Jul 1 US sub kills 740 Australians; July folklore; The Sad Night
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The month of July
July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days. The seventh month of the year was named by Mark Antony for Julius Caesar. The Roman calendar had previously called it Quintilis, as it was the fifth month of their year.
The Dutch called this month Hooy-maand ('hay-month'), and the old Saxon name was Maedd-monath (because the cattle were sent to the meadows to feed) and Lida aeftevr (the second mild or genial month). Just to confuse things, the Saxons also called this time of year Hen-monath (probably 'foliage month'), a word most likely derived from the German hain, meaning 'wood' or 'trees'. Another Saxon term was Hey-monath because at this time they mowed and made hay ...
1520 La Noche Triste (The Sad Night), and the Vergin de los remedios
[Sources vary as to date; Your almanackist has seen dates from June 30 to July 10. Errors might be due to the later change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. I have chosen to settle on July 1 until evidence indicates otherwise. PW]
Conquistadors such as Hernán Fernando Cortés and the Catholic missionaries who followed, appear to have innately believed that the indigenous people of America were to be subdued, converted and plundered.
As discussed in our article Greed, gold and God Part 1: The Aztecs and Cortés, in the Scriptorium, the small army of the Spaniard Cortés devastated the Aztec Empire in an incredibly short time. After they had seized and killed the local nobles of Cholula, Mexico, they set fire to the city, and killed an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 of the inhabitants, before eventually destroying almost the entire city of Tenochtitlán and killing some 120,000 to 240,000 Aztecs there.
Cortés and his men pillaged the great 40-acre Aztec temple to the great feathered serpent god, Quetzalcoatl, and placed a doll-sized wooden statuette of the Virgin Mary, the Vergin de los remedios, on the altar. Naturally enraged, on the night of June 20 (possibly), 1520 the Aztecs erupted in rebellion, stoning emperor, Moctezuma II (Montezuma II; the Aztec Hueyi Tlatoani), as he tried to placate them. He died four days later, either from the stoning or killed by the Spanish ...
The sinking of the Montevideo Maru
1942 The sinking of the Montevideo Maru with the loss of approximately 1,053 mainly Australian lives.
About 610 Australian soldiers and 130 civilians perished when American submarine, USS Sturgeon, commanded by Lieutenant Commander WL Wright, mistakenly opened its torpedoes on the 7,267-ton transport, Montevideo Maru. The Japanese ship, carrying hundreds of Australian POWs, was sailing from Philippine waters off Cape Bojidoru, Luzon, westwards towards the South China Sea.
Although the sinking had been reported in Japanese newspapers, the American and Australian governments did not inform Australian loved ones anxiously wondering about the fate of the hundreds of victims until October 30, 1945 more than three years later ...
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