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  • Water-Management@yahoogroups.com
    Respected Rotarian, As you know, Rotary International district 3020 consists of 6 revenue districts, Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Vishakapatnam East Godavai,West
    Message 1 of 2 , Sep 1, 2007
      Respected Rotarian,

      As you know, Rotary International district 3020 consists of 6 revenue districts, Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, Vishakapatnam East Godavai,West Godavari and Krishna districts. According to the government sources the following water resources and other data is available on district wise respectively. This comprehensive data report is most important for strategic planning of water management in these districts. So you are requested to welcome this small effort, utilize this data report to your club missions to be planed to reach the Rotary International�s esteemed destination.

      1. Srikakulam District

      District water resources overview

      Total land area of 0.58 million ha, accounts for 12% (0.071 million ha) of the State�s forest area.The population of the district was 2.5 million in 2001,with a density of 433 per km2. The district receives an average annual rainfall of 1,085 mm through the northeast (26.47%) and southwest monsoons (62.61%).. Three major rivers flow through the district. Water utilization by the different projects is as follows:

      Nagavali 371 mcm (36%),Vamsadhara 121 mcm (12%),Mahendrathanaya 81 mcm (8%),Small tanks 140 mcm (14%),Groundwater 300 mcm (30%), Total 1,013 mcm, The two tanks in the district supply about 140 mcm for agriculture. It was estimated that 91% (5,763 mcm) of the water is lost due to surface flow into the Bay of Bengal. Only 9% of the total available water percolates into the ground groundwater. About 0.33 million ha are cultivated in the district, with irrigation facilities covering an area of 0.19 million ha. Canals irrigate 91,946 ha, tanks 80,123 ha, tube wells 6,923 ha, other wells 8,866 ha and other sources 5,316 ha. The main crop is rice

      Problems

      Erratic rainfall constitutes the major problem in this district. Even though it has �104 rainy days�, Srikakulam is affected frequently by dry spells. This is mainly due to improper conservation measures in the hill region and podu cultivation in the agency areas Srikakulam has also been facing a major problemof drinking water. A few mandals are facing water scarcity because of:

      � Hard rock substrate.
      � Elevated, sloping lands.
      � No soil and water conservation works taken up earlier.
      � Rice and sugarcane occupying a larger area. . Nearly 1,930 habitations in the district have drinking water problems due to fluoride/saline
      Key vision statements
      � Undertake more water conservation activities using check dams, and deepen existing tanks and other works.
      � Improve the capacity of all water stakeholders by providing them greater access to information (through effective use of media) on water saving and management.
      � Ensure that funding for watershed programmes is based on local needs and on the action plan prepared by the community.
      � Improve the rights and responsibilities of Water Users Committees and Watershed Committees.
      � Involve all stakeholders (Government, NGOs, and community) in improving the tree cover, in order to promote improved ecosystem functioning and the restoration of wastelands to productive use.
      � Improve the coordination between different Government departments.

      2. Vizianagaram District

      District water resources overview

      Vizianagaram District has a geographical area of about0.63 million ha, with a total population of 2.2 million.The population density is 343 inhabitants per km2 (asper the 2001Census). The average annual rainfall is about 1,161 mm and the number of rainy days are 55. The maximum and minimum temperatures are 35�C and 15�C respectively. The major rivers that flow in the district are Nagavali, Swarnamukhi, Vegavathi, Chempavathi, Gostani and Khandivalasa. Of the total number of 10,083 tanks, 402 are irrigation tanks and 9,681 are Panchayat Raj Department tanks. The total ayacut under these tanks is about 106,183 ha. The other groundwater structures are irrigation wells (36,315 dug wells; 2,545 borewells/filter point wells) and drinking water wells (10,500 borewells owned by the Panchayat Raj Department and municipalities; 2,800 dug wells). The groundwater levels vary from 7.19 m during the pre-monsoon period, to 3.35 m during the post-monsoon period (as per the 2001Census). It was estimated that the utilization of groundwater is about 27% of the total available potential. Out of the 0.33 million ha net sown area of the district, about 0.14 million ha are irrigated mostly under canals (39,257 ha) and tanks (83,232 ha).

      Key vision statements.

      � Provide safe drinking water facilities for all people.
      � Improve water distribution systems for equitable supply using the taditional water monitors (lashkar).
      � Address local industrial pollution and aquaculture issues with local control mechanisms.
      � Improve the management of watershed projects using the specified tasks, roles and responsibilities of local
      stakeholders.
      � Strengthen the participation of youth in natural resource
      conservation and management activities.

      3. Visakhapatnam District

      District water resources overview

      Visakhapatnam District has a geographical area of about 1.13 million ha (4.1% of State area). The total population is 3.8 million, and the population density is 340 inhabitants per km2 (2001 Census). The district receives an average annual rainfall of 1,085 mm. The southwest monsoon accounts for about 54.4% of the normal rainfall, while the northeast monsoon contributes 15.9% of the normal. Out of the 0.35 million ha under cultivation, about 0.13 million ha are irrigated. Visakhapatnam�s medium irrigation is assured by four reservoirs��Thandava, Konam, Raiwada and Kalyanapulova. Minor irrigation is from two reservoirs��Ravanapalli and Gambheeramgedda. The total area irrigated under these two sources is about 28,450 ha (medium irrigation: 27,114 ha; minor irrigation: 1,336 ha). The other sources of the district are canals(55,268 ha), tanks (42,045 ha), wells (15,358 ha), tubewells (19,747 ha), lift irrigation (368 ha) and other sources (23,201 ha). Fishing is one of the major livelihood options in the district (10 varieties of inland fish; 34 varieties of marine fish). This is an important economic activity of the fisherfolk living in the 59 fishing villages and hamlets on the coastline, stretching to a length of 132 km. About 13,000 fishing families eke out a livelihood from marine fishing. Visakhapatnam is the second most industrialized city in the State after Hyderabad. It is a major shipping yard and has major industries such as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. More than 1,500 habitations face drinking water problems due to flouride and saline groundwater.

      Key vision statements

      �Undertake comprehensive local land and water management activities that provide/enable training in coordination, collective action planning and awareness building.
      � Improve the timing of water releases and the chain of tank systems starting with upstream tanks.
      � Improve the protection and reliability of drinking water in both urban and rural water supplies.
      � Improve groundwater and surface water use through appropriate planning at the Gram Panchayat level,
      using water harvesting structures and recharge guidelines.
      � Ensure a well-trained and scientifically educated staff and community who can manage the aquaculture and coastal zones more effectively.
      � Improve and provide easily affordable drinking and irrigation water.
      � Improve water management through greater accountability in Government departments and wider responsibility in the community.

      4. East Godavari District

      District water resources overview

      East Godavari is famous for the natural beauty of its delta area, known as Konaseema. Paddy fields looking like a green carpet, swaying coconut trees, green banana plantations, irrigation canals and the Godavari river make this district very beautiful. The district spreads in an area of 1.08 million ha. East Godavari receives an average annual rainfall of 1,160 mm per year. The Sir Arthur Cotton barrage at Dowlaiswaram is the major irrigation project in this district. About 41% of the total geographic area is under agriculture. East Godavari District is a rich agricultural district of Andhra Pradesh. Out of the 0.44 million ha area under cultivation, about 0.28 million ha is irrigated mostly under canals (1,80,640 ha). The irrigated area under tanks is 34,548 ha, and under tubewells 58,752 ha. Rice is the major crop grown here, occupying nearly 65.5% of the total cultivated area. Coconut and banana are the other two major crops grown in this district. In 1999�2000, this district accounted for 57% of the total State production of coconut and 36% of the total banana production. Earlier, the 1997 cyclone had resulted in a huge loss to the coconut and banana plantations. Finger millet, sugarcane, groundnut, chilli and cotton are the other crops grown. Graphite, basalt and pulprinite are the main mineral resources. East Godavari is also an important coastal district, contributing to both marine fisheries and coastal shrimp culture. Coastal mangroves in the Godavari river mouth constitute another important resource. East Godavari is the district with the highest population in the State, with about 4.87 million in 2001. The population density is 451 per km2. Kakinada town, the district headquarters, is also famous for its seaport and fertilizer factories. The major drinking water source in this district is the Godavari river. However, about 1,028 habitations face drinking water problems due to saline groundwater.

      Key vision statements

      � Improve the drinking supplies that are free from pollution.
      � Ensure a clearer understanding of tank management to encourage greater multipurpose use.
      � Improve tank management to effectively address desiltation of tanks, regulated tank management, increased public involvement and earthwork costs.
      � Protect and regenerate estuarine mangroves through a regulated aquaculture industry functioning within
      sustainable limits.
      � Control deforestation and encourage wider afforestation.
      � Develop river basin wise integrated planning by considering watershed development and river inflows.

      5. West Godavari District

      District water resources overview

      West Godavari has the highest population density in the State at 490 per km2 in 2001, with a total population of 3.8 million. The district, spread in an area of 0.78 million ha, has good soil and water resources, and is considered one of the high-potential agriculture districts of Andhra Pradesh. The district receives an average annual rainfall of 1,076 mm (64% from the southwest monsoon). West Godavari is on the western delta of the river Godavari. It also has one major freshwater lake, Kolleru. About 80.7% of the total cultivated area (about 0.35 million ha) is under irrigation, and the district ranks first in the State in terms of gross irrigated area�about 600,000 ha. About 0.25 million ha is irrigated more than once in a year. Canals and tubewells are the major water sources. Rice occupies the major area under irrigation; the district has another record, as the highest rice cultivated district in Andhra Pradesh with about 0.472 million ha under rice. The Government has identified West Godavari as a priority district for rice cultivation. ugarcane, tobacco and coconut are the other major crops grown. The groundwater utilization in non-canal commands is highest in the State, with the stage of groundwater development being more than 100%. The district�s inland fish production stands at 84.37 million tonnes, which is more than 25% of the total inland fish production of Andhra Pradesh. The Kolleru Lake area is the main centre for inland fish production, but its sustainability is under threat due to over-exploitation, encroachment and pollution.

      .Key vision statements

      � Prevent water pollution by improving sanitation and sewage treatment, and increasing the awareness of
      the causes of pollution.
      � Provide training to Water Users Associations (WUAs) in cropping patterns and watershed development.
      � Maintain the natural balance through conservation and development of forest resources, and protection
      of the existing forest area.
      � Implement a quality/quantity monitoring system for irrigation and drinking water supplies.
      � Improve water resource supply for domestic irrigation and aquaculture through a wider use of efficient technologies and crop selection, within a local integrated water plan.

      6. Krishna District

      District water resources overview

      This is the last district traversed by the Krishna river before it joins the sea; the district has therefore been named after the river. The freshwater lake Kolleru is spread between the Krishna and West Godavari districts. Machilipatnam, the old harbour used by the British for their business development, is the district headquarters. Vijayawada, Nuzivedu, and Gannavaram are the main towns. The population of the district is about 4.2 million, with a density of 483 per km2 (2001 Census). Covering an area of about 0.88 million ha, the district is divided into 48 revenue mandals. The cultivated area is about 0.749 million ha, out of which about 0.323 million ha are irrigated. The area of land under the canals is very high (0.233 million ha), and rice is the main crop with a production of about 3 t/ha. Vijayawada, the third biggest city in Andhra Pradesh, is the hub for many industries�cement, heavy machine tools, a thermal power station and many other industries. The district receives an average annual rainfall of about 1,029 mm, the major contribution being from the southwest monsoon. This district is more prone to cyclones. The area under canal irrigation is about 238,305 ha; under tanks 32,738 ha; under tubewells 22,282 ha; and 16,507 ha under other sources. The marine fish production was about 11,553 tonnes during 1999�2000. Drinking water is a problem in more than 1,000 habitations due to fluoride and salinity in the groundwater.

      Key vision statements

      � Improve the water recharge to tanks/wells by regulating the water extractions in the vicinity.
      � Strengthen Water Users Associations by enhancing their awareness of their roles, functions and powers.
      Clearly specify the powers accorded to them with respect to the water charge collections required to
      fund the maintenance of irrigation systems.
      � Release Nagarjunasagar Project water, in the month of February, to tanks under the Nagarjunasagar Left
      Canal to ensure drinking water supplies and groundwater recharge.
      � Protect the existing mangrove ecosystems through a sustainable aquaculture industry.
      � Initiate wide-ranging regional programmes on sustainable water management.
      � Promote an integrated management of Kolleru Lake through a local Protection Committee, to ensure improved drinking water supplies to Kolleru villages.


      *******************************************************
      Standards of Potable water
      Potable water: - Water which is fit for drinking purpose is called potable water.
      The following are the requirements of potable water for domestic use
      1.It should be colorless ,odorless and clear
      a)Colors : The number on cobalt scale should not exceed 20 and should be preferably less than 10
      b)Should not contain objectionable taste and odor, Threshold number should not be more than 3
      c)The colloidal mater imparts turbidity to water, permissible turbidity for drinking water is 5 to 10 ppm
      2.It should be free from harmful and disease producing bacteria

      3.It should be free from objectionable substances.
      a)chlorides: Highest desirable level of chloride content is 200mg /liter and its maximum permissible level is 600 mg/liter
      b)Hardness : It is due to bicarbonates and sulphats chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium . The water have the hardness of about 5 digress(A sample of water is said to have one degree of hardness when its power of soap-destroying is equivalent in the effect of 14.25 mg of calcicium carbonate in a litre of water) is reasonably soft water and very soft water is tasteless. Hence for potable water the hardness should preferably be more than 5 degrees and less than 8 degrees.
      c)Ph value : should be between 7 to 8.5
      d)Free ammonia : should not exceed 0.15ppm
      e)Albuminoidal ammonia should not exceed 0.3ppm
      f)Nitrates: highest desirable level of nitrates is 45mg/litre
      g)Total solids (The amounts of dissolved and suspended mater) The highest desirable level of total solids is 500mg/litre and its maximum permissible level is 1500mg/leter.
      h)Iron and manganese : should not more than 0.3ppm
      i)Fluoride : The permissible and excessive limits of fluoride in drinking water in India have been set up at 1 and 2 ppm respectively.
      4.It should not cause corrosion to pipes and other fittings

      If water is found to contain fluorides in excess quantity then permissible de-fluoridetion may be carried out as the concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water is of great significance from physiological point of view.

      Simple Water treatment method ( Nalgonda technique): In this technique sodium aluminate or lime, bleaching powder and filter-alum(Aluminium sulphate) are added to fluoride water in sequence. Water is than stirred for ten minutes and settled for one hour and water is then withdrawn with out disturbing the sediments sodium aluminate or lime accelerates settlement of precipitate and bleaching powder ensures disinfection. The alum dose required will depend upon the concentration of fluorides alkalinity and total dissolved solids in raw water. It is found that this technique is simple in operation and economical. It can be used with advantage in villages either on an individual scale or no a mass scale.

      Collected by
      Tirumala Srinivasa Reddy, Dwarampudi B.E (civil)
      Chairman Water - Management
      Rotary International District 3020
      e-mail dtsreddy@...
      web site: http://geocities.com/conservationofwater
      club: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/conservationofpotablewater
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