G-7 countries will present findings. This
      is the first phase of a major research project sponsored by the Federation
      Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

      Social exclusion refers to constraints that prevent people from
      participating adequately in society, including education, employment,
      public services and activities (http://www.socialexclusionunit.gov.uk). The
      term social exclusion is not widely used in North America, but most
      transport officials are concerned with providing basic mobility to
      disadvantaged groups. A wide range of transport and land use policies and
      programs can help improve social inclusion, many of which are often
      overlooked as possible solutions to this problem. Further research is
      needed to better evaluate the problem and potential solutions.


      Vancouver Region Mobility Management
      ------------------------------------
      VTPI is providing support for an Environment Canada sponsored project to
      evaluate the role that mobility management strategies can play to help
      achieve sustainable transportation objectives. We have recently completed a
      draft report that identifies potential mobility management strategies,
      evaluates their potential impacts on regional sustainability, discusses
      their current status, and what can be done to help implement them in the
      region. Draft reports are available at the URL below.

      Summary Report: http://www.vtpi.org/mm_sum.pdf
      Full Report: http://www.vtpi.org/mm_rpt.pdf

      We appreciate feedback on these reports and are organizing a
      multi-stakeholder technical workshop to be held April 24 in Vancouver. For
      more information contact Todd Litman (litman@...).


      Federal Policies to Support Active Transportation
      -------------------------------------------------
      VTPI is working with the organization "Go For Green"
      (http://www.goforgreen.ca) to produce a background paper that identifies
      ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning, and
      recommends specific federal policies to encourage more physically active
      transportation (walking, cycling, skating, etc.). For information on this
      issue see our paper "If Health Matters" (http://www.vtpi.org/health.pdf).

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      UPCOMING EVENTS
      ===============

      Walk21 Conference (http://www.walk21.com)
      ----------------------------------------
      Walk21 IV: Health, Equity & Environment, the 4th International Conference
      on Walking in the 21st Century, will be held in Portland, Oregon, 1-3 May
      2003. The conference will focus on rethinking the context and perfecting
      the tools for a more walkable world. Advocates, practitioners, academics
      and policy makers interested in walkability are encouraged to attend.


      Urban Street Symposium - "Uptown, Downtown, or Small Town: Designing Urban
      Streets that Work" and Smart Growth Debate,
      (http://gulliver.trb.org/conferences/USS2)
      ----------------------------------------
      The 2nd Urban Street Symposium will be held July 28-30, 2003 in Anaheim,
      California. This symposium provides a forum for evaluating alternative
      urban street design practices, including problems caused by current design
      practices and potential alternatives; reexamining long-held urban street
      design practices in light of the "new urbanism" movement; identifying
      better urban street design practices; sharing experience and innovations;
      with case studies and workshops on "how to do it".

      This symposium will close with a debate titled "Smart Growth Pro or Con"
      between Todd Litman, VTPI Executive Director, and Wendell Cox, a critic of
      smart growth and mobility management.

      Sponsors include the Transportation Research Board, Institute of
      Transportation Engineers, ITE Traffic Engineer Council, the American
      Society of Civil Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration and the US
      Access Board.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      SUCCESS STORIES
      ===============

      Quebec Income tax deduction for transit passes
      ----------------------------------------
      Feliciatations a nous tous!

      After years of lobbying by a diverse coalition of supporters, the Quebec
      provincial government recently approved an income tax deduction for transit
      pass users, worth about $120 per year in income tax reduction. Proponents
      hope that this will help lead to similar deductions by the Canadian federal
      government and other provinces. The U.S. has had such a deduction for
      several years, which has increased transit ridership in many markets.

      For more information on this issue see:

      IBI, "Tax Exempt Status For Employer-Provided Transit Benefits,"
      Transportation Issue Table, National Climate Change Process and Transport
      Canada
      (http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/climatechange/subgroups1/passenger_urban/study5/exec_summary/english/transitpass.htm),
      1999.

      The Commuter Choice Program (http://www.commuterchoice.com) provides
      information on Commute Trip Reduction programs and benefits, particularly
      U.S. income tax policies related to commuter benefits.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      USEFUL RESOURCES
      ================

      "This View of Density" (http://www.sflcv.org/density) by the San Francisco
      League of Conservation Voters is a new website that illustrates different
      types of land use patterns, predicts their impacts on land consumption and
      travel behavior (using an automated calculator), and discusses various
      issues related to new urbanist development.


      "Transport Geography on the Web" (http://www.people.hofstra.edu/geotrans)
      provides excellent information on transport geography, including academic
      articles, maps, figures, and datatsets. VTPI has contributed material for
      chapters 6 (Urban Transportation) and 9 (Transport Planning and Policies)
      of this website.

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information
      in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our mailing
      list. And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.


      NOTE: Please use our current email address (litman@... or
      info@...), rather than litman@..., which will be
      discontinued in the future.




      Sincerely,
      Todd Litman, Director
      Victoria Transport Policy Institute
      "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
      1250 Rudlin Street
      Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
      Phone & Fax: 250-360-1560
      Email: litman@...
      Website: http://www.vtpi.org
    • Wetzel Dave
      Todd I m very interest in your ideas for Smart Growth. I would argue that you do not need subsidies to achieve this. Have you considered land value taxation? I
      Message 2 of 2 , Jun 27, 2003
      • 0 Attachment
        Todd
        I'm very interest in your ideas for Smart Growth.
        I would argue that you do not need subsidies to achieve this.
        Have you considered land value taxation?

        I attach three papers I've written.

        Please don't hesitate to contact me if you need any further info' or wish to
        discuss by e-mail.

        This article appeared in yesterday's Guardian Unlimited website:


        http://www.guardian.co.uk/economicdispatch/story/0,12498,984921,00.html

        Dave

        Dave Wetzel
        Vice-Chair
        Transport for London
        42-50 Victoria Street. London.
        SW1H 0TL. UK

        020 7941 4200


        -----Original Message-----
        From: Todd Alexander Litman [mailto:litman@...]
        Sent: 14 March 2003 17:41
        Subject: [WorldTransport] VTPI News - Winter 2003



        -----------
        VTPI NEWS
        -----------
        Victoria Transport Policy Institute
        "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
        ------------------------------------
        Winter 2003 Vol. 6, No. 1
        ----------------------------------

        The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research
        organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation
        problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org) has many resources
        addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also
        provides consulting services.

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        TRANSPORTATION COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS GUIDEBOOK
        ==================================================
        VTPI continues to update the Online edition of "Transportation Cost And
        Benefit Analysis: Techniques, Estimates And Implications"
        (http://www.vtpi.org/tca). This free guidebook provides comprehensive
        information on transportation economic impacts for use in planning and
        policy analysis. We have also updated the Cost Analysis Spreadsheet that
        automates costing calculations and allows values to be easily modified to
        reflect a particular situation or analysis perspective.

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        VTPI ONLINE TDM ENCYCLOPEDIA - UPDATES
        ======================================
        The VTPI "Online TDM Encyclopedia" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm) is the most
        comprehensive resource available anywhere to help identify and evaluate
        innovative solutions to transport problems. It has dozens of chapters with
        hundreds of pages of text and thousands of Internet links, providing
        convenient information for Transportation Demand Management (TDM) planning,
        evaluation and implementation. We have been busy expanding and updating the
        Encyclopedia. Below are highlights.

        * Fuel Tax Increases (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm17.htm) - This chapter
        discusses various justifications for increasing fuel taxes and the impacts
        this has on fuel consumption and vehicle travel.

        * TDM Marketing (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm23.htm) - This chapter
        discusses how to implement marketing and promotion campaigns, and the
        effect they can have on travel behavior. Includes several examples.

        * Smart Growth (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm38.htm) - This chapter discusses
        Smart Growth land use policies, their benefits and costs, and their impacts
        on mobility and accessibility.

        * Measuring Transportation (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm55.htm) - This
        chapter discusses various ways of measuring transportation activities and
        conditions, and how different quantification methods affect transport
        decision-making.

        * Emission Reduction Strategies (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm59.htm) - This
        chapter describes and evaluates various strategies for reducing transport
        energy consumption and pollution emissions. Also see the revised report
        "Efficient Vehicles Versus Efficient Transportation"
        (http://www.vtpi.org/cafe.pdf), which compares the total benefits and costs
        of strategies that increase vehicle fuel efficiency with mobility
        management strategies.

        * Sustainable Transportation and TDM (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm67.htm) -
        This chapter discusses sustainability and the role TDM can play in creating
        more sustainable transport systems. Sustainability is a planning
        perspective that accounts for economic, social and environmental impacts,
        including those that are indirect and difficult to measure.

        * Smart Growth Policy Reforms (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm95.htm) - This
        chapter describes various planning, regulatory and fiscal reforms that help
        create more efficient land use. These reforms correct current practices
        that encourage lower-density, urban periphery, automobile-dependent
        development patterns.

        * Health and Fitness (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm102.htm) - This chapter
        discusses the potential of improving public health and fitness through more
        active transportation, including walking, cycling, running and skating.
        Transportation and land use policies that result in even modest increases
        in aerobic exercise could provide significant health benefits. Many TDM
        strategies increase active transportation by improving nonmotorized travel
        conditions, creating land use patterns more suitable for nonmotorized
        travel, and by encouraging shifts from driving to nonmotorized travel.

        * Managing Nonmotorized Facilities (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm108.htm) -
        This chapter describes best practices for managing nonmotorized facilities
        such as walkways, sidewalks and paths. It provides guidelines for sharing
        such facilities among different types of users, public education and
        enforcement programs, and facility maintenance standards.

        * Wit and Humor (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm94.htm) - This chapter adds a
        little fun by linking to jokes and witty quotes scattered around the
        Encyclopedia.


        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        NEW AND UPDATED REPORTS
        =======================
        The following documents are posted at the VTPI website.

        "Economic Value of Walkability"
        (http://www.vtpi.org/walkability.pdf). This paper, presented at the
        Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, received the Pedestrian
        Committee's 2003 Outstanding Paper Award. It uses standard economic
        evaluation methods to investigate the value of walking (the activity) and
        walkability (the quality of walking conditions). It indicates that current
        transport planning practices tend to undervalue walking. More comprehensive
        analysis techniques are likely to justify increased support for walking.

        "Sustainable Transportation Indicators" (http://www.vtpi.org/sus-indx.pdf).
        This revised paper describes various sustainable transportation performance
        indicators, including a proposed set that accounts for various economic,
        social and environmental impacts.

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        SPECIAL PROJECTS
        ================

        PAYDAYS Insurance Pricing
        -------------------------
        Pay-As-You-Drive-And-You-Save (PAYDAYS) is a new insurance pricing concept
        that directly links vehicle insurance premiums to the amount a vehicle is
        driven by giving motorists a rebate based on annual mileage: the less you
        drive the larger your rebate. A coalition of national organizations
        including Environmental Defense, the Conservation Law Foundation, Oregon
        Environmental Council, King County Metro, Northwest Environment Watch,
        Sierra Club, Natural Resources Defense Council, Surface Transportation
        Policy Project, Clean Air and Transportation, Inc., and the U.S.
        Environmental Protection Agency is working with a private insurance broker
        to develop this concept. At least one major insurance company has already
        submitted a proposal to provide insurance services to the coalition, based
        on the PAYDAYS concept. We hope to have a specific program ready by this
        Summer.

        A workshop will be held for interested parties on Thursday, March 20, 2003
        at Environmental Defense's Washington DC office. For information on this
        event contact Tracy Freuder, tfreuder@... or call
        202-387-3500.

        VTPI is working on this and other efforts to develop Pay-As-You-Drive
        vehicle insurance. For more information see:

        Environmental Defense PAYD Insurance Program
        (http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?contentid=2205)

        The Oregon Environmental Council's PAYD campaign
        (http://www.orcouncil.org/Laws/PAYDFactsheet.PDF)


        Transportation and Social Exclusion
        -----------------------------------
        VTPI Director Todd Litman will present a paper titled "Social Inclusion As
        A Transport Planning Issue in Canada" at a seminar on social exclusion and
        transportation at the University of Westminster in London, April 3-4.
        Representatives from each of the G-7 countries will present findings. This
        is the first phase of a major research project sponsored by the Federation
        Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

        Social exclusion refers to constraints that prevent people from
        participating adequately in society, including education, employment,
        public services and activities (http://www.socialexclusionunit.gov.uk). The
        term social exclusion is not widely used in North America, but most
        transport officials are concerned with providing basic mobility to
        disadvantaged groups. A wide range of transport and land use policies and
        programs can help improve social inclusion, many of which are often
        overlooked as possible solutions to this problem. Further research is
        needed to better evaluate the problem and potential solutions.


        Vancouver Region Mobility Management
        ------------------------------------
        VTPI is providing support for an Environment Canada sponsored project to
        evaluate the role that mobility management strategies can play to help
        achieve sustainable transportation objectives. We have recently completed a
        draft report that identifies potential mobility management strategies,
        evaluates their potential impacts on regional sustainability, discusses
        their current status, and what can be done to help implement them in the
        region. Draft reports are available at the URL below.

        Summary Report: http://www.vtpi.org/mm_sum.pdf
        Full Report: http://www.vtpi.org/mm_rpt.pdf

        We appreciate feedback on these reports and are organizing a
        multi-stakeholder technical workshop to be held April 24 in Vancouver. For
        more information contact Todd Litman (litman@...).


        Federal Policies to Support Active Transportation
        -------------------------------------------------
        VTPI is working with the organization "Go For Green"
        (http://www.goforgreen.ca) to produce a background paper that identifies
        ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning, and
        recommends specific federal policies to encourage more physically active
        transportation (walking, cycling, skating, etc.). For information on this
        issue see our paper "If Health Matters" (http://www.vtpi.org/health.pdf).

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        UPCOMING EVENTS
        ===============

        Walk21 Conference (http://www.walk21.com)
        ----------------------------------------
        Walk21 IV: Health, Equity & Environment, the 4th International Conference
        on Walking in the 21st Century, will be held in Portland, Oregon, 1-3 May
        2003. The conference will focus on rethinking the context and perfecting
        the tools for a more walkable world. Advocates, practitioners, academics
        and policy makers interested in walkability are encouraged to attend.


        Urban Street Symposium - "Uptown, Downtown, or Small Town: Designing Urban
        Streets that Work" and Smart Growth Debate,
        (http://gulliver.trb.org/conferences/USS2)
        ----------------------------------------
        The 2nd Urban Street Symposium will be held July 28-30, 2003 in Anaheim,
        California. This symposium provides a forum for evaluating alternative
        urban street design practices, including problems caused by current design
        practices and potential alternatives; reexamining long-held urban street
        design practices in light of the "new urbanism" movement; identifying
        better urban street design practices; sharing experience and innovations;
        with case studies and workshops on "how to do it".

        This symposium will close with a debate titled "Smart Growth Pro or Con"
        between Todd Litman, VTPI Executive Director, and Wendell Cox, a critic of
        smart growth and mobility management.

        Sponsors include the Transportation Research Board, Institute of
        Transportation Engineers, ITE Traffic Engineer Council, the American
        Society of Civil Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration and the US
        Access Board.

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        SUCCESS STORIES
        ===============

        Quebec Income tax deduction for transit passes
        ----------------------------------------
        Feliciatations a nous tous!

        After years of lobbying by a diverse coalition of supporters, the Quebec
        provincial government recently approved an income tax deduction for transit
        pass users, worth about $120 per year in income tax reduction. Proponents
        hope that this will help lead to similar deductions by the Canadian federal
        government and other provinces. The U.S. has had such a deduction for
        several years, which has increased transit ridership in many markets.

        For more information on this issue see:

        IBI, "Tax Exempt Status For Employer-Provided Transit Benefits,"
        Transportation Issue Table, National Climate Change Process and Transport
        Canada
        (http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/climatechange/subgroups1/passenger
        _urban/study5/exec_summary/english/transitpass.htm),
        1999.

        The Commuter Choice Program (http://www.commuterchoice.com) provides
        information on Commute Trip Reduction programs and benefits, particularly
        U.S. income tax policies related to commuter benefits.

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        USEFUL RESOURCES
        ================

        "This View of Density" (http://www.sflcv.org/density) by the San Francisco
        League of Conservation Voters is a new website that illustrates different
        types of land use patterns, predicts their impacts on land consumption and
        travel behavior (using an automated calculator), and discusses various
        issues related to new urbanist development.


        "Transport Geography on the Web" (http://www.people.hofstra.edu/geotrans)
        provides excellent information on transport geography, including academic
        articles, maps, figures, and datatsets. VTPI has contributed material for
        chapters 6 (Urban Transportation) and 9 (Transport Planning and Policies)
        of this website.

        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


        Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information
        in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our mailing
        list. And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.


        NOTE: Please use our current email address (litman@... or
        info@...), rather than litman@..., which will be
        discontinued in the future.




        Sincerely,
        Todd Litman, Director
        Victoria Transport Policy Institute
        "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
        1250 Rudlin Street
        Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
        Phone & Fax: 250-360-1560
        Email: litman@...
        Website: http://www.vtpi.org



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