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Tecumseh facts vs Tecumseh fiction

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  • wolf_bna
    As I am not Shawnee I cannot speak on their behalf. I can however relay what I have been told by them as well as my Nation s own oral history. I have never
    Message 1 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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      As I am not Shawnee I cannot speak on their behalf. I can however
      relay what I have been told by them as well as my Nation's own oral
      history.

      I have never heard any such story that claimed Tecumseh was carried
      from the field alive only to die at some other time and location. It
      is not within our oral history nor what I've heard from the Shawnee,
      the Lenape, or the Chippawas of the Themes, Walpole Island, Stoney
      and Kettle Points etc.

      The oral history has always been clear that he was killed in the
      battle and his body was recovered. The military tradition (especially
      among the U.S. Army's Rangers) of recovering the bodies of their
      fellow soldiers from the field can trace it's roots to this Native
      trait. If the bodies were removed by the American or British soldiers
      and even buried by them, they still would have been recovered by the
      Natives. I am not at liberty to detail the ceremony we call Ohkiweh
      or "The Feast Of The Dead" but, it involves the remains of our
      ancestors. It is just as important as the Condolence at death.

      At the Battle of Oriskany during the American Revolutionary War, the
      bodies of ALL of the Seneca and Mohawk Warriors were recovered and
      given the proper ceremonies to send them to the Spirit World. An
      extremely important ritual among Native people. The bodies of the
      Tryon County Militia still lay where they fell on the battle field to
      this day.

      The "burial site conspiracy" was devised by the Nations to detour
      anyone from finding and desecrating his resting place.

      For example Joseph Brant's remains are not buried at the Mohawk
      Chapel. His tomb was desecrated at the turn of the 20th century and
      his remains were taken and are lost forever. This is what the people
      were trying to prevent back then.
    • lalozon
      From: I must confess I was stunned to read the following: maybe the historical reports of .. Tecumseh were mearly wounded and not
      Message 2 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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        From: <yawors1@...>

        " I must confess I was stunned to read the following: "maybe the historical
        reports of .. Tecumseh were mearly wounded and not killed? ... Harrison was
        quite sure Tecumseh had been killed. He knew Tecumseh by
        sight ...they state they saw Tecumseh's body, and it had been most foully
        mutilated, presumably by "souvenir hunters".
        .................

        From: "wolf_bna" <britishnativeallies@...>

        I have never heard any such story that claimed Tecumseh was carried
        from the field alive only to die at some other time and location.






        I agree with Mr. Yaworsky and Mr. Thomas


        Members of Ken Hall's 'Kentucky Light Dragoons' who have visited the
        Kentucky museums and have photos of a captured 41st Regiment drum, a lantern
        shade supposedly made from a piece of Tecumseh's back skin, etc., relics
        from the Battle of the Thames brought back to Kentucky by members of the
        Kentucky Forces who fought at the Battle of the Thames.

        They have also researched documents that reports the 'Kentucky Light
        Dragoons' and USA Forces victory at the Battle of the Thames and that
        Tecumseh was killed and identified as the Shawnee known as 'Tecumthe'.



        James Alexander Thom states that his book "PANTHER IN THE SKY"
        ISBN:0-345-30596-5 which chronicles the life of Tecumseh, was researched
        from original documents and Shawnee oral history which state Tecumseh was
        killed during the Battle of the Thames.

        As does John Sugden author of "TECUMSEH'S LAST STAND" ISBN: 0-8061-1944-6



        Altho reports verify for sure that Elvis is alive and works at a gas station
        in Hamtramik Michigan ....



        Yrs.,
        L2
      • Peter Monahan
        Mr Yaworski My reaction to the post you quote was the same as yours: shock. It was less than coherent and perhaps, to be charitable, an attempt to be
        Message 3 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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          Mr Yaworski

          My reaction to the post you quote was the same as yours: shock. It was less than coherent and perhaps, to be charitable, an attempt to be humourous. as really "out there" speculation, I would suggest that it is an unprofitable avenue in which to invest much further discussion.

          Peter Monahan, Sgt Major, CFNA
          ============================================================


          " I must confess I was stunned to read the following: "maybe the historical reports of .. Tecumseh were mearly wounded and not killed? ...

          Harrison was quite sure Tecumseh had been killed. He knew Tecumseh by
          sight ...they state they saw Tecumseh's body, and it had been most foully mutilated, presumably by "souvenir hunters".
          .................

          From: "wolf_bna" <britishnativeallies@...>

          I have never heard any such story that claimed Tecumseh was carried
          from the field alive only to die at some other time and location.






          I agree with Mr. Yaworsky and Mr. Thomas


          Members of Ken Hall's 'Kentucky Light Dragoons' who have visited the
          Kentucky museums and have photos of a captured 41st Regiment drum, a lantern
          shade supposedly made from a piece of Tecumseh's back skin, etc., relics
          from the Battle of the Thames brought back to Kentucky by members of the
          Kentucky Forces who fought at the Battle of the Thames.

          They have also researched documents that reports the 'Kentucky Light
          Dragoons' and USA Forces victory at the Battle of the Thames and that
          Tecumseh was killed and identified as the Shawnee known as 'Tecumthe'.



          James Alexander Thom states that his book "PANTHER IN THE SKY"
          ISBN:0-345-30596-5 which chronicles the life of Tecumseh, was researched
          from original documents and Shawnee oral history which state Tecumseh was
          killed during the Battle of the Thames.

          As does John Sugden author of "TECUMSEH'S LAST STAND" ISBN: 0-8061-1944-6



          Altho reports verify for sure that Elvis is alive and works at a gas station
          in Hamtramik Michigan ....



          Yrs.,
          L2





          The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of square miles...

          Unit Contact information for North America:
          ---------------------------------
          Crown Forces Unit Listing:
          http://1812crownforces.tripod.com

          American Forces Unit Listing
          http://usforces1812.tripod.com
          Yahoo! Groups Links






          ============================================================
        • Scott McDonald
          This web page deals with several first hand accounts of Tecumseh s death. http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Cove/8286/tdeath.html enjoy Scott McD.
          Message 4 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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            This web page deals with several "first hand" accounts of Tecumseh's death.
            http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Cove/8286/tdeath.html
            enjoy

            Scott McD.

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Tom Fournier
            From one of Wolf s postings: That can be attributed to British Alligence and a Mohawk War Chief named Teyoninhokarawen! I ll bet nobody has ever heard of him
            Message 5 of 25 , Feb 4, 2006
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              From one of Wolf's postings:

              "That can be attributed to British Alligence and a Mohawk War Chief
              named Teyoninhokarawen! I'll bet nobody has ever heard of him (trick
              question)?"

              Oh oh a trick question ...I was going to try Major John Norton ...

              On another note, Wolf thank you for sharing your oral traditions and
              your thoughts. To me they are a generous contribution, impactful and
              the cause for reflection. It is impossible to picture the potential
              outcomes of the conflict without considering your forefathers' many
              significant contributions.

              Your ally and your servant,

              Tom Fournier
              41st Regiment of Foot
            • wolf_bna
              ... and ... and ... potential ... Mr. Fournier...and all Sir, You are most welcome! Congratulations on the trick question! Teyoninhokarawen is indeed Major
              Message 6 of 25 , Feb 4, 2006
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                --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "Tom Fournier"
                <tom4141fournier@...> wrote:
                >
                > From one of Wolf's postings:
                >
                > "That can be attributed to British Alligence and a Mohawk War Chief
                > named Teyoninhokarawen! I'll bet nobody has ever heard of him (trick
                > question)?"
                >
                > Oh oh a trick question ...I was going to try Major John Norton ...
                >
                > On another note, Wolf thank you for sharing your oral traditions
                and
                > your thoughts. To me they are a generous contribution, impactful
                and
                > the cause for reflection. It is impossible to picture the
                potential
                > outcomes of the conflict without considering your forefathers' many
                > significant contributions.
                >
                > Your ally and your servant,
                >
                > Tom Fournier
                > 41st Regiment of Foot
                >

                Mr. Fournier...and all

                Sir,

                You are most welcome! Congratulations on the trick question!
                Teyoninhokarawen is indeed Major John Norton. However, the average
                Canadian doesn't know who he was.

                It is our earnest hope that we do not offend anyone but rather
                explain our history as it pertains to us. The difficult part of re-
                enacting for us is that we are charged with maintaining and telling
                our Nations' history as it has been passed down from those we speak
                about. We still have a Nation and a Clan to anwser to should our
                actions become dishonorable.

                We have the precarious responsibility to speak on behalf of our
                ancestors and ultimately our people. In doing so we often find
                ourselves in a battle of our history versus someone else's version.
                At times it can become extremely frustrating. As you witnessed at the
                41st Lecture I expressed the notion that most of the "written"
                historical accounts were not lies so much as they were "cultural
                misunderstandings."

                As you are aware you (and anyone else) are always welcome at our camp
                to discuss our history and culture.

                In Peace and Friendship,

                Capt. Wolf Thomas BNA
              • Stalin15@aol.com
                This is an essay I wrote about on the topic of Tecumseh s body: Tecumseh: From Confusion to Legacy” The War of 1812 is often considered a forgotten war in
                Message 7 of 25 , Feb 7, 2006
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                  This is an essay I wrote about on the topic of Tecumseh's body:


                  Tecumseh: From Confusion to Legacy”
                  The War of 1812 is often considered a forgotten war in the minds of most
                  Americans. From the beginning, the war went badly for the Americans, and
                  blunders were abound on the fighting fronts. The results of the Treaty of Ghent,
                  which ended the war, maintained the “status quos,” meaning each side will
                  revert themselves to a pre-war position. Despite the apparent tie, the war
                  created many folk heroes and events that live on to this day. Andrew Jackson won
                  a huge victory at the Battle of New Orleans, which was later immortalized in
                  a song. The president’s house was burned by the British, and with a new coat
                  of paint, became the White House. Lastly, Tecumseh, the leader of an
                  Indian confederation, was killed at the Battle of the Thames (1814). While, the
                  other events and heroes have a clear-cut victor and story, the story of
                  Tecumseh is unique. The tale of his death at the hands of the Americans has been
                  conflicting and shrouded in mystery. The result of his mysterious demise
                  has turned Tecumseh into a malleable figure and propelled him from confusion to
                  legacy.
                  The death of Tecumseh has often been a controversial issue and some of the
                  sources have become politically tainted, as his death became a political warm
                  spot during the 1840 presidential campaign. However, “[t]here exists no less
                  than forty-five (perhaps considerable more!) accounts”_[1]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn1) of his death. These differing accounts are the fuels
                  that enhance Tecumseh’s mysterious death, as the competing players (British,
                  Americans, Indians) all have differing accounts of what happened to his
                  body. This paper will look at several claims of these three nations in order to
                  examine the confusion and creditability in thier claims.
                  In order to examine the claims, some background about the Battle of the
                  Thames needs to be considered. William Henry Harrison was commanding the
                  Americans, while the British were under command of General Procter and the Indians,
                  who were allied with the British, were under the control of Tecumseh. A
                  small swamp separated the forces. The Americans had around 3000 men arranged
                  such that they could swoop in, destroy the British lines, and descend upon the
                  Indians_[2]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn2) (see appendix A). Col.
                  Richard Mentor Johnson, leader of the Kentucky mounted rifles, was directed
                  “to take [the] ground to the left and forming upon that flank to endeavor to
                  turn the right of the Indians”._[3]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn3)
                  There are differing accounts of how many troops the British and Indians
                  had. Some put it as low as 1200_[4]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn4)
                  or as high as 2500;_[5]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn5) either way
                  the British and Indians were considerably outnumbered.
                  The battle itself lasted less then thirty minutes. Colonel Johnson, who was
                  on the left, charged to the right of the British line along with other
                  mounted men. This opened the door for additional infantry to pour through. The
                  British regulars “dispirited by long continued exposure and privation made but
                  a feeble resistance”_[6]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn6) and lasted
                  only a few minutes before surrendering. With the British left broken, and
                  Proctor fleeing, the Americans dismounted and converged upon the Indians.
                  Colonel Johnson was wounded “in a very painful part-his knuckles [and] in his
                  body”_[7]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn7) whlie leading this charge,
                  but was still able to aim and kill a tall, athletic and black-eyed warrior
                  with a dark complexion._[8]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn8)
                  Additional American troops broke through the swamp on the left and formed upon the
                  Indian rear. The fighting between the Kentuckians and Indians was short,
                  close-quarters and destructive. The natives lasted only a short while and in the “
                  usual Indian way Tecumseh’s warriors scattered and faded back through the
                  swamp”_[9]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn9) leaving only thirty-three
                  dead behind on the ground. It is among these thirty-three dead that Tecumseh’s
                  legacy starts.
                  The first claim by the Americans is that Colonel Richard Mentor Johnson
                  killed Tecumseh. However, as John Sugden, a professor at Hereward College in
                  England, points out, “[the] accounts from the Johnston camp fail to establish
                  that Tecumseh was killed by the Colonel,”_[10]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn10) as many of the accounts are contradictory and have been used to
                  further his political career. Further evidence is gathered from his
                  appearance. Tecumseh was said to have a “face oval rather then angular [. . .] his
                  eyes clear, transparent hazel [. . .] and his complexion more of a light brown
                  or tan”_[11]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn11) and not that of the
                  black-eyed warrior that Johnson claimed to have killed. Additionally, the
                  wounds of Tecumseh needs to be called into quiestion. Benson Lossing, who wrote
                  the first comprehensive story of the War of 1812, recites Johnson’s claim to
                  have killed Tecumseh outright with a pistol shot through the head._[12]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn12) However, William Caldwell remembers
                  overtaking and passing Tecumseh after the fight and noticed that a rifle bullet
                  penetrated his breast through his hunting coat._[13]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn13) This contradictory evidence suggests that the traditional
                  claim of Johnson killing Tecumseh is at least problematic if not unfounded.
                  Another traditional claim that has been purported is that Tecumseh was
                  disfigured and skinned by the Americans. General George Sanderson, who was a
                  captain in the American army and who knew Tecumseh, “saw the Kentucky troops in
                  the very act of cutting the skin from the body of the chief”._[14]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn14) This cannot be taken too seriously, as other
                  evidence suggests that “[a] fallen Potawatamie brave was probably taken for
                  Tecumseh [. . .] and mutilated.”_[15]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn15) Additional evidence, coming from Tecumseh’s Indian friend Shabeni
                  (Roundhead), in Sugden’s book, reinforces the claim that Tecumseh was, “by the side
                  of [. . .] another Indian whose skin has been taken off [and his] body has
                  not been touched”._[16]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn16) General
                  Harrison, as reported by Allan Eckert, who wrote a biography of Tecumseh, viewed
                  the mutilated body and thought, “it much too small”._[17]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn17) This just adds to the confusion and contradictory
                  evidence serves to expand Tecumseh’s legacy. This expansion of Tecumseh’s
                  legacy is furthered, in that his body has never been discovered..
                  Many people have claimed to possess Tecumseh’s body, or that they or know
                  what happened to his body. The Sac chief, Black Hawk claims that “Tecumseh’s
                  body was taken away and buried some five miles from the battlefield”._[18]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn18) This claim is supported by General
                  Procter’s native interpreter Clarke, who “asserted positively that Tecumseh
                  was killed, and his body was carried off by the Indians”._[19]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn19) David Edmunds, in an article for Timeline
                  magazine, suggestes that, “Since most of the slain were buried in a mass grave near
                  the battlefield, Tecumseh probably was interred with his fallen warriors”
                  ._[20]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn20) Furthermore, Walpole Island
                  has built a memorial cairn that supposedly has Tecumseh’s bones interred in it,
                  while Sugden reports a claim that “Tecumseh’s body was presented to the
                  British [. . .] who took it to Sandwhich for burial”._[21]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn21) The last claim, belongs to Shawnee tradition, and might
                  be the best supported claim as to the location of Tecumseh’s body. Thier
                  claim states, “No white man knows, or ever will know, where we took the body of
                  our beloved Tecumseh and buried him. Tecumseh will come again!”_[22]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn22) As shown by the differing claims,
                  Tecumseh’s death is an enigma that probably will never be solved.
                  The final moments of Tecumseh’s life are in dispute. Nobody is quite sure
                  who killed him, what happened to his body or even where his body is located.
                  History is abound in examples of individuals who are killed in mysterious ways
                  but who are later glorified. A cursory look in the twentieth century
                  reveals examples such as John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Martin Luther King and Mahatma
                  Gandhi. Tecumseh is not unique in being glorified but because he represented a
                  minority and a dying way of life he appeals to both Natives and Americans.
                  His name and spirit lives on in myth, mysticism and in the minds of people,
                  not just on a sign.
                  All cultures need, “people who embody ideals and aspirations about whom a
                  national identity can be hung [. . .] [i]ndians need such figures too”._[23]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn23) For America he fits the ideal
                  American mold. Throughout his life he exhibited those qualities that Americans
                  consider worthy. General Leslie Combs recalled Tecumseh saving his life at the
                  Ft. Miami Massacre and noted that he, “ [displayed] noble countenance, gallant
                  bearing [a] sonorous voice [while having] something noble and commanding in
                  all his actions”._[24]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn24) As Edmunds
                  points out these characteristics make “Tecumseh seem more ‘civilized’ and
                  therefore more acceptable”_[25]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn25) to
                  a white culture. Also, he is an American hero. Tecumseh was the underdog
                  trying to unite a people from an outside source. Americans could also relate
                  to Tecumseh as a patriot as he was advocating freedom and was willing to risk
                  death to fight for what he believed was right for the confederation. Themes
                  like those mentioned have been tangible and enduring to America since the
                  revolution.
                  Tecumseh has been exalted not only by his own tribe but by all Native
                  Americans as well. To oppressed groups whose lands are routinely lost and culture
                  systematically destroyed Tecumseh represents hope. Hope is shown in a
                  Shawnee legend that “predicted a second coming [. . .] by the flight of a star
                  across the heavens. When that day came all Indian tribes would unite”._[26]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn26) Indeed, Tecumseh’s confederation was
                  made up of numerous Indian tribes. Tecumseh’s opposition to intertribal
                  hostilities and for promoting peace and mutual support has made Tecumseh a
                  powerful pan-Indian symbol. This symbol is enlarged through his mysticism.
                  Tecumseh was a visionary in the most literal sense. Tecumseh visited Creek
                  country to invite them to join his confederation and won many over, especially
                  after predicting the 1811 earthquake in that nation. He also, “predicted the
                  falling of stars would prove the Indians’ ability to defeat the Americans”
                  _[27]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn27) while his brother seemed to be
                  a “purveyor of mystic mumbo-jumbo.”_[28]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn28) Especially, after the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) when Tecumseh’s
                  bother promised medicine that would make Indians invulnerable to bullets but
                  proved to be ineffective. The visions allowed Tecumseh to evolve past his
                  brother and take control of the confederation and change it from a religious
                  movement to a political movement that appealed to all Indians no matter what
                  tribe. Tecumseh also prophesized his own death at the Battle of the Thames
                  rather then surrender to the Americans._[29]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn29) The resurrection of Tecumseh is something that Shawnee tradition (as
                  previously stated) encourages. Thus, the duality of mysticism and myth
                  associated with Tecumseh has allowed him to enter the minds of America.
                  Tecumseh has been immortalized in popular culture and, “the aura of Tecumseh’
                  s fame has been felt on both sides of the St. Lawrence”_[30]_ (aoldb:
                  //mail/write/template.htm#_ftn30) and the Atlantic. A five act play about Tecumseh,
                  published in 1886 was regarded in it’s day as Canada’s “greatest literary
                  achievement”._[31]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn31) In America,
                  Tecumseh did not reach popularity until his death became a political issue during
                  the 1840 presidental campaign, as Richard Mentor Johnson ran for vice
                  president. A slew of “ballads, biographies, almanacs, and [. . .] novels [help]
                  put the Shawnee center stage” _[32]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn32)
                  in hearts and minds of Americans. Additionally, Tecumseh was transported
                  across the Atlantic and planted into German culture. Tecumseh literature
                  flourished during Nazi era and reinforced Hiterite ideals of “pan-ism”, uniting
                  under duress and strong central leadership. The fall of Nazism did not stop
                  Tecumseh as his story became an East German major motion picture in 1972 and, “
                  Tecumseh novels and biographies continue to leave German presses, the last in
                  1996 ”._[33]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn33) This “Tecumseh
                  Industry” has not stopped since its inception as many children biographies and
                  films have been published along with numerous novels which “testifies that
                  after nearly two hundred years Tecumseh has come to belong to all Americans”
                  _[34]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn34) , if not the world.
                  Tecumseh’s mysterious and violent death combined with the inability to
                  locate his body and surmise who killed him has given Tecumseh a universal appeal.
                  He exemplifies the European or American concept of ‘noble savage’ and many
                  of his personal qualities like gallantry, honesty, determination and
                  masculinity are easily identified with such an image._[35]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn35) Tecumseh’s myth and mysticism has resulted in a popular
                  culture response in not only literature but film and theater as well. Tecumseh
                  sells well and the effects of the “Tecumseh industry” has given him a
                  legendary status that has been maintained far longer then Tecumseh’s confederation.
                  The red response to Tecumseh has been in terms of hope, “that it might be
                  possible in a changing and turbulent world to find permanent peace and plenty”
                  ._[36]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn36) This dream still exists
                  today as traditional Shawnee legend bolsters a second coming of Tecumseh._[37]_
                  (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn37) Perhaps, the second coming has
                  already occurred; perhaps Tecumseh was, will be and continues with everyone red or
                  white.


                  ____________________________________

                  _[1]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref1) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow in
                  Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam, 1992) 787.

                  _[2]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref2) Moses Dawson, Historical
                  Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                  (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 427.

                  _[3]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref3) Moses Dawson, Historical
                  Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                  (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 427.


                  _[4]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref4) Moses Dawson, Historical
                  Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                  (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 193.

                  _[5]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref5) Moses Dawson, Historical
                  Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                  (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 429.

                  _[6]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref6) Moses Dawson, Historical
                  Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                  (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 193.

                  _[7]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref7) Pioneer Scrapbook. Death of
                  Tecumseh. Bowling Green, Ohio. 1910: 60.

                  _[8]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref8) William Hutch, A Chapter
                  of the History of the War of 1812 in the Northwest. (Cincinnati: Miami
                  Printing and Publishing Company, 1872) 152.

                  _[9]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref9) John Oskison, Tecumseh and
                  his Times; The Story of a Great Indian. (1874) 218.


                  _[10]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref10) John Sugden, Tecumseh’s
                  Last Stand. (University of Oklahoma Press, 1985) 141.

                  _[11]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref11) William Hutch, A Chapter
                  of the History of the War of 1812 in the Northwest.
                  (Cincinnati: Miami Printing and Publishing Company, 1872) 113.

                  _[12]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref12) Benson Lossing,
                  Pictorial Fieldbook of the War of 1812, 1869, 2 Apr. 2004 <
                  http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~wcarr1/Lossing2/Chap26.html>.

                  _[13]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref13) Peter Clarke, Origin and
                  Traditional History of the Wyandotts and Sketches of other Indian Tribes of
                  North America. (Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Co., 1870) 114.

                  _[14]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref14) Pioneer Scrapbook. The
                  Death of Tecumseh. Bowling Green, Ohio. 1910: 60.

                  _[15]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref15) Peter Clarke, Origin and
                  Traditional History of the Wyandotts and Sketches of other Indian Tribes of
                  North America. (Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Co., 1870) 113.


                  _[16]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref16) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 377.

                  _[17]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref17) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow
                  in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) 792.

                  _[18]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref18) John Oskison, Tecumseh
                  and his Times; The Story of a Great Indian. (1874) 218.

                  _[19]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref19) Benson Lossing,
                  Pictorial Fieldbook of the War of 1812, 1869, 2 Apr. 2004 <
                  http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~wcarr1/Lossing2/Chap26.html>.

                  _[20]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref20) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                  Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                  17.

                  _[21]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref21) John Sugden, Tecumseh’s
                  Last Stand. (University of Oklahoma Press, 1985) 215.

                  _[22]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref22) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow in
                  Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) 794.

                  _[23]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref23) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 390.

                  _[24]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref24) Pioneer Scrapbook.
                  Tecumseh Described. (Bowling Green, Ohio. 1910) 59.

                  _[25]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref25) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                  Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                  10.

                  _[26]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref26) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 389.

                  _[27]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref27) Mary Jane McDaniel, “
                  Tecumseh’s Visits to the Creeks,” The Alabama Review 33 (1980): 8.

                  _[28]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref28) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                  Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                  9.

                  _[29]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref29) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 379.

                  _[30]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref30) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                  Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                  12.

                  _[31]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref31) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 392.

                  _[32]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref32) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 397.

                  _[33]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref33) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 395.

                  _[34]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref34) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                  Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 400.

                  _[35]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref35) David Edmunds, Tecumseh
                  and the Quest for Indian Leadership. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1984)
                  224.

                  _[36]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref36) John Oskison, Tecumseh
                  and his Times; The Story of a Great Indian. (1874) 237.

                  _[37]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref37) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow
                  in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) 794.




                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • wolf_bna
                  I have the great honor of posting the following reply forwaded and posted with the permission of Panther Clan Mother Dark Rain Thom. For verification of her
                  Message 8 of 25 , Feb 7, 2006
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                    I have the great honor of posting the following reply forwaded and
                    posted with the permission of Panther Clan Mother Dark Rain Thom. For
                    verification of her right to speak 1812 Members may search for Dark
                    Rain Thom James Alexander Thom or Random House Canada.

                    MY Dear Cedar--

                    As usual you have found the heart of the matter and stated it very
                    well. He has now found the peace he was denied while alive, in the
                    bosom of Mother Earth - as it is intended.

                    At this time of the circle of time it matters not when nor why he
                    died. We do know that at this time he is in spirit and embraced by
                    those who orginally gave him life. Creator and Mother Earth. So it
                    shall always be. Aho

                    WHERE he was buried? When he died? By what means? Those who needed to
                    know KNEW. Those who did not need to know...wonder and throw out wild
                    suppositions. Those who were with him during the battle were well
                    experienced at tending to such events as a warriors death in battle.
                    This was certainly not their first experience in battle. Those who
                    survived knew well what to do and when and how and where. IF others
                    chose to not believe it or they chose to start or perpetuate their
                    own myths...so be it.

                    It matters not. Some say well, they need to pay tribute to him at his
                    resting place. NOT. His spirit now flies with the wind, shines with
                    the milky way, traverses the universe. He and his spirit is no longer
                    bound by PLACE. A tobacco offering, a prayer all reach him thru
                    immortal means.

                    I am comforted to know no curious, shallow thinking persons claiming
                    an entitlement to such sacred knowledge, can disturb him.

                    Thank you for speaking so well for our beloved departed warrior.
                    Love
                    Aunty Dark Rain

                    Single use by permission has been granted to:
                    Cedar Heart
                    also known as
                    r patrick nichols
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