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VTPI News - Summer 2002

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  • Todd Alexander Litman
    ... VTPI NEWS ... Victoria Transport Policy Institute Efficiency - Equity - Clarity ... Summer 2002 Vol. 5, No. 2 ... The Victoria Transport Policy
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 10, 2002

                              VTPI NEWS
                  Victoria Transport Policy Institute
                     "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
                       Summer 2002    Vol. 5, No. 2
      The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org) has many resources addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also provides consulting services.


      TRANSPORTATION COST AND BENEFIT ANALYSIS GUIDEBOOK ==================================================
      This important new resource is now available free at http://www.vtpi.org/tca.

      VTPI has now posted an Online edition of "Transportation Cost And Benefit Analysis: Techniques, Estimates And Implications," a comprehensive study of transportation benefit and costing research, and a guidebook for applying this information in planning and policy analysis.

      This 300-page document is unique in several important ways. It is one of the most extensive studies of its type, including categories of costs and benefits that are often overlooked, and the only one that is regularly expanded and updated as new information becomes available. It is the only study that provides costs values in a format designed to easily calculate and compare the full costs and benefits of transport policy and planning alternatives. It provides extensive reference information, mostly available through the Internet, allowing users to obtain additional information when needed.

      Individual chapters contain detailed information on various categories of transportation costs and benefits. Using the best available data, it provides monetized estimates of twenty costs for eleven travel modes under three travel conditions. Costs are categorized according to various attributes: whether they are internal or external, fixed or variable, market or nonmarket.

      The Guidebook reviews previous transportation impact studies, discusses economic evaluation practices, describes how nonmarket impacts are estimated, discusses major findings, evaluates criticisms of transportation costing, and explores implications and applications of this research.

      Guidebook Chapters (http://www.vtpi.org/tca)
      1. Introduction
      2. Literature Review
      3. Economic Evaluation
      4. Cost Quantification Techniques
      5. Costs  Overview and Definitions
      5.1 Vehicle Costs
      5.2 Travel Time
      5.3 Safety and Health
      5.4 Parking
      5.5 Congestion
      5.6 Roadway Facilities
      5.7 Roadway Land Value
      5.8 Traffic Services
      5.9 Transportation Diversity
      5.10 Air Pollution
      5.11 Noise
      5.12 Resource Consumption
      5.13 Barrier Effect
      5.14 Land Use Impacts
      5.15 Water Pollution and Hydrologic Impacts
      5.16 Waste Disposal
      6. Cost Summary
      7. Measuring Transportation Benefits
      8. Criticism of Transportation Costing
      9. Implications
      10. Applications and Case Studies
      11. Conclusions
      12. Bibliography
      *   Cost Data Spreadsheet

      This project is currently under development. We regularly update and revise the Guidebook. Please let us know if you have comments or suggestions for improving it.

      The VTPI "Online TDM Encyclopedia" is the most comprehensive resource available anywhere to help identify and evaluate innovative solutions to transportation problems. It has dozens of chapters with hundreds of pages of text and thousands of Internet links, providing convenient information for Transportation Demand Management (TDM) planning, evaluation and implementation. It is available free at http://www.vtpi.org/tdm.

      We have been busy expanding and updating the Encyclopedia. Nearly every chapter has been revised. Below are some highlights.


      "Transportation Affordability" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm106.htm)
      This chapter describes transportation management strategies that help increase transportation affordability.

      "Intelligent Transportation Systems" (
      This chapter describes the use of information technologies to improve transportation system performance and efficiency.

      "Managing Nonmotorized Facilities" (
      This chapter describes best practices for managing and maintaining nonmotorized facilities such as walkways, sidewalks and paths. It discusses ways to share such facilities among various user types, maintenance standards and evaluation practices.

      "Rural Transportation Management" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm87.htm)
      This chapter describes strategies that help improve transportation in low-density, rural areas. These can improve transportation options, improve transportation affordability, provide transportation for tourist activities and special events, and help preserve special cultural and environmental features. 

      "TDM in Developing Countries" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm75.htm)
      This chapter describes the implementation of TDM in developing countries and regions. It references excellent new information resources that should be useful to transport professionals in both developing and developed countries, including John Cracknell, "Experience in Urban Traffic Management and Demand Management in Developing Countries," World Bank, (
      http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/transport/utsr.nsf); "Mobility in the Developing World" and "Sustainable Transportation Live," (http://www.movingtheeconomy.ca); the "Rural Transport Knowledge Base", (http://www.transport-links.org/rtkb/English\Intro.htm); and Eduardo Alcântara Vasconcellos, "Urban Transport, Environment And Equity - The Case For Developing Countries," Earthscan (www.earthscan.co.uk), 2001.  

      "TDM and Economic Development" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm54.htm)
      This chapter examines how TDM affects economic productivity and development.

      "Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) Vehicle Insurance" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm79.htm)
      There are now several efforts to promote and implement PAYD vehicle insurance, including a pilot project being implemented by the Norwich-Union insurance company in Britain, and efforts to promote it in Texas, Oregon and Washington states. (VTPI is working on some of these efforts. Contact us if you want to be kept informed.)

      "Comprehensive Transport Planning" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm76.htm)
      This chapter, one of the largest in the Encyclopedia, describes how to create a comprehensive framework for planning and evaluating transportation. It identifies omissions and biases in conventional planning that tend to undervalue TDM.


      The following new document is posted at the VTPI website.

      "Economic Value of Walkability" (http://www.vtpi.org/walkability.pdf)
      This paper uses standard economic evaluation methods to investigate the value of walking (the activity) and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience). Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including community livability, accessibility (particularly for people who are transportation disadvantaged), cost savings, public health, reduced external costs, more efficient land use, economic development, and support for equity objectives. Current transportation planning practices tend to undercount and undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis techniques, described in this paper, are likely to justify increased investment and support for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel. Most conclusions also apply to cycling.


      VTPI Executive Director Todd Litman participated in several recent conferences and workshops. Below are highlights.

      TNO  The Netherlands
      Presentations to various government and business officials concerning the feasibility of implementing Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance and other transport market reforms in the Netherlands, sponsored by the Institute for Traffic and Transport, Logistics and Spatial Development, TNO Inro (http://www.inro.tno.nl), Delft, The Netherlands, July 1-3.

      WCTR Conference
      Presented "The Online TDM Encyclopedia: A Gateway to Innovative Solutions to Transportation Problems," at the World Conference on Transport Research (WCTR) First Annual Conference, Leeds, UK, July 8-9. The WCTR is a major organization for transportation researchers, comparable to the Transportation Research Board, with a more international perspective. For information visit

      IPPR, London
      "Environmentally and Socially Progressive Insurance Policy: Can Distance-Based Charging Deliver?" an overview of Pay-As-You-Drive automobile insurance, presented at a workshop of transport, insurance and environmental experts, sponsored by the British Institute for Public Policy Research (http://www.ippr.org), London, July 11.

      Rogue Valley, Oregon
      Presented information on transportation planning and market reforms to planning and community organizations in the fast-developing Rogue Valley, in southern Oregon. This was an opportunity to explore rural community transportation management issues (see the "Rural Transportation Management" chapter of our Online TDM Encyclopedia, described above).

      (A special thank you to all of the generous people who helped organize and sponsor these trips.)



      Economic Value of Walking Workshop
      VTPI Director Todd Litman is organizing a TRB workshop on the economic value of walking, to be held Sunday, January 12, in Washington DC, as part of the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. It will cover a wide range of issues, including the value of pedestrian facilities (sidewalks and paths), pedestrian-friendly streets, public health benefits, consumer choice, financial savings, and other categories of impacts (see "Economic Value of Walkability" paper described above). Several leading experts on nonmotorized transport planning and evaluation are planning to speak. Please contact VTPI if you have related research that you might be able to share at this event. For registration information contact the Transportation Research Board at http://www.trb.org (specific information should be available in October or November).

      Walk21 Conference 2003 - Call for Papers
      Planning is now underway for "Walk21 IV: Health, Equity and Environment," the Fourth International Conference on Walking in the 21st Century. The conference will be held in Portland, Oregon, USA, May 1-3, 2003.

      Walk21 IV will bring together professionals and activists in public health, transportation, and community planning and design from around the world. Delegates will explore how walking is integrated into our infrastructures, our institutions, and our daily lives. The three themes of Health, Equity and Environment, will be woven together throughout the conference.

      Abstracts for papers and presentations are now being solicited. The deadline for submitting abstracts is Monday, September 16, 2002. For more information, or for abstract submission guidelines, please visit the conference website at http://www.walk21.com, or e-mail to info@....


      Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our mailing list. And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.

      Todd Litman, Director
      Victoria Transport Policy Institute
      "Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
      1250 Rudlin Street
      Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
      Phone & Fax: 250-360-1560
      Email: litman@...
      Website: http://www.vtpi.org

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