Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

Expand Messages
  • SHADOW Kamen
    Presidency of Thomas Jefferson From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of the United States In office
    Message 1 of 2 , Apr 1, 2009
    • 0 Attachment

      Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Jump to: navigation, search
      Thomas Jefferson
      Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

      In office
      March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
      Vice PresidentAaron Burr (1801–1805),
      George Clinton (1805–1809)
      Preceded byJohn Adams
      Succeeded byJames Madison

      In office
      March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
      PresidentJohn Adams
      Preceded byJohn Adams
      Succeeded byAaron Burr

      In office
      September 26, 1789 – December 31, 1793
      PresidentGeorge Washington
      Preceded byNone
      Succeeded byEdmund Randolph

      BornApril 13, 1743
      Shadwell, Virginia
      DiedJuly 4, 1826 (aged 83)
      Charlottesville, Virginia
      NationalityAmerican
      Political partyDemocratic-Republican
      SpouseMartha Wayles Skelton Jefferson
      OccupationLawyer, Farmer (Planter)
      ReligionEpiscopalian
      SignaturePresidency of Thomas Jefferson's signature

      Thomas Jefferson's Presidency of the United States, from March 4, 1801 to March 4, 1809, was the first to start and end in the White House (though at the time it was known as the Presidential Mansion).

      [edit] Inauguration and beliefs

      The tumultuous nature of the election of 1800 cost Jefferson a great deal of political capital. He was now indebted to Hamilton and the High Federalists and left with a vice president who had no place in his administration. With George Washington dead and John Adams returning to Braintree after his defeat, Jefferson was free to try to implement his Republican vision for the republic. In what historians later call Jeffersonian democracy, the new president set out an agenda that was marked by his belief in agrarianism and limited government. In order to carry out his agenda, Jefferson turned to his loyal supporters James Madison who he named as Secretary of State and Swiss-born Albert Gallatin who became Secretary of the Treasury. Jefferson also wielded significant power over the Republican leaders of Congress despite their independent nature. The split in the Federalist Party between the Hamilton and Adams factions also helped Jefferson secure the support of Congress. In his entire administration, Jefferson never once had to use his veto power.

      [edit] Jefferson's domestic policies

      [edit] Continuation of Federalist policies

      In order to end the deadlock in the House of Representatives following the 1800 election, Jefferson was forced to make important concessions to Hamilton in order to gain his endorsement. As part of these concessions, Jefferson continued the basic Hamiltonian programs of the national bank and tariffs. While the Sedition Act expired on schedule in 1801, and one of the Alien acts was repealed, those who were imprisoned under the Sedition Act were released. The Federalists also allowed Jefferson to select his own cabinet members and other high level appointees.

      [edit] Addressing the national debt

      Jefferson attempted to eliminate the national debt because of his wish for small government. Jefferson believed that the nation did not need to carry a line of debt in order to build foreign credit, a policy that Hamilton vigorously advocated while in the Washington cabinet. Jefferson repealed many Federalist taxes including the tax that prompted the Whiskey Rebellion which was made up of many Republican supporters. Jefferson believed that the federal government was able to operate exclusively on customs revenue and need no direct taxation. While initially successful, this policy would later prove disastrous when trade to the United States was interrupted by the Napoleonic Wars between Great Britain and France.

      Jefferson also decreased the size of the military, which he believed was an unnecessary drain on the resources of the republic. Much of the federalist navy that was created under the Adams administration was scrapped. When Federalists criticized this policy as leaving the nation vulnerable to foreign attack, Jefferson responded that he believed citizen soldiers would arise to defend the country in case of attack, much as they did during the American Revolution. Recognizing that military leadership would be more crucial when taking civilians into battle, Jefferson did create the Army Corps of Engineers and established the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1802.

      [edit] Patronage and the Federalists

      When John Adams took office in 1796, he carried many of Washington's supporters over into his new administration. As a result, there was little change in the federal government when the first national transition of power occurred. With Jefferson's election in 1800, there was a transfer of power between parties, not simply a transition. As president, Jefferson had the power of appointment to fill many government positions that had long been held by Federalists. It was widely anticipated that this use of patronage was the privilege of a new party when it assumed power. Jefferson resisted the call of his fellow Republicans to remove all Federalists from their appointed positions. Instead he felt that it was his right to replace the top government officials, such as the cabinet and the politically motivated midnight judges appointed by Adams. Feeling that most Adams Federalists, who were moderate in outlook than the High Federalists who followed Hamilton, could be turned to the Republican Party; Jefferson kept most in their existing positions. Jefferson's refusal to call for a complete replacement of federal appointees under the spoils system was followed by U.S. Presidents until the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.

      While Jefferson preferred to practice political moderation towards the Federalists, the party itself was torn apart by political in-fighting. Keeping with their high-minded roots, the Federalist refused to accept the political campaigning practiced by the Republicans and were aghast at populist appeals made by that party. Federalist leaders John Adams and John Jay retired from public life and Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with Vice-President Aaron Burr leaving the party without strong leadership. As the nation began to expand (Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee entered the Union under the Federalists and Ohio joined in 1803), the ideas of Jeffersonian democracy appealed more to the voters than the Federalist calls for stronger central government and higher taxation. By 1805, the Federalists remained strong only in the New England states and Delaware while moderate Federalists joined the Republican Party. Possibly the most damaging defection was John Quincy Adams, son of Federalist President John Adams.

      [edit] Judiciary

      Jefferson was highly suspicious of the judges appointed by his predecessors; his opinion of good judges was much higher: one of his arguments for a bill of rights would be the power they would give the judiciary.[1] At his urging, Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, abolishing the numerous district courts created at the end of the Adams presidency. The battle to abolish the Judiciary Act was not an easy one. Federalists argued that once the courts were created and judges were appointed, the Constitution directs that they serve for life unless impeached for "high crimes and misdemeanors". The Republican leadership, prompted by Jefferson, chose not to argue the political manipulation of the courts but instead chose to attack them based on the cost to the nation. Since many of the courts were created to pack the judiciary with lifetime Federalist judges, there were many circumstances in which there was no need for a court at all. The Republicans argued that the unwarranted nature of the courts combined with their excessive cost justified repeal for the Judiciary Act. Despite the fact that this argument required a "loose" interpretation of the Constitution, which Jefferson rallied against when he fought the creation of Hamilton's First Bank of the United States, the Congress was successful in reversing the law.

      This also left numerous Federalist "midnight judges" without positions. Since the creation of these "midnight judge" positions was done to protect the courts from Republican appointees, Jefferson felt justified in not awarding the commissions creating the new federal judges. One commission that he was unable to prevent was the appointment of former Secretary of State John Marshall to the position of Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Although Marshall was a cousin of Jefferson, he was a strong Federalist in the tradition of John Adams. Marshall's influence on the Court would help to firmly entrench the supremacy of the federal government. One of the first cases Marshall was asked to decide was that of William Marbury, one of the "midnight judges" who was requesting that the Court issue a writ of mandamus to Secretary of State James Madison ordering the delivery of the judicial commissions. The resulting case, Marbury v. Madison set the landmark precedent of judicial review for the Supreme Court.

      The Republicans were not content with simply overturning the Judiciary Act of 1801 and removing the "midnight judges." They next planned to impeach existing federal judges to remove them from office. The first case was John Pickering, a Federalist judge who exhibited signs of insanity and public drunkenness. At Jefferson's instigation, the House of Representatives impeached Pickering in 1804 and the Senate removed him from the bench later that year. Jefferson next set his sights on the Supreme Court. Reading that Federalist Justice Samuel Chase told a grand jury that the Republicans threatened, "peace and order, freedom and property.", Jefferson urged Congressional leaders to begin impeachment hearings. Many Republicans felt that this accusation of sedition was too reminiscent of the Federalist Sedition Act that had been repealed early in Jefferson's presidency. Unwilling to remove a Supreme Court justice on purely political accusations, the Senate acquitted Chase of all charges in 1804. The case of Samuel Chase has been the only impeachment trial of a Supreme Court justice in United States history. By rebelling against Jefferson's wishes, the Republican Senators sent a message that the independence of the judiciary was not open to political manipulation.

      [edit] Reelection and a Republican split

      Jefferson easily defeated Federalist Charles Pinckney by an electoral vote of 162-14 and was re-elected in the 1804 election. With little opposition outside of New England, the Federalists had ceased to be a major source of opposition for the Jefferson administration. Seizing the opportunity to rail against the moderate Republicanism of Jefferson, Congressmen John Randolph of Roanoke and John Taylor of Caroline broke with the president and called for a return to the "principles of '98," and a small weak national government. Known as the "Old Republicans" (or sometimes called Quids), the men targeted Madison and Gallatin as the primary sources of Republican weakness. When Jefferson became embroiled in the Yazoo Land Fraud controversy, Randolph began to attack the president from the floor of the House. Randolph's actions had little effect other than to alienate the Quids from the rest of the Republican Party. In the end, the Marshall Court was forced to resolve the Yazoo issue in the case of Fletcher v. Peck. While Marshall reluctantly agreed to support Jefferson's interpretation of the controversy, he was also able to increase the power of the Court by giving it the right to review the constitutionality of state laws.

      [edit] Native American relations

      When Jefferson assumed power, the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa were leading raids against the United States in the Ohio Valley. Attempting to form a confederation of Indian people in the Northwest Territory, the two brothers would be a continual source of irritation to westward settlers. Jefferson, while not adverse to native people, felt that they should be assimilated into more "civilized" white culture or be removed to the west. Under Jefferson the first Indian relocation began from the southern states. Only the Five Civilized Tribes were allowed to retain their ancestral territory and this was because they adapted to white culture. When the Creek nation refused to relocate out of Alabama, Tennessee militia under the direction of Andrew Jackson launched a bloody campaign culminating at the battle of Horseshoe Bend to move them west.

      [edit] Banning the slave trade

      It was during Jefferson's second term that the constitutional ban on discussion of the slave trade in Congress expired. The ban, which was created by the slave trade compromise at the Philadelphia Convention, prohibited Congress from considering a ban on the slave trade until 1808. In 1807, northern representatives in Congress submitted a bill calling for the end of the slave trade. The bill, submitted with Jefferson's approval, divided the Congress along sectional lines. While Northern congressmen opposed the slave trade, there was no desire to release free black men and women into northern cities if they were captured being smuggled in to the country. Southern congressmen argued that the ban would largely be ignored and that it was up to the states, not Congress, to regulate slavery. The compromise bill ended the trade in 1808 but ordered the federal government to turn any smuggled slaves over to the states to deal with according to local custom. Many of these slaves were then auctioned by the state governments to the highest bidder. In reality, the ban on the slave trade only reduced the trade and did not eliminate it altogether.

      [edit] Jefferson's foreign policies

      [edit] The Louisiana Purchase

      In his first Inaugural Address Jefferson outlined a vision of the United States eventually expanding out into the Louisiana Territory[2] At the time that he assumed the presidency, the territory was the property of Spain which had acquired it from the Treaty of Paris (1783). However, when Napoleon Bonaparte annexed Spain into his French Empire in 1801, the territory secretly reverted back to French ownership. When the port of New Orleans was closed to U.S. commercial trade in 1802, Jefferson realized that he must take action in order to protect the economy of the western states and territories. The president sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to Paris to inquire about purchasing New Orleans from the French. At the same time, Napoleon was fighting a brutal war in Haiti against General Touissant L'Overture that was depleting the French treasury. Desperate for money, Napoleon made Monroe and Livingston though his representative Talleyrand to purchase the territory for $15 million. Jefferson was pleased at the offer but felt that he lacked the constitutional power to purchase the land. Following his doctrine for "strict" interpretation of the Constitution, Jefferson prepared to draft an amendment to the Constitution giving Congress the express power to purchase land. Hearing of the delay in the United States and rapidly running out of money, Napoleon ordered Talleyrand to leak information that hinted he would offer the territory to Great Britain if the U.S. did not act quickly. At the urging of Monroe and Livingston, Jefferson relented and sent the annexation treaty to the Senate for approval without the benefit of an amendment. With only a small group of Federalists resisting, the territory of Louisiana was annexed to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase. Suddenly faced with the prospect of not only doubling the size of the United States, Jefferson also had to decide how to govern the new French, Spanish, Mexican, and Native Americans who lived in the territory. To this end Jefferson proposed the Louisiana Government Bill which created an appointed government for the territory and established a system for collection of taxes. In effect, Jefferson had authorized taxation without representation, the very thing that he had opposed in the American Revolution.

      As soon as the purchase was complete, Jefferson ordered the Lewis and Clark expedition to survey the new territory. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were sent out by Jefferson to collect scientific data on the new territory, write an ethnography of native people, establish a trade network between native nations and the United States, and to discover the extent of the purchased land.

      Popular discontent in the Louisiana Territory later led to the Burr conspiracy in which former Vice President Aaron Burr was approached by Napoleon to make an attempt to break off the Louisiana Territory into an independent state with ties to France. Burr, chafing at his rejection from Washington and later his home state of New York, agreed and began to organize a militia force in the territory. Calling himself the "Emperor of Mexico", Burr was pursued by the army across the territory and back into the United States proper. Once Burr was arrested, Jefferson ordered a trial on the grounds of treason. When the case came before the Supreme Court, Chief Justice John Marshall found that there was not sufficient evidence to show that Burr was at the locations where the conspiracy was discussed. To the dismay of Jefferson, Marshall and the Supreme Court acquitted Burr of all charges.

      [edit] The Barbary War

      Under George Washington, the United States had agreed to pay tribute to the Barbary States of North Africa in order to protect American shipping in the Mediterranean Sea. Jefferson, fearing that the increased cost of tribute may financially devastate the federal treasury, decided to send in both naval and United States Marine Corps forces into Tripoli. The First Barbary War saw a victory for the U.S. Marines who "marched to the shores of Tripoli". Thomas Jefferson had previously disbanded John Adam's Navy, so when time came he used small gunboats. These were called the "jeffs" or mosquito fleet, and were not very effective. They were easily taken down by the stronger ships of the pirates. There is even a report of a jeff being blown inland, creating the saying that they were more effective on land than water. United States was considered a victor when peace was signed in 1805, by buying out the pirates for $60,000. This contrasts sharply with the previous idea of not paying one cent to the pirates. Although this went against the original plan, Jefferson gained some respect from the countries that conducted trade in the area because it ended over a century of brutal tribute.

      [edit] Relations with Europe

      In Jefferson's second term, the Napoleonic Wars broke out in Europe as Great Britain and France battled for international supremacy. Initially following Washington's Neutrality Act, Jefferson did not commit the United States to either side and continued to trade with both nations. Wanting to weaken Napoleon, the British government began to seize American ships and impress American sailors by the thousands despite American neutrality. The British Parliament also passed the Orders in Council which barred any trade with the European continent. Napoleon responded with the Berlin Decree in 1806 and the Milan Decree in 1807, both of which effectively cut Europe from British trade and threaten seizure of neutral ships. Jefferson became increasingly agitated with both nations as American neutrality was ignored. Tensions flared when the Chesapeake-Leopard Incident took place off the coast of Virginia. A British warship, The Leopard ordered the American ship The Chesapeake to submit to a search. The American captain refused and shots were exchanged leaving three men dead and eighteen wounded. Public outrage demanded that Jefferson take action.

      In response, Jefferson and Congress passed the Embargo Act in 1807. The act was designed to force Britain and France into respecting US neutrality by cutting off all American shipping to either nation. Almost immediately the Americans began to turn to smuggling in order to ship goods to Europe. Jefferson was forced to call out the military and expand the power of the federal government by patrolling the American coast, cutting off trade routes to Canada, seizing the ships of suspected smugglers, and ordering that no ship could be loaded without the approval of a customs officer and the military. The effects of the Embargo Act backfired on the Republicans. New England, which depended on trade for economic survival, turned again to the Federalist Party. Jefferson lost many supporters who resented the intrusion into their personal lives by the national government. Even Britain and France scoffed at the Act as neither economy was severely damaged due to smuggling. By the time Jefferson surrendered the presidency to James Madison in 1808, his reputation was severely damaged by his support of the Embargo Act.

      [edit] Speeches

      [edit] Inaugural addresses

      Chief Justice John Marshall administered the first executive oath of office ever taken in the new federal city of Washington, DC, in the new Senate Chamber (now the Old Supreme Court Chamber) of the partially built Capitol building, on March 4, 1801. The outcome of the election of 1800 had been in doubt until late February because Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the two leading candidates, each had received 73 electoral votes. Consequently, the House of Representatives met in a special session to resolve the impasse, pursuant to the terms spelled out in the Constitution. After 30 hours of debate and balloting, Mr. Jefferson emerged as the President and Mr. Burr the Vice President. President John Adams, who had run unsuccessfully for a second term, left Washington on the day of the inauguration without attending the ceremony.

      [edit] State of the Union Address

      Jefferson ended the tradition of delivering a State of the Union speech and instead just had it published. Woodrow Wilson later ended this policy.

      [edit] Administration and Cabinet

      OFFICENAMETERM
      PresidentThomas Jefferson1801–1809
      Vice PresidentAaron Burr1801–1805
       George Clinton1805–1809
      Secretary of StateJames Madison1801–1809
      Secretary of the TreasurySamuel Dexter1801
       Albert Gallatin1801–1809
      Secretary of WarHenry Dearborn1801–1809
      Attorney GeneralLevi Lincoln1801–1804
       John Breckinridge1805–1806
       Caesar A. Rodney1807–1809
      Postmaster GeneralJoseph Habersham1801
       Gideon Granger1801–1809
      Secretary of the NavyBenjamin Stoddert1801
       Robert Smith1801–1809


      [edit] Supreme Court appointments

      Jefferson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

      [edit] States admitted to the Union

      • Ohio – March 1, 1803

      [edit] Further reading

      • Adams, Henry. History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson. Library of America edition, (1986). Classic in-depth history.
      • Channing, Edward. The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811 (1906) full text online, older scholarly survey
      • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801–1809 (1963), highly detailed party history
      • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Process of Government Under Jefferson (1978)
      • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (1987) intellectual history approach to TJ's presidency
      • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President: First Term 1801 - 1805; v. 5: Jefferson the President: Second term, 1805-1809; v.6: The Sage of Monticello (1948-70), the standard scholarly biography; short bio by Malone; a standard scholarly biography
      • Peterson, Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1986), long, detailed biography by leading scholar; online edition; also excerpt and text search; a standard scholarly biography
      • Peterson, Merrill D. ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography. (1986), long essays by scholars
      • Rodriguez, Junius, ed. The Louisiana Purchase: An Encyclopedia (2002)
      • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815 (1968) standard scholarly history of presidencies of Jefferson and Madison
      • Tucker, Robert W. and David C. Hendrickson. Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1992) best guide to foreign policy excerpt and text search, diplomatic history
      • Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. (2005), broad-scale interpretation of political history


      [edit] Notes

      1. ^ Letter to Madison, March 15 1789: "In the arguments in favor of a declaration of rights, you omit one which has great weight with me, the legal check which it puts into the hands of the judiciary. This is a body, which if rendered independent & kept strictly to their own department merits great confidence for their learning & integrity. In fact what degree of confidence would be too much for a body composed of such men as Wythe, Blair & Pendleton?."
      2. ^ The Revolution of 1803. Annual Editions: United Sates History vol. 1

      [edit] External links

    • SHADOW Kamen
      Presidency of Thomas Jefferson From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of the United States In office
      Message 2 of 2 , Jan 5, 2010
      • 0 Attachment

        Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

        From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

        Jump to: navigation, search
        Thomas Jefferson


        In office
        March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1809
        Vice PresidentAaron Burr (1801–1805),
        George Clinton (1805–1809)
        Preceded byJohn Adams
        Succeeded byJames Madison

        In office
        March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
        PresidentJohn Adams
        Preceded byJohn Adams
        Succeeded byAaron Burr

        In office
        September 26, 1789 – December 31, 1793
        PresidentGeorge Washington
        Preceded byNone
        Succeeded byEdmund Randolph

        BornApril 13, 1743
        Shadwell, Virginia
        DiedJuly 4, 1826 (aged 83)
        Charlottesville, Virginia
        NationalityAmerican
        Political partyDemocratic-Republican
        Spouse(s)Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson
        OccupationLawyer, Farmer (Planter)
        ReligionEpiscopalian
        Signature
        Thomas Jefferson's Presidency of the United States, from March 4, 1801 to March 4, 1809, carried out what Jefferson called the "Revolution of 1800", as he attempted to put into action the principles of his Democratic-Republican Party. In domestic affairs Jefferson tried to weaken Federalist influences, especially in the judiciary, and succeded in limiting the size of government by reducing taxes and the national debt. In foreign affairs the major developments were the acquisition of the gigantic Louisiana Purchase, an embargo against trade with either England or France, and worsening relations with Britain as the nation tried to remain neutral in the midst of a great war that engulfed Europe.

        Contents

        [hide]

        [edit] Inauguration and beliefs

        The tumultuous nature of the election of 1800 cost Jefferson a great deal of political capital. He was now indebted to Hamilton and the High Federalists and left with a vice president who had no place in his administration. With George Washington dead and John Adams returning to Braintree after his defeat, Jefferson was free to try to implement his Republican vision for the republic. In what historians later call Jeffersonian democracy, the new president set out an agenda that was marked by his belief in agrarianism and limited government. In order to carry out his agenda, Jefferson turned to his loyal supporters James Madison whom he named as Secretary of State and Swiss-born Albert Gallatin who became Secretary of the Treasury. Jefferson also wielded significant power over the Republican leaders of Congress despite their independent nature. The split in the Federalist Party between the Hamilton and Adams factions also helped Jefferson secure the support of Congress. In his entire administration, Jefferson never once had to use his veto power.

        [edit] Jefferson's domestic policies

        [edit] Continuation of Federalist policies

        In order to end the deadlock in the House of Representatives following the 1800 election, Jefferson was forced to make important concessions to Hamilton in order to gain his endorsement. As part of these concessions, Jefferson continued the basic Hamiltonian programs of the national bank and tariffs. While the Sedition Act expired on schedule in 1801, and one of the Alien acts was repealed, those who were imprisoned under the Sedition Act were released. The Federalists also allowed Jefferson to select his own cabinet members and other high level appointees.

        [edit] Addressing the national debt

        Jefferson attempted to eliminate the national debt because of his wish for small government. Jefferson believed that the nation did not need to carry a line of debt in order to build foreign credit, a policy that Hamilton vigorously advocated while in the Washington cabinet. Jefferson repealed many Federalist taxes including the tax that prompted the Whiskey Rebellion which was made up of many Republican supporters. Jefferson believed that the federal government was able to operate exclusively on customs revenue and need no direct taxation. While initially successful, this policy would later prove disastrous when trade to the United States was interrupted by the Napoleonic Wars between Great Britain and France.
        Jefferson also decreased the size of the military, which he believed was an unnecessary drain on the resources of the republic. Much of the federalist navy that was created under the Adams administration was scrapped. When Federalists criticized this policy as leaving the nation vulnerable to foreign attack, Jefferson responded that he believed citizen soldiers would arise to defend the country in case of attack, much as they did during the American Revolution. Recognizing that military leadership would be more crucial when taking civilians into battle, Jefferson did create the Army Corps of Engineers and established the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1802.

        [edit] Patronage and the Federalists

        When John Adams took office in 1796, he carried many of Washington's supporters over into his new administration. As a result, there was little change in the federal government when the first national transition of power occurred. With Jefferson's election in 1800, there was a transfer of power between parties, not simply a transition. As president, Jefferson had the power of appointment to fill many government positions that had long been held by Federalists. It was widely anticipated that this use of patronage was the privilege of a new party when it assumed power. Jefferson resisted the call of his fellow Republicans to remove all Federalists from their appointed positions. Instead he felt that it was his right to replace the top government officials, such as the cabinet and the politically motivated midnight judges appointed by Adams. Feeling that most Adams Federalists, who were more moderate in outlook than the High Federalists who followed Hamilton, could be turned to the Republican Party, Jefferson kept most in their existing positions. Jefferson's refusal to call for a complete replacement of federal appointees under the spoils system was followed by U.S. Presidents until the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828.
        While Jefferson preferred to practice political moderation towards the Federalists, the party itself was torn apart by political in-fighting. Keeping with their high-minded roots, the Federalists refused to accept the political campaigning practiced by the Republicans and were aghast at populist appeals made by that party. Federalist leaders John Adams and John Jay retired from public life and Alexander Hamilton was killed in a duel with Vice-President Aaron Burr leaving the party without strong leadership. As the nation began to expand (Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee entered the Union under the Federalists and Ohio joined in 1803), the ideas of Jeffersonian democracy appealed more to the voters than the Federalist calls for stronger central government and higher taxation. By 1805, the Federalists remained strong only in the New England states and Delaware while moderate Federalists joined the Republican Party. Possibly the most damaging defection was John Quincy Adams, son of Federalist President John Adams.

        [edit] Judiciary

        Jefferson was highly suspicious of the judges appointed by his predecessors; his opinion of good judges was much higher: one of his arguments for a bill of rights would be the power they would give the judiciary.[1] At his urging, Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801, abolishing the numerous district courts created at the end of the Adams presidency. The battle to abolish the Judiciary Act was not an easy one. Federalists argued that once the courts were created and judges were appointed, the Constitution directs that they serve for life unless impeached for "high crimes and misdemeanors". The Republican leadership, prompted by Jefferson, chose not to argue the political manipulation of the courts but instead chose to attack them based on the cost to the nation. Since many of the courts were created to pack the judiciary with lifetime Federalist judges, there were many circumstances in which there was no need for a court at all. The Republicans argued that the unwarranted nature of the courts combined with their excessive cost justified repeal for the Judiciary Act. Despite the fact that this argument required a "loose" interpretation of the Constitution, which Jefferson rallied against when he fought the creation of Hamilton's First Bank of the United States, the Congress was successful in reversing the law.
        This also left numerous Federalist "midnight judges" without positions. Since the creation of these "midnight judge" positions was done to protect the courts from Republican appointees, Jefferson felt justified in not awarding the commissions creating the new federal judges. One commission that he was unable to prevent was the appointment of former Secretary of State John Marshall to the position of Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Although Marshall was a cousin of Jefferson, he was a strong Federalist in the tradition of John Adams. Marshall's influence on the Court would help to firmly entrench the supremacy of the federal government. One of the first cases Marshall was asked to decide was that of William Marbury, one of the "midnight judges" who was requesting that the Court issue a writ of mandamus to Secretary of State James Madison ordering the delivery of the judicial commissions. The resulting case, Marbury v. Madison set the landmark precedent of judicial review for the Supreme Court.
        The Republicans were not content with simply overturning the Judiciary Act of 1801 and removing the "midnight judges." They next planned to impeach existing federal judges to remove them from office. The first case was John Pickering, a Federalist judge who exhibited signs of insanity and public drunkenness. At Jefferson's instigation, the House of Representatives impeached Pickering in 1804 and the Senate removed him from the bench later that year. Jefferson next set his sights on the Supreme Court. Reading that Federalist Justice Samuel Chase told a grand jury that the Republicans threatened, "peace and order, freedom and property.", Jefferson urged Congressional leaders to begin impeachment hearings. Many Republicans felt that this accusation of sedition was too reminiscent of the Federalist Sedition Act that had been repealed early in Jefferson's presidency. Unwilling to remove a Supreme Court justice on purely political accusations, the Senate acquitted Chase of all charges in 1804. The case of Samuel Chase has been the only impeachment trial of a Supreme Court justice in United States history. By rebelling against Jefferson's wishes, the Republican Senators sent a message that the independence of the judiciary was not open to political manipulation.

        [edit] Reelection and a Republican split

        Jefferson easily defeated Federalist Charles Pinckney by an electoral vote of 162-14 and was re-elected in the 1804 election. With little strength outside of New England, the Federalists had ceased to be a major source of opposition for the Jefferson administration. Seizing the opportunity to rail against the moderate Republicanism of Jefferson, Congressmen John Randolph of Roanoke and John Taylor of Caroline broke with the president and called for a return to the "principles of '98," and a small weak national government. Known as the "Old Republicans" (or sometimes called Quids), the men targeted Madison and Gallatin as the primary sources of Republican weakness. When Jefferson became embroiled in the Yazoo Land Fraud controversy, Randolph began to attack the president from the floor of the House. Randolph's actions had little effect other than to alienate the Quids from the rest of the Republican Party. In the end, the Marshall Court was forced to resolve the Yazoo issue in the case of Fletcher v. Peck. While Marshall reluctantly agreed to support Jefferson's interpretation of the controversy, he was also able to increase the power of the Court by giving it the right to review the constitutionality of state laws.

        [edit] Native American relations

        When Jefferson assumed power, the Shawnee leader Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa were leading raids against the United States in the Ohio Valley. Attempting to form a confederation of Indian people in the Northwest Territory, the two brothers would be a continual source of irritation to westward settlers. Jefferson, while not adverse to native people, felt that they should be assimilated into a more "civilized" culture or be removed to the west. Under Jefferson the first Indian relocation began from the southern states. Only the Five Civilized Tribes were allowed to retain their ancestral territory and this was because they adapted to white culture. When the Creek nation refused to relocate out of Alabama, Tennessee militia under the direction of Andrew Jackson launched a bloody campaign culminating at the battle of Horseshoe Bend to move them west.

        [edit] Banning the slave trade

        It was during Jefferson's second term that the constitutional ban on discussion of the slave trade in Congress expired. The ban, which was created by the slave trade compromise at the Philadelphia Convention, prohibited Congress from considering a ban on the slave trade until 1808. In 1807, northern representatives in Congress submitted a bill calling for the end of the slave trade. The bill, submitted with Jefferson's approval, divided the Congress along sectional lines. While Northern congressmen opposed the slave trade, there was no desire to release free black men and women into northern cities if they were captured being smuggled in to the country. Southern congressmen argued that the ban would largely be ignored and that it was up to the states, not Congress, to regulate slavery. The compromise bill ended the trade in 1808 but ordered the federal government to turn any smuggled slaves over to the states to deal with according to local custom. Many of these slaves were then auctioned by the state governments to the highest bidder. In reality, the ban on the slave trade only reduced the trade and did not eliminate it altogether.

        [edit] Jefferson's foreign policies

        [edit] The Louisiana Purchase

        In his first Inaugural Address Jefferson outlined a vision of the United States eventually expanding out into the Louisiana Territory[2] At the time that he assumed the presidency, the territory was the property of Spain which had acquired it from the Treaty of Paris (1783). However, when Napoleon Bonaparte annexed Spain into his French Empire in 1801, the territory secretly reverted back to French ownership. When the port of New Orleans was closed to U.S. commercial trade in 1802, Jefferson realized that he must take action in order to protect the economy of the western states and territories. The president sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to Paris to inquire about purchasing New Orleans from the French. At the same time, Napoleon was fighting a brutal war in Haiti against General Touissant L'Overture that was depleting the French treasury. Desperate for money, Napoleon made Monroe and Livingston an offer through his representative Talleyrand to purchase the territory for $15 million. Jefferson was pleased at the offer but felt that he lacked the constitutional power to purchase the land. Following his doctrine for "strict" interpretation of the Constitution, Jefferson prepared to draft an amendment to the Constitution giving Congress the express power to purchase land. Hearing of the delay in the United States and rapidly running out of money, Napoleon ordered Talleyrand to leak information that hinted he would offer the territory to Great Britain if the U.S. did not act quickly. At the urging of Monroe and Livingston, Jefferson relented and sent the annexation treaty to the Senate for approval without the benefit of an amendment. With only a small group of Federalists resisting, the territory of Louisiana was annexed to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase. Suddenly faced with the prospect of not only doubling the size of the United States, Jefferson also had to decide how to govern the new French, Spanish, Mexican, and Native Americans who lived in the territory. To this end Jefferson proposed the Louisiana Government Bill which created an appointed government for the territory and established a system for collection of taxes. In effect, Jefferson had authorized taxation without representation, the very thing that he had opposed in the American Revolution.
        As soon as the purchase was complete, Jefferson ordered the Lewis and Clark expedition to survey the new territory. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were sent out by Jefferson to collect scientific data on the new territory, write an ethnography of native people, establish a trade network between native nations and the United States, and to discover the extent of the purchased land.
        Popular discontent in the Louisiana Territory later led to the Burr conspiracy in which former Vice President Aaron Burr was approached by Napoleon to make an attempt to break off the Louisiana Territory into an independent state with ties to France. Burr, chafing at his rejection from Washington and later his home state of New York, agreed and began to organize a militia force in the territory. Calling himself the "Emperor of Mexico", Burr was pursued by the army across the territory and back into the United States proper. Once Burr was arrested, Jefferson ordered a trial on the grounds of treason. When the case came before the Supreme Court, Chief Justice John Marshall found that there was not sufficient evidence to show that Burr was at the locations where the conspiracy was discussed. To the dismay of Jefferson, Marshall and the Supreme Court acquitted Burr of all charges.

        [edit] The Barbary War

        Under George Washington, the United States had agreed to pay tribute to the Barbary States of North Africa in order to protect American shipping in the Mediterranean Sea. Jefferson, fearing that the increased cost of tribute may financially devastate the federal treasury, decided to send in both naval and United States Marine Corps forces into Tripoli. The First Barbary War saw a victory for the U.S. Marines who "marched to the shores of Tripoli". Thomas Jefferson had previously disbanded John Adam's Navy, so when time came he used small gunboats. These were called the "jeffs" or mosquito fleet, and were not very effective. They were easily taken down by the stronger ships of the pirates. There is even a report of a jeff being blown inland, creating the saying that they were more effective on land than water. United States was considered a victor when peace was signed in 1805, by buying out the pirates for $60,000. This contrasts sharply with the previous idea of not paying one cent to the pirates. Although this went against the original plan, Jefferson gained some respect from the countries that conducted trade in the area because it ended over a century of brutal tribute.

        [edit] Relations with Europe

        In Jefferson's second term, the Napoleonic Wars broke out in Europe as Great Britain and France battled for international supremacy. Initially following Washington's Neutrality Act, Jefferson did not commit the United States to either side and continued to trade with both nations. Needing sailors, the British Royal Navy seized hundreds of American ships and impressed 6,000 sailors from them, angering Americans. The British Parliament also passed the Orders in Council which barred any trade with the European continent. Napoleon responded with the Berlin Decree in 1806 and the Milan Decree in 1807, both of which effectively cut Europe from British trade and threaten seizure of neutral ships. Jefferson became increasingly agitated with both nations as American neutrality was ignored. Tensions flared when the Chesapeake-Leopard Incident took place off the coast of Virginia. A British warship, The Leopard ordered the American ship The Chesapeake to submit to a search. The American captain refused and shots were exchanged leaving three men dead and eighteen wounded. Public outrage demanded that Jefferson take action.
        In response, Jefferson and Congress passed the Embargo Act in 1807. The act was designed to force Britain and France into respecting US neutrality by cutting off all American shipping to either nation. Almost immediately the Americans began to turn to smuggling in order to ship goods to Europe. Jefferson was forced to call out the military and expand the power of the federal government by patrolling the American coast, cutting off trade routes to Canada, seizing the ships of suspected smugglers, and ordering that no ship could be loaded without the approval of a customs officer and the military. The effects of the Embargo Act backfired on the Republicans. New England, which depended on trade for economic survival, turned again to the Federalist Party. Jefferson lost many supporters who resented the intrusion into their personal lives by the national government. Even Britain and France scoffed at the Act as neither economy was severely damaged due to smuggling. By the time Jefferson surrendered the presidency to James Madison in 1808, his reputation was severely damaged by his support of the Embargo Act.

        [edit] Speeches

        [edit] Inaugural addresses

        Chief Justice John Marshall administered the first executive oath of office ever taken in the new federal city of Washington, DC, in the new Senate Chamber (now the Old Supreme Court Chamber) of the partially built Capitol building, on March 4, 1801. The outcome of the election of 1800 had been in doubt until late February because Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr, the two leading candidates, each had received 73 electoral votes. Consequently, the House of Representatives met in a special session to resolve the impasse, pursuant to the terms spelled out in the Constitution. After 30 hours of debate and balloting, Mr. Jefferson emerged as the President and Mr. Burr the Vice President. President John Adams, who had run unsuccessfully for a second term, left Washington on the day of the inauguration without attending the ceremony.

        [edit] State of the Union Address

        Jefferson ended the tradition of delivering a State of the Union speech and instead just had it published. Woodrow Wilson later ended this policy.

        [edit] Administration and Cabinet


        OFFICENAMETERM

        PresidentThomas Jefferson1801–1809
        Vice PresidentAaron Burr1801–1805
         George Clinton1805–1809

        Secretary of StateJames Madison1801–1809
        Secretary of the TreasurySamuel Dexter1801
         Albert Gallatin1801–1809
        Secretary of WarHenry Dearborn1801–1809
        Attorney GeneralLevi Lincoln1801–1804
         John Breckinridge1805–1806
         Caesar A. Rodney1807–1809
        Postmaster GeneralJoseph Habersham1801
         Gideon Granger1801–1809
        Secretary of the NavyBenjamin Stoddert1801
         Robert Smith1801–1809


        [edit] Supreme Court appointments

        Jefferson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

        [edit] States admitted to the Union

        • Ohio – March 1, 1803

        [edit] Further reading

        • Adams, Henry. History of the United States of America during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson. Library of America edition, (1986). Classic in-depth history.
        • Channing, Edward. The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811 (1906) full text online, older scholarly survey
        • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Jeffersonian Republicans in Power: Party Operations 1801–1809 (1963), highly detailed party history
        • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Process of Government Under Jefferson (1978)
        • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (1987) intellectual history approach to TJ's presidency
        • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President: First Term 1801 - 1805; v. 5: Jefferson the President: Second term, 1805-1809; v.6: The Sage of Monticello (1948-70), the standard scholarly biography; short bio by Malone; a standard scholarly biography
        • Peterson, Merrill D. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (1986), long, detailed biography by leading scholar; online edition; also excerpt and text search; a standard scholarly biography
        • Peterson, Merrill D. ed. Thomas Jefferson: A Reference Biography. (1986), long essays by scholars
        • Rodriguez, Junius, ed. The Louisiana Purchase: An Encyclopedia (2002)
        • Smelser, Marshall. The Democratic Republic: 1801-1815 (1968) standard scholarly history of presidencies of Jefferson and Madison
        • Tucker, Robert W. and David C. Hendrickson. Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (1992) best guide to foreign policy excerpt and text search, diplomatic history
        • Wilentz, Sean. The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. (2005), broad-scale interpretation of political history


        [edit] Notes

        1. ^ Letter to Madison, March 15 1789: "In the arguments in favor of a declaration of rights, you omit one which has great weight with me, the legal check which it puts into the hands of the judiciary. This is a body, which if rendered independent & kept strictly to their own department merits great confidence for their learning & integrity. In fact what degree of confidence would be too much for a body composed of such men as Wythe, Blair & Pendleton?."
        2. ^ The Revolution of 1803. Annual Editions: United Sates History vol. 1

        [edit] External links



      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.