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1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor

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  • biggest_plume
    And that my friends is why the Scots are so well educated. Drums
    Message 1 of 18 , Feb 2, 2010
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      And that my friends is why the Scots are so well educated.
      "Drums"

      --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, Sarah More <recce40@...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > During the period of the Scottish Reformation, the Rev. John Knox implemented the idea of education for all Scottish boys and girls, regardless of their financial means, believing that a Bible-reading nation could never be enslaved. This idea was strongly supported by the Scottish nobles, including The Duke of Argyll, who established Covenanter settlements in his lands and provided for their education and occupation. Similarly, The Earl of Devon provided for his crofters and built a school on his Irish estate for 1,000 children which is still standing today.
      >  
      > Dr. David Livingston (1813-1873), of Charles Stanley fame, worked as a piecer in the cotton mills of my ancestor, James Monteith of Glasgow. Livingston wrote “the Messrs. Monteith were good employers who were careful to observe the Education Act.” With his first pay, Livingston purchased “Rudiments of Latin.” Certainly, the Education Act was intended to provide for the educational needs of the mill children. Likely, the nobles would have provided for the education of the rural children.
      >  
      > Sarah More
      >
      > --- On Tue, 1/26/10, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@...> wrote:
      >
      >
      > From: Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@...>
      > Subject: RE: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
      > To: warof1812@yahoogroups.com
      > Date: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 1:53 PM
      >
      >
      >
      > Dave:
      > I agree with Ron on the fluctuating levels of literacy - they do reflect the situation in the later part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Strangely, one of the reasons for the decline in literacy was the industrial revolution, and the decline in village schools - many young folk left to go to the industrial centres, and village and town schools closed.
      > However, back to the army of 1812. You should check out the establishment of the Royal Military Asylum, founded in 1803 under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, the Chaplain General and others. It was affiliated with the Chelsea Hospital, and was designed to teach the children of ORs and NCOs basic skills such as reading, writing etc. The method adopted was that of Dr. Bell's mentoring system whereby older pupils taught younger ones - thus giving good education on the cheap.
      > Wellington himself was very impressed with the system, and did remark that 500 "ragamuffins" (i.e. children of soldiers) had been removed off the streets of Lisbon and given a better chance in life.
      > I suspect that literacy was even higher in the mid to late 18th century - several books were written for the soldier, usually religious and moral stuff. In Reading, UK, one bookstore 500 copies of "The Soldier's Monitor" were sold in one day to men of the local barracks.The price was three pence. This document, originally published in 1714 and remained in print until 1775, was republished in 1811, and remained a best-seller among soldiers. I believe it was even republished in the 1860s.
      > There were also regimental schools established among many regiments throughout the empire, including North America. The Lieut. Col. of the 10th RVB stationed in Nova Scotia ordered large numbers of religious tracts for the regimental library during the war.
      > Further, the Chaplain General, The Rev. Dr. John Owen, tried in vain to keep Methodists and Baptists out of the military hospitals where they were proselytising. Their main tool of this was a large number of religious tracts. This presupposes a relatively high level of literacy.
      > Hope this helps
      > Ray H
      >
      > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
      > From: ronaldjdale@...
      > Date: Tue, 26 Jan 2010 18:32:25 +0000
      > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
      >
      >
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      >      
      >       Hello David,
      >
      >
      >
      > While I have never seen any period study of literacy levels in the British Army in the early 19th century, I note that a soldier could not expect to rise to sergeant without being literate.  In looking at attestment papers and and the number of soldiers who could sign their names with a fair hand as opposed to those who made their mark etc. it strikes me as about 50/50.  The literacy rate dropped later in the century.
      >
      >
      >
      > I have been researching church records from County Derry and have noted a change in literacy rates based on economic circumstances.  For example, it was very high until the 1830's.  Those getting married in the 1830's lived in a period of economic depression from 1815 on and could not afford schooling.  Literacy picked up again in the 1840's and 50's but dropped again in the 60's and 70's (post potatoe famine), etc.
      >
      >
      >
      > Scots Presbyterians, many of whom influenced what happened in the plantation areas of Ulster, valued learning and the simplest crofters son taught to read and write if the family could afford the schooling.
      >
      >
      >
      > I would imagine that in the War of 1812 perhaps a third of the soldiers in barracks could read and write and could write and read letters for others if any were inclined to correspond with their homelands.
      >
      >
      >
      > At that time the sender did not pay for postage but the recipient paid to for their mail and the charges for letters were extremely high.  Who would want to burden their impoverished family with that?  Also, paper was in very short supply and extremely expensive. This is really a pity as the letters of a common soldier would be like gold. 
      >
      >
      >
      > Ron
      >
      >
      >
      > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "DAVID BRUNELLE" <davidbrunelle@> wrote:
      >
      >   I had an inquiry from a librarian looking for information on the reading level of soldiers during the War of 1812.
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >    
      >      
      >
      >    
      >    
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      >                             
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
      >
      >
      > ------------------------------------
      >
      >    War of 1812 Living History:   
      > A wide-ranging information exchange
      > for all participants and supporters 
      >
      >
      > Unit Contact information for North America:
      >    Crown Forces Unit Listing:
      >         http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
      >    American Forces Unit Listing
      >         http://usforces1812.tripod.com
      >
      > WAR OF 1812 EVENTS LIST:
      >    http://royal.scots.tripod.com/warof1812eventslistYahoo! Groups Links
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      >
    • Ray Hobbs
      Read Arthur Herman s book The Scottish Enlightenment How the Scots Invented the Modern World - a very well-written and well-documented study of late 18th
      Message 2 of 18 , Feb 2, 2010
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        Read Arthur Herman's book "The Scottish Enlightenment" How the Scots Invented the Modern World" - a very well-written and well-documented study of late 18th century Scotland.
        Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot - David Hume; the greatest economist in Europe at the time was a Scot - Adam Smith; the greatest architect in Europe at the time was a Scot - Robert Adam. And so it goes.
        And that's from a Welshman!!!!
        Ray H

        To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
        From: drums1812@...
        Date: Wed, 3 Feb 2010 00:03:28 +0000
        Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor




























        And that my friends is why the Scots are so well educated.

        "Drums"



        --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, Sarah More <recce40@...> wrote:

        >

        >

        > During the period of the Scottish Reformation, the Rev. John Knox implemented the idea of education for all Scottish boys and girls, regardless of their financial means, believing that a Bible-reading nation could never be enslaved. This idea was strongly supported by the Scottish nobles, including The Duke of Argyll, who established Covenanter settlements in his lands and provided for their education and occupation. Similarly, The Earl of Devon provided for his crofters and built a school on his Irish estate for 1,000 children which is still standing today.

        > Â

        > Dr. David Livingston (1813-1873), of Charles Stanley fame, worked as a piecer in the cotton mills of my ancestor, James Monteith of Glasgow. Livingston wrote “the Messrs. Monteith were good employers who were careful to observe the Education Act.� With his first pay, Livingston purchased “Rudiments of Latin.� Certainly, the Education Act was intended to provide for the educational needs of the mill children. Likely, the nobles would have provided for the education of the rural children.

        > Â

        > Sarah More

        >

        > --- On Tue, 1/26/10, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@...> wrote:

        >

        >

        > From: Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@...>

        > Subject: RE: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor

        > To: warof1812@yahoogroups.com

        > Date: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 1:53 PM

        >

        >

        >

        > Dave:

        > I agree with Ron on the fluctuating levels of literacy - they do reflect the situation in the later part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Strangely, one of the reasons for the decline in literacy was the industrial revolution, and the decline in village schools - many young folk left to go to the industrial centres, and village and town schools closed.

        > However, back to the army of 1812. You should check out the establishment of the Royal Military Asylum, founded in 1803 under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, the Chaplain General and others. It was affiliated with the Chelsea Hospital, and was designed to teach the children of ORs and NCOs basic skills such as reading, writing etc. The method adopted was that of Dr. Bell's mentoring system whereby older pupils taught younger ones - thus giving good education on the cheap.

        > Wellington himself was very impressed with the system, and did remark that 500 "ragamuffins" (i.e. children of soldiers) had been removed off the streets of Lisbon and given a better chance in life.

        > I suspect that literacy was even higher in the mid to late 18th century - several books were written for the soldier, usually religious and moral stuff. In Reading, UK, one bookstore 500 copies of "The Soldier's Monitor" were sold in one day to men of the local barracks.The price was three pence. This document, originally published in 1714 and remained in print until 1775, was republished in 1811, and remained a best-seller among soldiers. I believe it was even republished in the 1860s.

        > There were also regimental schools established among many regiments throughout the empire, including North America. The Lieut. Col. of the 10th RVB stationed in Nova Scotia ordered large numbers of religious tracts for the regimental library during the war.

        > Further, the Chaplain General, The Rev. Dr. John Owen, tried in vain to keep Methodists and Baptists out of the military hospitals where they were proselytising. Their main tool of this was a large number of religious tracts. This presupposes a relatively high level of literacy.

        > Hope this helps

        > Ray H

        >

        > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com

        > From: ronaldjdale@...

        > Date: Tue, 26 Jan 2010 18:32:25 +0000

        > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor

        >

        >

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        > Â

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        > Â Â

        > Â Â Â

        > Â Â Â

        > Â Â Â Hello David,

        >

        >

        >

        > While I have never seen any period study of literacy levels in the British Army in the early 19th century, I note that a soldier could not expect to rise to sergeant without being literate. In looking at attestment papers and and the number of soldiers who could sign their names with a fair hand as opposed to those who made their mark etc. it strikes me as about 50/50. The literacy rate dropped later in the century.

        >

        >

        >

        > I have been researching church records from County Derry and have noted a change in literacy rates based on economic circumstances. For example, it was very high until the 1830's. Those getting married in the 1830's lived in a period of economic depression from 1815 on and could not afford schooling. Literacy picked up again in the 1840's and 50's but dropped again in the 60's and 70's (post potatoe famine), etc.

        >

        >

        >

        > Scots Presbyterians, many of whom influenced what happened in the plantation areas of Ulster, valued learning and the simplest crofters son taught to read and write if the family could afford the schooling.

        >

        >

        >

        > I would imagine that in the War of 1812 perhaps a third of the soldiers in barracks could read and write and could write and read letters for others if any were inclined to correspond with their homelands.

        >

        >

        >

        > At that time the sender did not pay for postage but the recipient paid to for their mail and the charges for letters were extremely high. Who would want to burden their impoverished family with that? Also, paper was in very short supply and extremely expensive. This is really a pity as the letters of a common soldier would be like gold.Â

        >

        >

        >

        > Ron

        >

        >

        >

        > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "DAVID BRUNELLE" <davidbrunelle@> wrote:

        >

        > Â I had an inquiry from a librarian looking for information on the reading level of soldiers during the War of 1812.

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        > Â Â

        > Â Â Â Â

        >

        > Â Â

        > Â Â

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        > Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â

        >

        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

        >

        >

        >

        > ------------------------------------

        >

        > Â Â Â War of 1812 Living History:Â Â

        > A wide-ranging information exchange

        > for all participants and supportersÂ

        >

        >

        > Unit Contact information for North America:

        > Â Â Â Crown Forces Unit Listing:

        > Â Â Â Â http://1812crownforces.tripod.com

        > Â Â Â American Forces Unit Listing

        > Â Â Â Â http://usforces1812.tripod.com

        >

        > WAR OF 1812 EVENTS LIST:

        > Â Â Â http://royal.scots.tripod.com/warof1812eventslistYahoo! Groups Links

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        >

        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

        >



















        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • BritcomHMP@aol.com
        Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot - David Hume; David Hume could out consume Schopenhauer and Hegel And Wittgenstein was
        Message 3 of 18 , Feb 2, 2010
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          Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot - David Hume;








          David Hume could out consume
          Schopenhauer and Hegel
          And Wittgenstein was a beery swine
          And twice as sloshed as Shlegel,

          Therer'es nothing Neichie couldn't teach
          About the raising of the wrist
          Socrates himself was permanently p.........

          What? Eh?
          oh sorry
          i just had a flashback there :-)







          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • John Ogden
          I think you meant Nietzsche here... ... -- John J. Ogden [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          Message 4 of 18 , Feb 2, 2010
          • 0 Attachment
            I think you meant "Nietzsche" here...

            On Tue, Feb 2, 2010 at 9:03 PM, <BritcomHMP@...> wrote:

            >
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot -
            > David Hume;
            >
            > David Hume could out consume
            > Schopenhauer and Hegel
            > And Wittgenstein was a beery swine
            > And twice as sloshed as Shlegel,
            >
            > Therer'es nothing Neichie couldn't teach
            > About the raising of the wrist
            > Socrates himself was permanently p.........
            >
            > What? Eh?
            > oh sorry
            > i just had a flashback there :-)
            >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >



            --
            John J. Ogden


            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • biggest_plume
            Aye Lad! Real Enlightenment Drums
            Message 5 of 18 , Feb 3, 2010
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              Aye Lad! Real Enlightenment
              "Drums"

              --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@...> wrote:
              >
              >
              > Read Arthur Herman's book "The Scottish Enlightenment" How the Scots Invented the Modern World" - a very well-written and well-documented study of late 18th century Scotland.
              > Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot - David Hume; the greatest economist in Europe at the time was a Scot - Adam Smith; the greatest architect in Europe at the time was a Scot - Robert Adam. And so it goes.
              > And that's from a Welshman!!!!
              > Ray H
              >
              > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
              > From: drums1812@...
              > Date: Wed, 3 Feb 2010 00:03:28 +0000
              > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
              >
              >
              >
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              > And that my friends is why the Scots are so well educated.
              >
              > "Drums"
              >
              >
              >
              > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, Sarah More <recce40@> wrote:
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > During the period of the Scottish Reformation, the Rev. John Knox implemented the idea of education for all Scottish boys and girls, regardless of their financial means, believing that a Bible-reading nation could never be enslaved. This idea was strongly supported by the Scottish nobles, including The Duke of Argyll, who established Covenanter settlements in his lands and provided for their education and occupation. Similarly, The Earl of Devon provided for his crofters and built a school on his Irish estate for 1,000 children which is still standing today.
              >
              > > Â
              >
              > > Dr. David Livingston (1813-1873), of Charles Stanley fame, worked as a piecer in the cotton mills of my ancestor, James Monteith of Glasgow. Livingston wrote â€Å"the Messrs. Monteith were good employers who were careful to observe the Education Act.� With his first pay, Livingston purchased â€Å"Rudiments of Latin.� Certainly, the Education Act was intended to provide for the educational needs of the mill children. Likely, the nobles would have provided for the education of the rural children.
              >
              > > Â
              >
              > > Sarah More
              >
              > >
              >
              > > --- On Tue, 1/26/10, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@> wrote:
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > From: Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@>
              >
              > > Subject: RE: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
              >
              > > To: warof1812@yahoogroups.com
              >
              > > Date: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 1:53 PM
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Dave:
              >
              > > I agree with Ron on the fluctuating levels of literacy - they do reflect the situation in the later part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Strangely, one of the reasons for the decline in literacy was the industrial revolution, and the decline in village schools - many young folk left to go to the industrial centres, and village and town schools closed.
              >
              > > However, back to the army of 1812. You should check out the establishment of the Royal Military Asylum, founded in 1803 under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, the Chaplain General and others. It was affiliated with the Chelsea Hospital, and was designed to teach the children of ORs and NCOs basic skills such as reading, writing etc. The method adopted was that of Dr. Bell's mentoring system whereby older pupils taught younger ones - thus giving good education on the cheap.
              >
              > > Wellington himself was very impressed with the system, and did remark that 500 "ragamuffins" (i.e. children of soldiers) had been removed off the streets of Lisbon and given a better chance in life.
              >
              > > I suspect that literacy was even higher in the mid to late 18th century - several books were written for the soldier, usually religious and moral stuff. In Reading, UK, one bookstore 500 copies of "The Soldier's Monitor" were sold in one day to men of the local barracks.The price was three pence. This document, originally published in 1714 and remained in print until 1775, was republished in 1811, and remained a best-seller among soldiers. I believe it was even republished in the 1860s.
              >
              > > There were also regimental schools established among many regiments throughout the empire, including North America. The Lieut. Col. of the 10th RVB stationed in Nova Scotia ordered large numbers of religious tracts for the regimental library during the war.
              >
              > > Further, the Chaplain General, The Rev. Dr. John Owen, tried in vain to keep Methodists and Baptists out of the military hospitals where they were proselytising. Their main tool of this was a large number of religious tracts. This presupposes a relatively high level of literacy.
              >
              > > Hope this helps
              >
              > > Ray H
              >
              > >
              >
              > > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
              >
              > > From: ronaldjdale@
              >
              > > Date: Tue, 26 Jan 2010 18:32:25 +0000
              >
              > > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
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              > > Â
              >
              > >
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              > >
              >
              > > Â Â
              >
              > > Â Â Â
              >
              > > Â Â Â
              >
              > > Â Â Â Hello David,
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > While I have never seen any period study of literacy levels in the British Army in the early 19th century, I note that a soldier could not expect to rise to sergeant without being literate. In looking at attestment papers and and the number of soldiers who could sign their names with a fair hand as opposed to those who made their mark etc. it strikes me as about 50/50. The literacy rate dropped later in the century.
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > I have been researching church records from County Derry and have noted a change in literacy rates based on economic circumstances. For example, it was very high until the 1830's. Those getting married in the 1830's lived in a period of economic depression from 1815 on and could not afford schooling. Literacy picked up again in the 1840's and 50's but dropped again in the 60's and 70's (post potatoe famine), etc.
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Scots Presbyterians, many of whom influenced what happened in the plantation areas of Ulster, valued learning and the simplest crofters son taught to read and write if the family could afford the schooling.
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > I would imagine that in the War of 1812 perhaps a third of the soldiers in barracks could read and write and could write and read letters for others if any were inclined to correspond with their homelands.
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > At that time the sender did not pay for postage but the recipient paid to for their mail and the charges for letters were extremely high. Who would want to burden their impoverished family with that? Also, paper was in very short supply and extremely expensive. This is really a pity as the letters of a common soldier would be like gold.Â
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Ron
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "DAVID BRUNELLE" <davidbrunelle@> wrote:
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Â I had an inquiry from a librarian looking for information on the reading level of soldiers during the War of 1812.
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Â Â
              >
              > > Â Â Â Â
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Â Â
              >
              > > Â Â
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
              >
              > >
              >
              > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > ------------------------------------
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Â Â Â War of 1812 Living History:Â Â
              >
              > > A wide-ranging information exchange
              >
              > > for all participants and supportersÂ
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > Unit Contact information for North America:
              >
              > > Â Â Â Crown Forces Unit Listing:
              >
              > > Â Â Â Â http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
              >
              > > Â Â Â American Forces Unit Listing
              >
              > > Â Â Â Â http://usforces1812.tripod.com
              >
              > >
              >
              > > WAR OF 1812 EVENTS LIST:
              >
              > > Â Â Â http://royal.scots.tripod.com/warof1812eventslistYahoo! Groups Links
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > >
              >
              > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              > >
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              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
            • red.gold@sympatico.ca
              Admittedly, this is much later in the 19th Century but I think interesting regardless. T. Avery Remember when grandparents and great-grandparents stated that
              Message 6 of 18 , Feb 17, 2010
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                Admittedly, this is much later in the 19th Century but I think interesting regardless.
                T. Avery

                Remember when grandparents and great-grandparents stated that they only had an 8th grade education? Well, check this out. Could any of us have passed the 8th grade in 1895?

                This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 in Salina , Kansas , USA .. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smokey Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina , and reprinted by the Salina Journal..

                8th Grade Final Exam:
                Salina , KS - 1895

                Grammar (Time, one hour)
                1. Give nine rules for the use of capital letters.
                2. Name the parts of speech and define those that have no modifications
                3. Define verse, stanza and paragraph.
                4. What are the principal parts of a verb? Give principal parts of 'lie,' 'play,' and 'run'.
                5. Define case; illustrate each case.
                6 What is punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of punctuation.
                7 - 10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.

                Arithmetic (Time,1 hour 15 minutes)
                1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
                2. A wagon box is 2 ft. Deep, 10 feet Long, and 3 ft. Wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
                3. If a load of wheat weighs 3,942 lbs, what is it worth at 50cts/bushel, deducting 1,050 lbs for tare?
                4. District No 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?
                5. Find the cost of 6,720 lbs. Coal at $6.00 per ton.
                6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7percent per annum.
                7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft long at $20 per metre?
                8... Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
                9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance of which is 640 rods?
                10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.

                U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)
                1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided
                2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus .
                3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.
                4. Show the territorial growth of the United States .
                5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas .
                6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.
                7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton , Bell , Lincoln , Penn, and Howe?
                8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, 1865.

                Orthography (Time, one hour)
                [Do we even know what this is??]
                1. What is meant by the following: alphabet, phonetic, orthography, etymology, syllabication?
                2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?
                3. What are the following, and give examples of each: trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?
                4. Give four substitutes for caret 'u'.
                5. Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e.' Name two exceptions under each rule.
                6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.
                7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: bi, dis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, sup.
                8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last.
                9.. Use the following correctly in sentences: cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane , vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.
                10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.

                Geography (Time, one hour)
                1 What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?
                2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas ?
                3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?
                4. Describe the mountains of North America .
                5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia , Odessa , Denver , Manitoba , Hecla , Yukon , St. Helena, Juan Fernandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco .
                6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S. Name all the republics of Europe and give the capital of each.
                8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?
                9.. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.
                10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give the inclination of the earth.


                --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "biggest_plume" <drums1812@...> wrote:
                >
                > Aye Lad! Real Enlightenment
                > "Drums"
                >
                > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@> wrote:
                > >
                > >
                > > Read Arthur Herman's book "The Scottish Enlightenment" How the Scots Invented the Modern World" - a very well-written and well-documented study of late 18th century Scotland.
                > > Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot - David Hume; the greatest economist in Europe at the time was a Scot - Adam Smith; the greatest architect in Europe at the time was a Scot - Robert Adam. And so it goes.
                > > And that's from a Welshman!!!!
                > > Ray H
                > >
                > > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
                > > From: drums1812@
                > > Date: Wed, 3 Feb 2010 00:03:28 +0000
                > > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
                > >
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                > > And that my friends is why the Scots are so well educated.
                > >
                > > "Drums"
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, Sarah More <recce40@> wrote:
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > During the period of the Scottish Reformation, the Rev. John Knox implemented the idea of education for all Scottish boys and girls, regardless of their financial means, believing that a Bible-reading nation could never be enslaved. This idea was strongly supported by the Scottish nobles, including The Duke of Argyll, who established Covenanter settlements in his lands and provided for their education and occupation. Similarly, The Earl of Devon provided for his crofters and built a school on his Irish estate for 1,000 children which is still standing today.
                > >
                > > > Â
                > >
                > > > Dr. David Livingston (1813-1873), of Charles Stanley fame, worked as a piecer in the cotton mills of my ancestor, James Monteith of Glasgow. Livingston wrote â€Å"the Messrs. Monteith were good employers who were careful to observe the Education Act.� With his first pay, Livingston purchased â€Å"Rudiments of Latin.� Certainly, the Education Act was intended to provide for the educational needs of the mill children. Likely, the nobles would have provided for the education of the rural children.
                > >
                > > > Â
                > >
                > > > Sarah More
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > --- On Tue, 1/26/10, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@> wrote:
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > From: Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@>
                > >
                > > > Subject: RE: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
                > >
                > > > To: warof1812@yahoogroups.com
                > >
                > > > Date: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 1:53 PM
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > Dave:
                > >
                > > > I agree with Ron on the fluctuating levels of literacy - they do reflect the situation in the later part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Strangely, one of the reasons for the decline in literacy was the industrial revolution, and the decline in village schools - many young folk left to go to the industrial centres, and village and town schools closed.
                > >
                > > > However, back to the army of 1812. You should check out the establishment of the Royal Military Asylum, founded in 1803 under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, the Chaplain General and others. It was affiliated with the Chelsea Hospital, and was designed to teach the children of ORs and NCOs basic skills such as reading, writing etc. The method adopted was that of Dr. Bell's mentoring system whereby older pupils taught younger ones - thus giving good education on the cheap.
                > >
                > > > Wellington himself was very impressed with the system, and did remark that 500 "ragamuffins" (i.e. children of soldiers) had been removed off the streets of Lisbon and given a better chance in life.
                > >
                > > > I suspect that literacy was even higher in the mid to late 18th century - several books were written for the soldier, usually religious and moral stuff. In Reading, UK, one bookstore 500 copies of "The Soldier's Monitor" were sold in one day to men of the local barracks.The price was three pence. This document, originally published in 1714 and remained in print until 1775, was republished in 1811, and remained a best-seller among soldiers. I believe it was even republished in the 1860s.
                > >
                > > > There were also regimental schools established among many regiments throughout the empire, including North America. The Lieut. Col. of the 10th RVB stationed in Nova Scotia ordered large numbers of religious tracts for the regimental library during the war.
                > >
                > > > Further, the Chaplain General, The Rev. Dr. John Owen, tried in vain to keep Methodists and Baptists out of the military hospitals where they were proselytising. Their main tool of this was a large number of religious tracts. This presupposes a relatively high level of literacy.
                > >
                > > > Hope this helps
                > >
                > > > Ray H
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
                > >
                > > > From: ronaldjdale@
                > >
                > > > Date: Tue, 26 Jan 2010 18:32:25 +0000
                > >
                > > > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
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                > > > Â Â
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                > > > Â Â Â
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â Hello David,
                > >
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                > >
                > > > While I have never seen any period study of literacy levels in the British Army in the early 19th century, I note that a soldier could not expect to rise to sergeant without being literate. In looking at attestment papers and and the number of soldiers who could sign their names with a fair hand as opposed to those who made their mark etc. it strikes me as about 50/50. The literacy rate dropped later in the century.
                > >
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                > > > I have been researching church records from County Derry and have noted a change in literacy rates based on economic circumstances. For example, it was very high until the 1830's. Those getting married in the 1830's lived in a period of economic depression from 1815 on and could not afford schooling. Literacy picked up again in the 1840's and 50's but dropped again in the 60's and 70's (post potatoe famine), etc.
                > >
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                > > > Scots Presbyterians, many of whom influenced what happened in the plantation areas of Ulster, valued learning and the simplest crofters son taught to read and write if the family could afford the schooling.
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                > > > I would imagine that in the War of 1812 perhaps a third of the soldiers in barracks could read and write and could write and read letters for others if any were inclined to correspond with their homelands.
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                > > > At that time the sender did not pay for postage but the recipient paid to for their mail and the charges for letters were extremely high. Who would want to burden their impoverished family with that? Also, paper was in very short supply and extremely expensive. This is really a pity as the letters of a common soldier would be like gold.Â
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                > > > Ron
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                > >
                > > > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "DAVID BRUNELLE" <davidbrunelle@> wrote:
                > >
                > > >
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                > > > Â I had an inquiry from a librarian looking for information on the reading level of soldiers during the War of 1812.
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                > > > Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â
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                > > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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                > >
                > > > ------------------------------------
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â War of 1812 Living History:Â Â
                > >
                > > > A wide-ranging information exchange
                > >
                > > > for all participants and supportersÂ
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > Unit Contact information for North America:
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â Crown Forces Unit Listing:
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â Â http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â American Forces Unit Listing
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â Â http://usforces1812.tripod.com
                > >
                > > >
                > >
                > > > WAR OF 1812 EVENTS LIST:
                > >
                > > > Â Â Â http://royal.scots.tripod.com/warof1812eventslistYahoo! Groups Links
                > >
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                > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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              • Iain Burns
                This would be a good story... if it were true. See http://www.snopes.com/glurge/fleming.asp Aye, Iain 1st RS Reg t
                Message 7 of 18 , Feb 20, 2010
                • 0 Attachment
                  This would be a good story... if it were true.

                  See http://www.snopes.com/glurge/fleming.asp<http://www.snopes.com/glurge/fleming.asp>

                  Aye,
                  Iain
                  1st RS Reg't (1812)
                  42nd RH Reg't (Napoleonic)

                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: recce40<mailto:recce40@...>
                  To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com>
                  Sent: Saturday, February 20, 2010 10:57 AM
                  Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor



                  His name was Fleming, and he was a poor Scottish farmer. One day, while trying to make a living for his family, he heard a cry for help coming from a nearby bog. He dropped his tools and ran to the bog.

                  There, mired to his waist in black muck, was a terrified boy, screaming and struggling to free himself. Farmer Fleming saved the lad from what could have been a slow and terrifying death.

                  The next day, a fancy carriage pulled up to the Scotsman's sparse surroundings. An elegantly dressed nobleman stepped out and introduced himself as the father of the boy Farmer Fleming had saved.

                  'I want to repay you,' said the nobleman. 'You saved my son's life.'

                  'No, I can't accept payment for what I did,' the Scottish farmer replied waving off the offer. At that moment, the farmer's own son came to the door of the family hovel.

                  'Is that your son?' the nobleman asked.

                  'Yes,' the farmer replied proudly.

                  'I'll make you a deal. Let me provide him with the level of education my own son will enjoy If the lad is anything like his father, he'll no doubt grow to be a man we both will be proud of.' And that he did.

                  Farmer Fleming's son attended the very best schools and in time, graduated from St. Mary's Hospital Medical School in London, and went on to become known throughout the world as the noted Sir Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of Penicillin.

                  Years afterward, the same nobleman's son who was saved from the bog was stricken with pneumonia.

                  What saved his life this time? Penicillin..

                  The name of the nobleman? Lord Randolph Churchill .. His son's name?

                  Sir Winston Churchill.

                  Someone once said : What goes around comes around.

                  Work like you don't need the money.

                  Love like you've never been hurt.

                  Dance like nobody's watching.

                  Sing like nobody's listening.

                  Live like it's Heaven on Earth.

                  It's National Friendship Week. Send this to
                  everyone you consider A FRIEND.

                  Sarah More

                  --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>, red.gold@... wrote:
                  >
                  > Admittedly, this is much later in the 19th Century but I think interesting regardless.
                  > T. Avery
                  >
                  > Remember when grandparents and great-grandparents stated that they only had an 8th grade education? Well, check this out. Could any of us have passed the 8th grade in 1895?
                  >
                  > This is the eighth-grade final exam from 1895 in Salina , Kansas , USA .. It was taken from the original document on file at the Smokey Valley Genealogical Society and Library in Salina , and reprinted by the Salina Journal..
                  >
                  > 8th Grade Final Exam:
                  > Salina , KS - 1895
                  >
                  > Grammar (Time, one hour)
                  > 1. Give nine rules for the use of capital letters.
                  > 2. Name the parts of speech and define those that have no modifications
                  > 3. Define verse, stanza and paragraph.
                  > 4. What are the principal parts of a verb? Give principal parts of 'lie,' 'play,' and 'run'.
                  > 5. Define case; illustrate each case.
                  > 6 What is punctuation? Give rules for principal marks of punctuation.
                  > 7 - 10. Write a composition of about 150 words and show therein that you understand the practical use of the rules of grammar.
                  >
                  > Arithmetic (Time,1 hour 15 minutes)
                  > 1. Name and define the Fundamental Rules of Arithmetic.
                  > 2. A wagon box is 2 ft. Deep, 10 feet Long, and 3 ft. Wide. How many bushels of wheat will it hold?
                  > 3. If a load of wheat weighs 3,942 lbs, what is it worth at 50cts/bushel, deducting 1,050 lbs for tare?
                  > 4. District No 33 has a valuation of $35,000. What is the necessary levy to carry on a school seven months at $50 per month, and have $104 for incidentals?
                  > 5. Find the cost of 6,720 lbs. Coal at $6.00 per ton.
                  > 6. Find the interest of $512.60 for 8 months and 18 days at 7percent per annum.
                  > 7. What is the cost of 40 boards 12 inches wide and 16 ft long at $20 per metre?
                  > 8... Find bank discount on $300 for 90 days (no grace) at 10 percent.
                  > 9. What is the cost of a square farm at $15 per acre, the distance of which is 640 rods?
                  > 10. Write a Bank Check, a Promissory Note, and a Receipt.
                  >
                  > U.S. History (Time, 45 minutes)
                  > 1. Give the epochs into which U.S. History is divided
                  > 2. Give an account of the discovery of America by Columbus .
                  > 3. Relate the causes and results of the Revolutionary War.
                  > 4. Show the territorial growth of the United States .
                  > 5. Tell what you can of the history of Kansas .
                  > 6. Describe three of the most prominent battles of the Rebellion.
                  > 7. Who were the following: Morse, Whitney, Fulton , Bell , Lincoln , Penn, and Howe?
                  > 8. Name events connected with the following dates: 1607, 1620, 1800, 1849, 1865.
                  >
                  > Orthography (Time, one hour)
                  > [Do we even know what this is??]
                  > 1. What is meant by the following: alphabet, phonetic, orthography, etymology, syllabication?
                  > 2. What are elementary sounds? How classified?
                  > 3. What are the following, and give examples of each: trigraph, subvocals, diphthong, cognate letters, linguals?
                  > 4. Give four substitutes for caret 'u'.
                  > 5. Give two rules for spelling words with final 'e.' Name two exceptions under each rule.
                  > 6. Give two uses of silent letters in spelling. Illustrate each.
                  > 7. Define the following prefixes and use in connection with a word: bi, dis, pre, semi, post, non, inter, mono, sup.
                  > 8. Mark diacritically and divide into syllables the following, and name the sign that indicates the sound: card, ball, mercy, sir, odd, cell, rise, blood, fare, last.
                  > 9.. Use the following correctly in sentences: cite, site, sight, fane, fain, feign, vane , vain, vein, raze, raise, rays.
                  > 10. Write 10 words frequently mispronounced and indicate pronunciation by use of diacritical marks and by syllabication.
                  >
                  > Geography (Time, one hour)
                  > 1 What is climate? Upon what does climate depend?
                  > 2. How do you account for the extremes of climate in Kansas ?
                  > 3. Of what use are rivers? Of what use is the ocean?
                  > 4. Describe the mountains of North America .
                  > 5. Name and describe the following: Monrovia , Odessa , Denver , Manitoba , Hecla , Yukon , St. Helena, Juan Fernandez, Aspinwall and Orinoco .
                  > 6. Name and locate the principal trade centers of the U.S. Name all the republics of Europe and give the capital of each.
                  > 8. Why is the Atlantic Coast colder than the Pacific in the same latitude?
                  > 9.. Describe the process by which the water of the ocean returns to the sources of rivers.
                  > 10. Describe the movements of the earth. Give the inclination of the earth.
                  >
                  >
                  > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>, "biggest_plume" <drums1812@> wrote:
                  > >
                  > > Aye Lad! Real Enlightenment
                  > > "Drums"
                  > >
                  > > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@> wrote:
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > Read Arthur Herman's book "The Scottish Enlightenment" How the Scots Invented the Modern World" - a very well-written and well-documented study of late 18th century Scotland.
                  > > > Think of it - the greatest philosopher in Europe at the time was a Scot - David Hume; the greatest economist in Europe at the time was a Scot - Adam Smith; the greatest architect in Europe at the time was a Scot - Robert Adam. And so it goes.
                  > > > And that's from a Welshman!!!!
                  > > > Ray H
                  > > >
                  > > > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>
                  > > > From: drums1812@
                  > > > Date: Wed, 3 Feb 2010 00:03:28 +0000
                  > > > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > >
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                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > And that my friends is why the Scots are so well educated.
                  > > >
                  > > > "Drums"
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>, Sarah More <recce40@> wrote:
                  > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > > During the period of the Scottish Reformation, the Rev. John Knox implemented the idea of education for all Scottish boys and girls, regardless of their financial means, believing that a Bible-reading nation could never be enslaved. This idea was strongly supported by the Scottish nobles, including The Duke of Argyll, who established Covenanter settlements in his lands and provided for their education and occupation. Similarly, The Earl of Devon provided for his crofters and built a school on his Irish estate for 1,000 children which is still standing today.
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã,
                  > > >
                  > > > > Dr. David Livingston (1813-1873), of Charles Stanley fame, worked as a piecer in the cotton mills of my ancestor, James Monteith of Glasgow. Livingston wrote ââ,¬Å"the Messrs. Monteith were good employers who were careful to observe the Education Act.ââ,¬ï¿½ With his first pay, Livingston purchased ââ,¬Å"Rudiments of Latin.ââ,¬ï¿½ Certainly, the Education Act was intended to provide for the educational needs of the mill children. Likely, the nobles would have provided for the education of the rural children.
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã,
                  > > >
                  > > > > Sarah More
                  > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > > --- On Tue, 1/26/10, Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@> wrote:
                  > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > > From: Ray Hobbs <ray.hobbs@>
                  > > >
                  > > > > Subject: RE: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
                  > > >
                  > > > > To: warof1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:warof1812%40yahoogroups.com>
                  > > >
                  > > > > Date: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 1:53 PM
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                  > > > > Dave:
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                  > > > > I agree with Ron on the fluctuating levels of literacy - they do reflect the situation in the later part of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Strangely, one of the reasons for the decline in literacy was the industrial revolution, and the decline in village schools - many young folk left to go to the industrial centres, and village and town schools closed.
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                  > > > > However, back to the army of 1812. You should check out the establishment of the Royal Military Asylum, founded in 1803 under the patronage of the Prince of Wales, the Chaplain General and others. It was affiliated with the Chelsea Hospital, and was designed to teach the children of ORs and NCOs basic skills such as reading, writing etc. The method adopted was that of Dr. Bell's mentoring system whereby older pupils taught younger ones - thus giving good education on the cheap.
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                  > > > > Wellington himself was very impressed with the system, and did remark that 500 "ragamuffins" (i.e. children of soldiers) had been removed off the streets of Lisbon and given a better chance in life.
                  > > >
                  > > > > I suspect that literacy was even higher in the mid to late 18th century - several books were written for the soldier, usually religious and moral stuff. In Reading, UK, one bookstore 500 copies of "The Soldier's Monitor" were sold in one day to men of the local barracks.The price was three pence. This document, originally published in 1714 and remained in print until 1775, was republished in 1811, and remained a best-seller among soldiers. I believe it was even republished in the 1860s.
                  > > >
                  > > > > There were also regimental schools established among many regiments throughout the empire, including North America. The Lieut. Col. of the 10th RVB stationed in Nova Scotia ordered large numbers of religious tracts for the regimental library during the war.
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                  > > > > Further, the Chaplain General, The Rev. Dr. John Owen, tried in vain to keep Methodists and Baptists out of the military hospitals where they were proselytising. Their main tool of this was a large number of religious tracts. This presupposes a relatively high level of literacy.
                  > > >
                  > > > > Hope this helps
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ray H
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                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>
                  > > >
                  > > > > From: ronaldjdale@
                  > > >
                  > > > > Date: Tue, 26 Jan 2010 18:32:25 +0000
                  > > >
                  > > > > Subject: 1812 Re: Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor
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                  > > > > Ã,
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                  > > > > Ã, Ã,
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                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, Hello David,
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                  > > > > While I have never seen any period study of literacy levels in the British Army in the early 19th century, I note that a soldier could not expect to rise to sergeant without being literate.Ã, In looking at attestment papers and and the number of soldiers who could sign their names with a fair hand as opposed to those who made their mark etc. it strikes me as about 50/50.Ã, The literacy rate dropped later in the century.
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                  > > > > I have been researching church records from County Derry and have noted a change in literacy rates based on economic circumstances.Ã, For example, it was very high until the 1830's.Ã, Those getting married in the 1830's lived in a period of economic depression from 1815 on and could not afford schooling.Ã, Literacy picked up again in the 1840's and 50's but dropped again in the 60's and 70's (post potatoe famine), etc.
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                  > > > > Scots Presbyterians, many of whom influenced what happened in the plantation areas of Ulster, valued learning and the simplest crofters son taught to read and write if the family could afford the schooling.
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                  > > > > I would imagine that in the War of 1812 perhaps a third of the soldiers in barracks could read and write and could write and read letters for others if any were inclined to correspond with their homelands.
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                  > > > > At that time the sender did not pay for postage but the recipient paid to for their mail and the charges for letters were extremely high.Ã, Who would want to burden their impoverished family with that?Ã, Also, paper was in very short supply and extremely expensive. This is really a pity as the letters of a common soldier would be like gold.Ã,
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                  > > > > Ron
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                  > > >
                  > > > > --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com<mailto:WarOf1812%40yahoogroups.com>, "DAVID BRUNELLE" <davidbrunelle@> wrote:
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                  > > > > Ã, I had an inquiry from a librarian looking for information on the reading level of soldiers during the War of 1812.
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                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã,
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                  > > > > ------------------------------------
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                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, War of 1812 Living History:Ã, Ã,
                  > > >
                  > > > > A wide-ranging information exchange
                  > > >
                  > > > > for all participants and supportersÃ,
                  > > >
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                  > > >
                  > > > > Unit Contact information for North America:
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, Crown Forces Unit Listing:
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, http://1812crownforces.tripod.com<http://1812crownforces.tripod.com/>
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, American Forces Unit Listing
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, Ã, http://usforces1812.tripod.com<http://usforces1812.tripod.com/>
                  > > >
                  > > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > > WAR OF 1812 EVENTS LIST:
                  > > >
                  > > > > Ã, Ã, Ã, http://royal.scots.tripod.com/warof1812eventslistYahoo<http://royal.scots.tripod.com/warof1812eventslistYahoo>! Groups Links
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                • jkrause365
                  ... Agreed. It s still spam JimK
                  Message 8 of 18 , Feb 22, 2010
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                    --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "Iain Burns" <iain51hdbw@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > This would be a good story... if it were true.
                    >
                    > See http://www.snopes.com/glurge/fleming.asp<http://www.snopes.com/glurge/fleming.asp>
                    >
                    > Aye,
                    > Iain
                    > 1st RS Reg't (1812)
                    > 42nd RH Reg't (Napoleonic)
                    Agreed. It's still spam
                    JimK
                  • Mark Dickerson
                    This is from How the Scots invented the Modern World by Arthur Herman, page 23. Scotland s literacy rate would be higher than that on any other country by
                    Message 9 of 18 , Feb 25, 2010
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                      This is from "How the Scots invented the Modern World" by Arthur Herman,
                      page 23.



                      "Scotland's literacy rate would be higher than that on any other country by
                      the end of the eighteenth century. An English observer noted with
                      astonishment that 'in the low country of Scotland.the poorest are, in
                      general taught to read.'...By one estimate male literacy stood at around 55
                      percent by 1720; by 1750 it may have stood as high as 75%, compared with
                      only 53% in England.

                      .near Crieff in Perthshire.library's records of book borrowing run from 1747
                      to 1800. They show books loaned out to the local baker, the blacksmith, the
                      cooper, the dyer and the dyer's apprentice and to farmers, stonemasons,
                      quarriers, tailors, and household servants."

                      "At Glasgow the tuition fee of 5 pounds a year was one-tenth the cost of
                      going to Cambridge or Oxford. . Sons of artisans, shopkeepers and
                      farmers.would scrape together enough money to pay their university fees."



                      I do not know where the author got his figures from. There is no reference
                      for these numbers to check the source. But can an idea of the average
                      education mentality be gleaned?



                      Do numbers like these mean that the average Scots soldier had an advantage
                      over his English and Irish cousins when a chance for promotion came up for
                      corporal or sergeant?



                      Mark Dickerson









                      From: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com [mailto:WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                      Of DAVID BRUNELLE
                      Sent: January 26, 2010 1:12 PM
                      To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com; 1812_ProgressiveCampaigner@yahoogroups.com;
                      Ladies of Reenacting; Royal Navy 1812
                      Subject: 1812 Reading Level of the Average Soldier/Sailor

                      I had an inquiry from a librarian looking for information on the reading
                      level of soldiers during the War of 1812. If anyone has any detailed
                      insight please let me know!

                      Thanks!

                      David Brunelle










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                    • Mark Dickerson
                      I found the literacy references in the book that I had printed in the last email. They are: Literacy and Education in England 1640-1800 by Prof. Lawrence
                      Message 10 of 18 , Feb 25, 2010
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                        I found the literacy references in the book that I had printed in the last
                        email. They are:



                        "Literacy and Education in England 1640-1800" by Prof. Lawrence Stone,
                        published in "Past and Present": 1969



                        "Scottish literacy and Scottish Identity 1600-1800" by R.A. Huston: 1985





                        If anybody is interested.



                        Mark Dickerson







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