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Taxation Is theft, because it's based on force.

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  • wv
    WV WWP Email member and special friend of the cyber personality known as Automatic Lie (microdhses@gmail.com) It s understandable that you wouldn t know this,
    Message 1 of 8 , Apr 19 10:19 AM
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      WV WWP Email member and special friend of the cyber personality known as Automatic Lie (microdhses@...) It's understandable that you wouldn't know this, but there have been, and still are all sorts of things like roads, schools, bridges, etc that are proved by private people, and not governments. Did you know that companies will even make and provide things like cell phone techology, and cars, and airports too? And this may seem totally incredible to you, but there are even countries where private companies deliever mail!!!! Amazing.

      I said above that it's understandable, because you seem to be
      incredibly stupid; here's another reason why. You make the false
      assumption that if a person points out how taxation is theft, he must
      be a tea-partyer, or a REP. It's really stupid because we have seen where REPs have been in power, and there is STILL forced taxation! Didn't notice that rebuttal to your argument either, right?

      Do you also try to justify the use of force in other ways? Please
      give us some examples. I remember when it was thought just fine that husband could rape their wives, but now that's slowly changing. Do YOU, bugs still think it's fine to use force there?

      Bugs WWP Member (46catfish@...) Please explain to me without taxes ,how do you build roads,bridges,safe water, safe food, police, fire depts.,schools,safe homes under building permits that makes a home safe, and so on. You people who are tea baggers are a group of frigging nuts. If you think we can go back in time to the 1800’s and live in today world. And the USA needs to defeat all republicans as soon as possible and in our next elections. Social Security is not an entitlement,it was paid by employees and employers,no tax dollars people is in the this money,only the Government controlled it and
    • Algae5636@...
      Al J WWP Email Member and Baha i(Algae5636@aol.com ) Repeating: Enforcing the terms of an agreement or contract voluntarily negotiated and signed by one s
      Message 2 of 8 , Apr 19 11:17 AM
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        Al J WWP Email Member and Baha'i(Algae5636@... ) Repeating:
        Enforcing the terms of an agreement or contract voluntarily negotiated and signed by one's authorized representatives is not theft.
        :-)


        WV WWP Email member and special friend of the cyber personality known as Automatic Lie (microdhses@...) It's understandable that you wouldn't know this, but there have been, and still are all sorts of things like roads, schools, bridges, etc that are proved by private people, and not governments. Did you know that companies will even make and provide things like cell phone techology, and cars, and airports too? And this may seem totally incredible to you, but there are even countries where private companies deliever mail!!!! Amazing.

        I said above that it's understandable, because you seem to be incredibly stupid; here's another reason why. You make the false assumption that if a person points out how taxation is theft, he must be a tea-partyer, or a REP. It's really stupid because we have seen where REPs have been in power, and there is STILL forced taxation! Didn't notice that rebuttal to your argument either, right?

        Do you also try to justify the use of force in other ways? Please
        give us some examples.I remember when it was thought just fine that husband could rape their wives, but now that's slowly changing. Do YOU, bugs still think it's fine to use force there?

        Bugs WWP Member (46catfish@...) Please explain to me without taxes ,how do you build roads,bridges,safe water, safe food, police, fire depts.,schools,safe homes under building permits that makes a home safe, and so on. You people who are tea baggers are a group of frigging nuts. If you think we can go back in time to the 1800’s and live in today world. And the USA needs to defeat all republicans as soon as possible and in our next elections. Social Security is not an entitlement,it was paid by employees and employers,no tax dollars people is in the this money,only the Government controlled it and
      • Guy
        Guy R. Itter Sr. WWP Invitee (sirguy2003@ameritech.net) It s not a theft, and it is not shearing, it is outright extortion. Guy Al J WWP Email Member and
        Message 3 of 8 , Apr 19 11:32 AM
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          Guy R. Itter Sr. WWP Invitee (sirguy2003@...) It's not a theft, and it is not shearing, it is outright extortion.

          Guy

          Al J WWP Email Member and Baha'i(Algae5636@... ) Repeating:
          Enforcing the terms of an agreement or contract voluntarily negotiated and signed by one's authorized representatives is not theft.
          :-)

          WV WWP Email member and special friend of the cyber personality known as Automatic Lie (microdhses@...) It's understandable that you wouldn't know this, but there have been, and still are all sorts of things like roads, schools, bridges, etc that are proved by private people, and not governments. Did you know that companies will even make and provide things like cell phone techology, and cars, and airports too? And this may seem totally incredible to you, but there are even countries where private companies deliever mail!!!! Amazing.

          I said above that it's understandable, because you seem to be
          incredibly stupid; here's another reason why. You make the false
          assumption that if a person points out how taxation is theft, he must
          be a tea-partyer, or a REP. It's really stupid because we have seen where REPs have been in power, and there is STILL forced taxation! Didn't notice that rebuttal to your argument either, right?

          Do you also try to justify the use of force in other ways? Please
          give us some examples. I remember when it was thought just fine that husband could rape their wives, but now that's slowly changing. Do YOU, bugs still think it's fine to use force there?
        • ELLIAJT@...
          Ellia J. Trujillo WWP Poster (ELLIAJT@aol.com) so????? Guy R. Itter Sr. WWP Invitee (sirguy2003@ameritech.net) It s not a theft, and it is not shearing, it is
          Message 4 of 8 , Apr 19 11:39 AM
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            Ellia J. Trujillo WWP Poster (ELLIAJT@...) so?????

            Guy R. Itter Sr. WWP Invitee (sirguy2003@...) It's not a theft, and it is not shearing, it is outright extortion.
          • Don Divine
            Don Divine WWP Email Member (d3869@sbcglobal.net) Are you saying that you approve of extortion as Christian, Ellia? Ludwig Von Mises quotes Government cannot
            Message 5 of 8 , Apr 19 11:51 AM
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              Don Divine WWP Email Member (d3869@...) Are you saying that you approve of extortion as Christian, Ellia?


              Ludwig Von Mises quotes Government cannot make man richer, but it can make him poorer.

              “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains or slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take but as for me; give me liberty or give me death!”--Patrick Henry
              The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
              Thomas Jefferson

              Ellia J. Trujillo WWP Poster (ELLIAJT@...) so?????


              Guy R. Itter Sr. WWP Invitee (sirguy2003@...) It's not a theft, and it is not shearing, it is outright extortion.
            • ELLIAJT@...
              Ellia J. Trujillo WWP Poster (ELLIAJT@aol.com) Who said I was a Christian, not me I didn t say that, however I do happen to be one, and I have lived in
              Message 6 of 8 , Apr 19 11:59 AM
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                Ellia J. Trujillo WWP Poster (ELLIAJT@...) Who said I was a Christian, not me I didn't say that, however I do happen
                to
                be one, and I have lived in another country, and there is no place like
                home in the good old USA. We make our laws, if you do not like your
                representation, vote
                for someone else or better still you run for office, see what you can do
                about your problem, or are you a coward complaining on a key board where
                your face
                cannot be seen? That is the COWARDS way out!!!

                Don Divine WWP Email Member (d3869@...) Are you saying that you approve of extortion as Christian, Ellia?


                Ludwig Von Mises quotes
                Government cannot make man richer, but it can make him poorer.


                “Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of
                chains or slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others
                may take but as for me; give me liberty or give me death!”
                --Patrick Henry
                The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of
                patriots and tyrants.
                Thomas Jefferson
              • kurt31416
                Kurt Pi WWP Member [kurt31416@yahoo.com] What the childlike Libertarians refuse to address, is that the local gangs will become the government, with new taxes,
                Message 7 of 8 , Apr 22 2:52 PM
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                  Kurt Pi WWP Member [kurt31416@...] What the childlike Libertarians refuse to address, is that the local gangs will become the government, with new taxes, the instant the existing government disappears.
                • Dennis
                  Dennis Helbig WWP Member Baha i investigator and carpenter (helbigdennis@gmail.com) Poor old Lee. Can t sell that Marano bull. MARANO (plural, Maranos,
                  Message 8 of 8 , Apr 25 8:28 AM
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                    Dennis Helbig WWP Member Baha'i investigator and carpenter (helbigdennis@...) Poor old Lee. Can't sell that Marano bull.
                    MARANO (plural, Maranos, generally written Marranos):
                    Table of Contents
                    * Classes of Maranos.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor1>
                    * Temporary Maranos.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor2>
                    * In Spain.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor3>
                    * Riots at Cordova.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor4>
                    * Introduction of Inquisition.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor5>
                    * In Portugal.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor6>
                    * Massacre at Lisbon.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor7>
                    * Dispersion.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor8>
                    * In France.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor9>
                    * In Flanders.
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10388-marano#anchor10>

                    Crypto-Jews of the Iberian Peninsula. The term, which is frequently
                    derived from the New Testament phrase "maran atha" ("our Lord hath
                    come"), denotes in Spanish "damned," "accursed," "banned"; also "hog,"
                    and in Portuguese it is used as an opprobrious epithet of the Jews
                    because they do not eat pork. The name was applied to the Spanish Jews
                    who, through compulsion or for form's sake, became converted to
                    Christianity in consequence of the cruel persecutions of 1391 and of
                    Vicente Ferrer's missionary sermons. These "conversos" (converts), as
                    they were called in Spain, or "Christãos Novos" (Neo-Christians) in
                    Portugal, or "Chuetas" in the Balearic Isles, or "Anusim" (constrained)
                    in Hebrew, numbered more than 100,000. With them the history of the
                    Pyrenean Peninsula, and indirectly that of the Jews also, enters upon a
                    new phase; for they were the immediate cause both of the introduction of
                    the Inquisition into Spain and of the expulsion of the Jews from that
                    country. The wealthy Maranos, who engaged extensively in commerce,
                    industries, and agriculture, intermarried with families of the old
                    nobility; impoverished counts and marquises unhesitatingly wedded
                    wealthy Jewesses; and it also happened that counts or nobles of the
                    blood royal became infatuated with handsome Jewish girls. Beginning with
                    the second generation, the Neo-Christians usually intermarried with
                    women of their own sect. They became very influential through their
                    wealth and intelligence, and were called to important positions at the
                    palace, in government circles, and in the Cortes; they practised
                    medicine and law and taught at the universities; while their children
                    frequently achieved high ecclesiastical honors.
                    Classes of Maranos.
                    The Maranos and their descendants may be divided into three categories.
                    The first of these is composed of those who, devoid of any real
                    affection for Judaism, and indifferent to every form of religion,
                    gladly embraced the opportunity of exchanging their oppressed condition
                    as Jews for the brilliant careers opened to them by the acceptance of
                    Christianity. They simulated the Christian faith when it was to their
                    advantage, and mocked at Jews and Judaism. A number of Spanish poets
                    belong to this category, such as Pero Ferrus, Juan de Valladolid,
                    Rodrigo Cota, and Juan de España of Toledo, called also "El Viejo"
                    (the old one), who was considered a sound Talmudist, and who, like the
                    monk Diego de Valencia, himself a baptized Jew, introduced in his
                    pasquinades Hebrew and Talmudic words to mock the Jews. There were also
                    many who, for the sake of displaying their new zeal, persecuted their
                    former coreligionists, writing books against them, and denouncing to
                    the authorities those who wished to return to the faith of their
                    fathers, as happened frequently at Valencia, Barcelona, and many other
                    cities (Isaac b. Sheshet, Responsa, No. 11).

                    The second category consists of those who cherished their love for the
                    Jewish faith in which they had been reared. They preserved the
                    traditions of their fathers; and, in spite of the high positions which
                    they held, they secretly attended synagogue, and fought and suffered
                    for their paternal religion. Many of the wealthiest Maranos of Aragon
                    belonged to this category, including the Zaportas of Monzon, who were
                    related by marriage to the royal house of Aragon; the Sanchezes; the
                    sons of Alazar Yusuf of Saragossa, who intermarried with the
                    Cavallerias and the Santangels; the very wealthy Espes; the Paternoys,
                    who came from the vicinity of Verdun to settle in Aragon; the
                    Clementes; the sons of Moses Chamoro; the Villanovas of Calatayud; the
                    Coscons; and others.
                    Temporary Maranos.
                    The third category, which includes by far the largest number of
                    Maranos, comprises those who yielded through stress of circumstances,
                    but in theirhome life remained Jews and seized the first opportunity of
                    openly avowing their faith. They did not voluntarily take their children
                    to the baptismal font; and if obliged to do so, they on reaching home
                    washed the place which had been sprinkled. They ate no pork, celebrated
                    the Passover, and gave oil to the synagogue. "In the city of Seville an
                    inquisitor said to the regent: 'My lord, if you wish to know how the
                    Maranos keep the Sabbath, let us ascend the tower.' When they had
                    reached the top, the former said to the latter: 'Lift up your eyes and
                    look. That house is the home of a Marano; there is one which belongs to
                    another; and there are many more. You will not see smoke rising from any
                    of them, in spite of the severe cold; for they have no fire because it
                    is the Sabbath.' Pretending that leavened bread did not agree with him,
                    one Marano ate unleavened bread throughout the year, in order that he
                    might be able to partake of it at Passover without being suspected. At
                    the festival on which the Jews blew the shofar, the Maranos went into
                    the country and remained in the mountains and in the valleys, so that
                    the sound might not reach the city. They employed a man specially to
                    slaughter animals, drain away the blood, and deliver the meat at their
                    homes, and another to circumcise secretly" ("Shebeá¹­ Yehudah," pp.
                    96 et seq.). The Jews of that time judged the Maranos gently and
                    indulgently; in Italy a special prayer was offered for them every
                    Sabbath, asking that "God might lead them from oppression to liberty,
                    from darkness to the light of religion" ( ; MS. Roman Maḥzor of
                    the year 1441). To the Maranos who lived in secret conformity with the
                    Jewish law, the Rabbis applied the Talmudic passage: "Although he has
                    sinned, he must still be considered a Jew"; and Anusim, who took the
                    first opportunity of going to a foreign country and openly professing
                    Judaism, might act as witnesses in religious matters according to
                    rabbinic law. A distinction was frequently made between Spanish and
                    Portuguese Maranos in regard to marriage and divorce (Isaac b. Sheshet,
                    l.c. Nos. 4, 11; Saadia ibn Danan, in Edelmann, "Ḥemdah Genuzah,"
                    pp. 14 et seq.; Joseph b. Leb, Responsa, i. 15; the responsa of Moses
                    ben Ḥabib, Samuel de Medina, and many others).
                    In Spain.
                    The large numbers of the Maranos, as well as their wealth and
                    influence, aroused the envy and hatred of the populace, whom the clergy
                    incited against them as unbelieving Christians and hypocrites. The
                    Neo-Christians were hated much more than the Jews, and were persecuted
                    as bitterly as their former coreligionists had been. The first riot
                    against them broke out at Toledo in 1449, and was accompanied with
                    murder and pillage. Instigated by two canons, Juan Alfonso and Pedro
                    Lopez Galvez, the mob plundered and burned the houses of Alonso Cota, a
                    wealthy Marano and tax-farmer, and under the leadership of a workman
                    they likewise attacked the residences of the wealthy Neo-Christians in
                    the quarter Ḍe la Magdelena. The Maranos, under Juan de la Cibdad,
                    opposed the mob, but were repulsed and, with their leader, were hanged
                    by the feet. As an immediate consequence of this riot, the Maranos Lope
                    and Juan Fernandez Cota, the brothers Juan, Pedro, and Diego Nuñez,
                    Juan Lopez de Arroyo, Diego and Pedro Gonzalez, Juan Gonzalez de
                    Illescas, and many others were deposed from office, in obedience to a
                    new statute. Another attack was made upon the Neo-Christians of Toledo
                    in July, 1467. The chief magistrate ("alcalde mayor") of the city was
                    Alvar Gomez de Cibdad Real, who had been private secretary to King
                    Henry IV., and who, if not himself a "converso," as is probable, was at
                    least the protector of the Neo-Christians. He, together with the
                    prominent Maranos Fernando and Alvaro de la Torre, wished to take
                    revenge for an insult inflicted by the counts de Fuensalida, the
                    leaders of the Christians, and to gain control of the city. A fierce
                    conflict was the result. The houses of the Neo-Christians near the
                    cathedral were fired by their opponents, and the conflagration spread
                    so rapidly that 1,600 houses were consumed, including the beautiful
                    palace of Diego Gomez. Many Christians and still more Maranos perished
                    in the flames or were slain; and the brothers De la Torre were captured
                    and hanged.
                    Riots at Cordova.
                    The example set by Toledo was imitated six years later by Cordova, in
                    which city the Christians and the Maranos formed two hostile parties.
                    On March 14, 1473, during a procession in honor of the dedication of a
                    society which had been formed under the auspices of the fanatical Bishop
                    D. Pedro, and from which all "conversos" were excluded, a little girl
                    seems to have accidentally thrown some dirty water from the window of
                    the house of one of the wealthiest Maranos, so that it splashed over an
                    image of the Virgin. Thousands immediately joined in the fierce shout
                    for revenge which was raised by a smith named Alonso Rodriguez; and the
                    rapacious mob straightway fell upon the Maranos, denouncing them as
                    heretics, killing them, and plundering and burning their houses. To stop
                    the excesses, the highly respected D. Alonso Fernandez de Aguilar,
                    whose wife was a member of the widely ramified Marano family of Pacheco,
                    together with his brother D. Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordova ("el gran
                    Capitan"), the glory of the Spanish army, and a troop of soldiers,
                    hastened to protect the Neo-Christians. D. Alonso called upon the mob to
                    retire, but instead of obeying, the smith insulted the count, who
                    immediately felled him with his lance. The people, blinded by
                    fanaticism, regarded their slain leader as a martyr. Incited by Alonso
                    de Aguilar's enemy, the knight Diego de Aguayo, they seized weapons and
                    again attacked the Maranos. Girls were outraged; and men, women, and
                    children were pitilessly slain. The massacre and pillage lasted three
                    days; those who escaped seeking refuge in the castle, whither their
                    protectors also had to retire. It was then decreed that, in order to
                    prevent the repetition of such excesses, no Marano should thenceforth
                    live in Cordova or its vicinity, nor should one ever again hold public
                    office.

                    Like the persecution of the Jews in 1391, the attackon the Maranos in
                    1473 spread to other cities. At Montoro, Bujalance, Adamur, La Rambla,
                    Santaella, and elsewhere, they were killed, and their houses were
                    plundered. At Jaen the populace was so bitter against them that the
                    constable Miguel Lucas de Iranzo, who undertook to protect them, was
                    himself killed in church by the ringleaders (March 21, 22). The Maranos
                    were fiercely attacked by the populace in Andujar, Ubeda, Baeza, and
                    Almodovar del Campo also. In Valladolid the populace was content with
                    plundering the Neo-Christians, but the massacre was very fierce at
                    Segovia (May 16, 1474). Here the attack, instigated by D. Juan Pacheco,
                    himself a member of a Marano family, was terrible; corpses lay in heaps
                    in all the streets and squares, and not a Neo-Christian would have
                    escaped alive had not the alcalde Andreas de Cabrera interfered. At
                    Carmona every Marano was killed.
                    Introduction of Inquisition.
                    The introduction of the Inquisition was bitterly opposed by the Maranos
                    of Seville and other cities of Castile, and especially of Aragon, where
                    they rendered considerable service to the king, and held high legal,
                    financial, and military positions. As D. Miguel Lucas de Iranzo,
                    constable of Castile, had been slain in the cathedral of Jaen, so the
                    inquisitor Pedro Arbues
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1725-arbues-pedro> was
                    assassinated twelve years later in the cathedral of Saragossa, the
                    former by Christians, the latter by Maranos. The murderers of De Iranzo
                    went scot-free, while those of the inquisitor were punished most
                    cruelly. Together with the introduction of the Inquisition an edict was
                    issued that henceforth the Jews must live within their ghetto and be
                    separated from the Maranos. Despite the law, however, the Jews remained
                    in communication with their Neo-Christian brethren. "They sought ways
                    and means to win them from Catholicism and bring them back to Judaism.
                    They instructed the Maranos in the tenets and ceremonies of the Jewish
                    religion; held meetings in which they taught them what they must believe
                    and observe according to the Mosaic law; and enabled them to circumcise
                    themselves and their children. They furnished them with prayer-books;
                    explained the fast-days; read with them the history of their people and
                    their Law; announced to them the coming of the Passover; procured
                    unleavened bread for them for that festival, as well as kasher meat
                    throughout the year; encouraged them to live in conformity with the law
                    of Moses, and persuaded them that there was no law and no truth except
                    the Jewish religion." All these charges were brought against the Jews in
                    the edict issued by Ferdinand and Isabella, and formed the grounds for
                    their banishment from the country. The decree of expulsion materially
                    increased the number, already large, of those who purchased a further
                    sojourn in their beloved home by accepting baptism.
                    In Portugal.
                    The Portuguese Maranos or Christãos Novos clung much more faithfully
                    and steadfastly than their Spanish brethren to the religion of their
                    fathers, bearing the most terrible tortures for the sake of their faith.
                    The scholar Simon Mimi of Lisbon, who would not renounce Judaism even
                    in prison, his wife, his sons-in-law, and other Maranos were enclosed in
                    a wall built up to their necks, the prisoners being left for three days
                    in this agonizing situation. As they would not yield the walls were
                    torn down, after six of the victims had died, and Mimi was dragged
                    through the city and slain. Two Maranos who served as wardens in the
                    prison buried the body of the martyr in the Jewish cemetery at the risk
                    of their lives (Abraham Saba', "áº'eror ha-Mor," p. 105b; Grätz,
                    "Gesch." viii. 398).
                    Massacre at Lisbon.
                    The Portuguese, being even more fanatical than the Spaniards, hated the
                    Maranos much more than the Jews, considering them neither Christians
                    nor Jews, but atheists and heretics. Many a Portuguese preferred death
                    to being treated by a Marano physician. The hatred which was felt for
                    the Maranos, and which had long smoldered, broke out at Lisbon. On April
                    17, 1506, several Maranos were discovered who had in their possession
                    "some lambs and poultry prepared according to Jewish custom; also
                    unleavened bread and bitter herbs according to the regulations for the
                    Passover, which festival they celebrated far into the night." Several of
                    them were seized, but were released after a few days. The populace,
                    which had expected to see them punished, swore vengeance. On the same
                    day on which the Maranos were liberated, the Dominicans displayed in a
                    side-chapel of their church, where several Neo-Christians were present,
                    a crucifix and a reliquary in glass from which a peculiar light issued.
                    A Neo-Christian, who was so incautious as to explain this ostensible
                    miracle as being due to natural causes, was dragged from the church and
                    was killed by an infuriated woman. A Dominican roused the populace still
                    more; and two others, crucifix in hand, went through the streets of the
                    city, crying "Heresy!" and calling upon the people to destroy the
                    Maranos. All Neo-Christians found in the streets were killed; and a
                    terrible massacre ensued. More than 500 Maranos were slain and burned on
                    the first day; and the scenes of murder were even more atrocious on the
                    day following. The innocent victims of popular fury, young and old,
                    living and dead, were dragged from their houses and thrown upon the
                    pyre. Even Christians who in any way resembled Maranos were killed.
                    Among the last victims, and the most hated of all, was the tax-farmer
                    João Rodrigo Mascarenhas, one of the wealthiest and most
                    distinguished Maranos of Lisbon; his house was entirely demolished. In
                    this manner at least 2,000 Maranos perished within forty-eight hours.
                    King Manuel severely punished the inhabitants of the city. The
                    ringleaders were either hanged or quartered, and the Dominicans who had
                    occasioned the riot were garroted and burned. All persons convicted of
                    murder or pillage suffered corporal punishment, and their property was
                    confiscated, while religious freedom was granted to all Maranos for
                    twenty years.

                    The Neo-Christians of Portugal, who were distinguished for their
                    knowledge, their commerce, and their banking enterprises, but were
                    bitterly hated, despised, and reviled by the Christians, were led to
                    entertain better hopes for the future by the appearance of a foreign
                    Jew, David Re'ubeni. Not only was this Jew invited by King John to
                    visit Portugal;but, as appears from a letter (Oct. 10, 1528) of D.
                    Martin de Salinas to the infante D. Fernando, brother of the emperor
                    Charles, he also received permission "to preach the law of Moses"
                    ("Boletin Acad. Hist." xlix. 204). The Maranos regarded Re'ubeni as
                    their savior and Messiah. The Neo-Christians of Spain also heard the
                    glad news; and some of them left home to seek him. The rejoicing lasted
                    for some time; the emperor Charles even addressed several letters on
                    the matter to his royal brother-in-law. In 1528, while Re'ubeni was
                    still in Portugal, some Spanish Maranos fled to Campo Mayor and
                    forcibly freed from the Inquisition a woman imprisoned at Badajoz. The
                    rumor spread at once that the Maranos of the entire kingdom had united
                    to make common cause. This increased the hatred of the populace, and
                    the Neo-Christians were attacked in Gouvea, Alemtejo, Olivença,
                    Santarem, and other places, while in the Azores and the island of
                    Madeira they were even massacred. These excesses led the king to
                    believe that the Inquisition might be the most effective means of
                    allaying the popular fury.

                    The Portuguese Maranos, waged a long and bitter war against the
                    introduction of the tribunal, and spent with some satisfactory results
                    immense sums to win over to their cause the Curia and the most
                    influential cardinals. The sacrifices made by both the Spanish and the
                    Portuguese Neo-Christians were indeed astonishing. The same Maranos who
                    from Toledo had instigated the riot of the communes in 1515, Alfonso
                    Gutierrez, Garcia Alvarez "el Rico" (the wealthy), and the Zapatas,
                    offered through their representative 80,000 gold crowns to Emperor
                    Charles V. if he would mitigate the harshness of the Inquisition ("R.
                    E. J." xxxvii. 270 et seq.). All these sacrifices, however, especially
                    those made by the Mendes of Lisbon and Flanders, were powerless to
                    prevent or retard the introduction of the Holy Office into Portugal.
                    The Maranos were delivered over to the popular fury and to the
                    heartless servants of the Inquisition. They suffered unspeakably. At
                    Trancoso and Lamego, where many wealthy Maranos were living, at
                    Miranda, Viseu, Guarda, Braga, and elsewhere they were robbed and
                    killed. At Covilhão the people planned to massacre all the
                    Neo-Christians on one day; and to achieve this the more easily, the
                    prelates petitioned the Cortes in 1562 that the Maranos be required to
                    wear special badges, and that the Jews in the cities and villages be
                    ordered to live in ghettos as before.
                    Dispersion.
                    The Maranos, who were constantly threatened and persecuted by the
                    Inquisition, tried in every way to leave the country, either in bands or
                    as individual refugees. Many of them escaped to Italy, attracted
                    thither by the climate, which resembled that of the Iberian Peninsula,
                    and by its kindred language. They settled at Ferrara
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/6090-ferrara> , and Duke
                    Ercole I. d'Este granted them privileges, which were confirmed by his
                    son, Alfonso I., to twenty-one Spanish Maranos, physicians, merchants,
                    and others (ib. xv. 113 et seq.).

                    Spanish and Portuguese Maranos settled also at Florence; and
                    Neo-Christians contributed to make Leghorn a leading seaport. They
                    received privileges at Venice, where they were protected from the
                    persecutions of the Inquisition. At Milan they materially advanced the
                    interests of the city by their industry and commerce, although João
                    de la Foya captured and robbed large numbers of them in that region. At
                    Bologna, Pisa, Naples, Reggio, and many other Italian cities they
                    freely exercised their religion, and were soon so numerous that
                    Fernando de Goes Loureiro, an abbot from Oporto, filled an entire book
                    with the names of the Maranos who had drawn large sums from Portugal
                    and had openly avowed Judaism in Italy. In Piedmont Duke Emanuel
                    Philibert of Savoy welcomed the Maranos from Coimbra, Pablo Hernando,
                    Ruy Lopez, and Rodriguez, together with their families, and granted
                    them commercial and industrial privileges, as well as the free exercise
                    of their religion. Rome was full of Maranos. Pope Paul III. received
                    them at Ancona for commercial reasons, and granted complete liberty "to
                    all persons from Portugal and Algarve, even if belonging to the class
                    of Neo-Christians." Three thousand Portuguese Jews and Maranos were
                    living at Ancona in 1553. Two years later the fanatical Pope Paul IV.
                    issued orders to have all the Maranos thrown into the prisons of the
                    Inquisition which he had instituted. Sixty of them, who acknowledged
                    the Catholic faith as penitents, were transported to the island of
                    Malta; twenty-four, who adhered to Judaism, were publicly burned (May,
                    1556); and those who escaped from the Inquisition were received at
                    Pesaro by Duke Guido Ubaldo of Urbino. As Guido was disappointed,
                    however, in his hope of seeing all the Jews and Maranos of Turkey
                    select Pesaro as a commercial center, he expelled (July 9, 1558) the
                    Neo-Christians from Pesaro and other districts (ib. xvi. 61 et seq.).
                    Many Maranos were attracted to Ragusa, formerly a considerable seaport.
                    In May, 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese
                    refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John.
                    In France.
                    At this same period the Maranos were seeking refuge beyond the
                    Pyrenees, settling at St. Jean de Luz, Tarbes, Bayonne, Bordeaux,
                    Marseilles, and Montpellier. They lived apparently as Christians; were
                    married by Catholic priests; had their children baptized, and publicly
                    pretended to be Catholics. In secret, however, they circumcised their
                    children, kept the Sabbath and feast-days as far as they could, and
                    prayed together. King Henry III. confirmed the privileges granted them
                    by Henry II., and protected them against such slanders and accusations
                    as those which a certain Ponteil brought against them. Spanish and
                    Portuguese Maranos petitioned Henry IV. to permit them to emigrate to
                    France, saying that should he do so, a large number of their fellow
                    sufferers, "good men all of them," would choose France as their home;
                    but many Neo-Christians who entered French territory were obliged to
                    leave within a short time. Under Louis XIII. the Maranos of Bayonne were
                    assigned to the suburb of St. Esprit. At St. Esprit, as well as at
                    Peyrehorade, Bidache, Orthez, Biarritz, and St. Jean de Luz, they
                    gradually avowed Judaism openly. In 1640 several hundred Maranos,
                    considered to be Jews, were living at St. Jean de Luz; and at St. Esprit
                    there was a synagogue as early as 1660.
                    In Flanders.
                    Next to Turkey the Maranos turned chiefly to Flanders, attracted by its
                    flourishing cities, such as Antwerp, where they settled at an early
                    date, and Brussels. Before the end of the sixteenth century Portuguese
                    Maranos, under the leadership of Jacob Tirado, arrived at Amsterdam. So
                    many others followed these that the city was called a new Jerusalem,
                    while hundreds of Neo-Christian families settled at Rotterdam also.
                    Maranos from Flanders, and others direct from the Pyrenean Peninsula,
                    went under the guise of Catholics to Hamburg and Altona about 1580,
                    where they established commercial relations with their former homes.
                    Christian IV. of Denmark invited some Neo-Christian families to settle
                    at Glückstadt about 1626, granting certain privileges to them and
                    also to the Maranos who came to Emden about 1649.

                    Large numbers of Maranos, however, remained in Spain and Portugal,
                    despite the extensive emigration and the fate of countless victims of
                    the Inquisition. The Neo-Christians of Portugal breathed more freely
                    when Philip III. came to the throne and by the law of April 4, 1601,
                    granted them the privilege of unrestricted sale of their real estate as
                    well as free departure from the country for themselves, their families,
                    and their property. Many, availing themselves of this permission,
                    followed their coreligionists to Africa and Turkey. After a few years,
                    however, the privilege was revoked, and the Inquisition resumed its
                    activity. But the Portuguese who were not blinded by fanaticism
                    perceived that no forcible measures could induce the Maranos to give up
                    the religion of their fathers.

                    Individual Neo-Christians, as Antonio Fernandez Carvajal and several
                    from Spain, Hamburg, and Amsterdam, went to London, whence their
                    families spread to Brazil, where Maranos had settled at an early date,
                    and to other countries of America. The migrations to Constantinople and
                    Salonica, where refugees had settled after the expulsion from Spain, as
                    well as to Servia, to Rumania and Bulgaria, and even to Vienna and
                    Temesvar, continued down to the middle of the eighteenth century.

                    Whether there are still Maranos in Spain or not, this much is certain,
                    that there are many persons in Barcelona, Saragossa, Madrid, Cordova,
                    Toledo, and Burgos who, conscious of their Jewish descent, are well
                    disposed toward the Jews. In Portugal there is a community of Maranos
                    at Covilhã. See Inquisition
                    <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8122-inquisition> .
                    Bibliography:
                    * Rios, Hist. iii. 147 et seq.;
                    * Isaac da Costa, Israel und die Völker, German transl. by Mann,
                    p. 274;
                    * Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal, pp. 262 et seq., and
                    bibliography given there;
                    * R. E. J. xi. 148, xv. 118, xvi. 61 et seq., xliii. 259;
                    * Allg. Zeit. des Jud. liii. 402;
                    * Grunwald, Portugiesengräber, pp. 6 et seq., 128 et seq.

                    --- In World-Wide_Politics@yahoogroups.com, Algae5636@... wrote:
                    >
                    > Al J WWP Email Member and Baha'i(Algae5636@... ) Repeating:
                    > Enforcing the terms of an agreement or contract voluntarily negotiated
                    and signed by one's authorized representatives is not theft.
                    > :-)
                    >
                    >
                    > WV WWP Email member and special friend of the cyber personality known
                    as Automatic Lie (microdhses@...) It's understandable that you wouldn't
                    know this, but there have been, and still are all sorts of things like
                    roads, schools, bridges, etc that are proved by private people, and not
                    governments. Did you know that companies will even make and provide
                    things like cell phone techology, and cars, and airports too? And this
                    may seem totally incredible to you, but there are even countries where
                    private companies deliever mail!!!! Amazing.
                    >
                    > I said above that it's understandable, because you seem to be
                    incredibly stupid; here's another reason why. You make the false
                    assumption that if a person points out how taxation is theft, he must be
                    a tea-partyer, or a REP. It's really stupid because we have seen where
                    REPs have been in power, and there is STILL forced taxation! Didn't
                    notice that rebuttal to your argument either, right?
                    >
                    > Do you also try to justify the use of force in other ways? Please
                    > give us some examples.I remember when it was thought just fine that
                    husband could rape their wives, but now that's slowly changing. Do
                    YOU, bugs still think it's fine to use force there?
                    >
                    > Bugs WWP Member (46catfish@...) Please explain to me without taxes
                    ,how do you build roads,bridges,safe water, safe food, police, fire
                    depts.,schools,safe homes under building permits that makes a home safe,
                    and so on. You people who are tea baggers are a group of frigging nuts.
                    If you think we can go back in time to the 1800’s and live in
                    today world. And the USA needs to defeat all republicans as soon as
                    possible and in our next elections. Social Security is not an
                    entitlement,it was paid by employees and employers,no tax dollars people
                    is in the this money,only the Government controlled it and
                    >
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