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Re: [WarOf1812] Re: TECUMSEH'S Bones

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  • CalvertMck@aol.com
    In a message dated 2/2/2006 7:56:17 AM Central Standard Time, britishnativeallies@rogers.com writes: Tecumseh did not have to recruit followers from the Six
    Message 1 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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      In a message dated 2/2/2006 7:56:17 AM Central Standard Time,
      britishnativeallies@... writes:


      Tecumseh did not have to recruit followers from the Six Nations
      because the Six Nations had already been allied to eachother for one
      thousand eight hundred years. As I explained in my previous post the
      Peacemaker Tekanawita (a Weyndot or Huron) had already set out to
      bring all of the Nations of North and South America together as one
      people 1,800 years before Tecumseh.
      If the Nations leaders had it to do all over again, do you think the Weyndot
      would be successful in bringing all of the Nations, north and south together
      to explore unity past, present and future? Could this have changed the
      history of the discovery process?

      Tecumseh and Mohawk War Chief Teyoninhokarawen were good friends.
      Approximately 50 Grand River warriors fought with Tecumseh in his
      area of opperations. After Tecumseh was killed at the Thames many of
      his followers took refuge at Grand River including Tenskwatawa (the
      prophet) his brother. Some of the Shawnee and the other western
      Nations decendants still live here at Grand River to this day.

      If the friendship of the leaders were strong enough and the warriors for
      Grand River were still interested in the same area of operations - maybe the
      historical reports of Tecumseh were not reported correctly and Tecumseh were
      mearly wounded and not killed? Maybe the death was of slow nature, and due to
      complications of his wounds - this would have provided Tecumseh to bestow what
      made him sucessful over his nation to his best warriors to enable them to
      continue his legacy - but a price worth prolonging the agony of a slow and
      painful death due to complication and infection of his wounds. And the shot that
      he took in the rear end which was not accurately documented in history as his
      "pain in the ass" and thus the historical beginnings of such sematics.
      Strictly opinion of course and not a historical representation, but a a dillusion
      of some of his followers.

      In order to safeguard Tecumseh's remains ALL of the British allied
      Nations in the vicinity took part in a conspiracy to keep the
      location secret forever. This was accomplished by having
      several "grave sites" provided in several communities throughout
      various locations in the region. We also have one here at Grand River.

      Grand Ri ver and the many other "grave sites" should be honored to host the
      remains of Tecumseh's - I am sure some have altered their plans to make the
      grave site more accomodating for the "resting place", however Tecumseh had not
      requested or conveyed this to the newer warriors in the nation. However, if
      Tecumseh were to request this in todays nations the request would be honored
      to accomodate the needs or plans modified to insure his worthy warrior site
      needs were met.

      Strictly opinions and postulations of a non-posting lurker.






      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • yawors1@uwindsor.ca
      I must confess I was stunned to read the following: maybe the historical reports of Tecumseh were not reported correctly and Tecumseh were mearly wounded and
      Message 2 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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        I must confess I was stunned to read the following:

        "maybe the historical reports of Tecumseh were not reported correctly and
        Tecumseh were
        mearly wounded and not killed? Maybe the death was of slow nature, and
        due to
        complications of his wounds - this would have provided Tecumseh to bestow
        what
        made him sucessful over his nation to his best warriors to enable them to

        continue his legacy - but a price worth prolonging the agony of a slow
        and
        painful death due to complication and infection of his wounds. And the
        shot that
        he took in the rear end which was not accurately documented in history as
        his
        "pain in the ass" and thus the historical beginnings of such sematics.
        Strictly opinion of course and not a historical representation, but a a
        dillusion
        of some of his followers."

        I have never seen any of this suggested in any source, primary or
        secondary, that I have come across so far. Are these musings just
        supposition, based on wishful thinking? If there are serious sources for
        these statements, I'm sure we'd all like to hear about them.

        Harrison was quite sure Tecumseh had been killed. He knew Tecumseh by
        sight. So how could he have been so sure, if he didn't see the body? I
        haven't read Harrison's papers so I don't know the particulars of what he
        had to say on this - can anybody enlighten us?

        There are primary sources that involve officers of the 41st Regiment who
        were captured at Moraviantown, who were shown a number of bodies after the
        battle and asked to verify the identities of any they knew. All these
        officers knew Tecumseh well by sight.

        Not to be unduly gruesome, but they state they saw Tecumseh's body, and it
        had been most foully mutilated, presumably by "souvenir hunters". It is
        difficult in the year 2006 to get yourself in the frame of mind where you
        can understand the motivation for somebody wanting a razor strop or
        tobacco pouch made out of human skin. But there you go - it happened in
        frontier warfare.

        If the officers' first-hand accounts are true, and there is no apparent
        reason why they would be lying, then it would seem very unlikely that
        Tecumseh's remains could be recovered until the Americans withrew towards
        Detroit. This withdrawal did happen fairly quickly, Harrison withdrew
        towards Detroit the day after the battle. In the interim, were these
        bodies buried on the field? I believe the British casualties were buried,
        but were the Native Warriors who had been killed left out to rot? We must
        recognize the racism that pervaded "civilized" attitudes to "savages" at
        the time of the War of 1812 - and long after, unfortunately.

        I haven't run across anything yet that details what happened to these
        bodies after the British officers saw them, then were led off towards
        eventual captivity in Ohio and Kentucky. So it's not impossible that a
        body could have been recovered a day or two after the battle, whether by
        digging up all the new graves until the body was found, or finding it
        still lying on the field. Either way, the body must have been in rough
        shape. The point here is that Tecumseh's body - dead or alive - was
        apparently not carried back to "safety" (from disrespectful acts of
        American frontiersmen, presumably) by Native Warriors as they retreated
        from the field. At best, it was recovered a day or two later, after
        having been foully mutilated.

        Hero myths are actually a very interesting field of study. It is
        instructive to compare some recurring stories about great figures. One
        story is the idea that the hero doesn't die, but is off somewhere sleeping
        until needed again (King Arthur, Sir Francis Drake, etc.).
        The psychology behind all such stories seems clearer if you stand back and
        look at them as a group. Put simply, a profound sense of loss leads to a
        certain amount of wishful thinking.

        Jim Yaworsky
        41st

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • wolf_bna
        As I am not Shawnee I cannot speak on their behalf. I can however relay what I have been told by them as well as my Nation s own oral history. I have never
        Message 3 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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          As I am not Shawnee I cannot speak on their behalf. I can however
          relay what I have been told by them as well as my Nation's own oral
          history.

          I have never heard any such story that claimed Tecumseh was carried
          from the field alive only to die at some other time and location. It
          is not within our oral history nor what I've heard from the Shawnee,
          the Lenape, or the Chippawas of the Themes, Walpole Island, Stoney
          and Kettle Points etc.

          The oral history has always been clear that he was killed in the
          battle and his body was recovered. The military tradition (especially
          among the U.S. Army's Rangers) of recovering the bodies of their
          fellow soldiers from the field can trace it's roots to this Native
          trait. If the bodies were removed by the American or British soldiers
          and even buried by them, they still would have been recovered by the
          Natives. I am not at liberty to detail the ceremony we call Ohkiweh
          or "The Feast Of The Dead" but, it involves the remains of our
          ancestors. It is just as important as the Condolence at death.

          At the Battle of Oriskany during the American Revolutionary War, the
          bodies of ALL of the Seneca and Mohawk Warriors were recovered and
          given the proper ceremonies to send them to the Spirit World. An
          extremely important ritual among Native people. The bodies of the
          Tryon County Militia still lay where they fell on the battle field to
          this day.

          The "burial site conspiracy" was devised by the Nations to detour
          anyone from finding and desecrating his resting place.

          For example Joseph Brant's remains are not buried at the Mohawk
          Chapel. His tomb was desecrated at the turn of the 20th century and
          his remains were taken and are lost forever. This is what the people
          were trying to prevent back then.
        • lalozon
          From: I must confess I was stunned to read the following: maybe the historical reports of .. Tecumseh were mearly wounded and not
          Message 4 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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            From: <yawors1@...>

            " I must confess I was stunned to read the following: "maybe the historical
            reports of .. Tecumseh were mearly wounded and not killed? ... Harrison was
            quite sure Tecumseh had been killed. He knew Tecumseh by
            sight ...they state they saw Tecumseh's body, and it had been most foully
            mutilated, presumably by "souvenir hunters".
            .................

            From: "wolf_bna" <britishnativeallies@...>

            I have never heard any such story that claimed Tecumseh was carried
            from the field alive only to die at some other time and location.






            I agree with Mr. Yaworsky and Mr. Thomas


            Members of Ken Hall's 'Kentucky Light Dragoons' who have visited the
            Kentucky museums and have photos of a captured 41st Regiment drum, a lantern
            shade supposedly made from a piece of Tecumseh's back skin, etc., relics
            from the Battle of the Thames brought back to Kentucky by members of the
            Kentucky Forces who fought at the Battle of the Thames.

            They have also researched documents that reports the 'Kentucky Light
            Dragoons' and USA Forces victory at the Battle of the Thames and that
            Tecumseh was killed and identified as the Shawnee known as 'Tecumthe'.



            James Alexander Thom states that his book "PANTHER IN THE SKY"
            ISBN:0-345-30596-5 which chronicles the life of Tecumseh, was researched
            from original documents and Shawnee oral history which state Tecumseh was
            killed during the Battle of the Thames.

            As does John Sugden author of "TECUMSEH'S LAST STAND" ISBN: 0-8061-1944-6



            Altho reports verify for sure that Elvis is alive and works at a gas station
            in Hamtramik Michigan ....



            Yrs.,
            L2
          • Peter Monahan
            Mr Yaworski My reaction to the post you quote was the same as yours: shock. It was less than coherent and perhaps, to be charitable, an attempt to be
            Message 5 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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              Mr Yaworski

              My reaction to the post you quote was the same as yours: shock. It was less than coherent and perhaps, to be charitable, an attempt to be humourous. as really "out there" speculation, I would suggest that it is an unprofitable avenue in which to invest much further discussion.

              Peter Monahan, Sgt Major, CFNA
              ============================================================


              " I must confess I was stunned to read the following: "maybe the historical reports of .. Tecumseh were mearly wounded and not killed? ...

              Harrison was quite sure Tecumseh had been killed. He knew Tecumseh by
              sight ...they state they saw Tecumseh's body, and it had been most foully mutilated, presumably by "souvenir hunters".
              .................

              From: "wolf_bna" <britishnativeallies@...>

              I have never heard any such story that claimed Tecumseh was carried
              from the field alive only to die at some other time and location.






              I agree with Mr. Yaworsky and Mr. Thomas


              Members of Ken Hall's 'Kentucky Light Dragoons' who have visited the
              Kentucky museums and have photos of a captured 41st Regiment drum, a lantern
              shade supposedly made from a piece of Tecumseh's back skin, etc., relics
              from the Battle of the Thames brought back to Kentucky by members of the
              Kentucky Forces who fought at the Battle of the Thames.

              They have also researched documents that reports the 'Kentucky Light
              Dragoons' and USA Forces victory at the Battle of the Thames and that
              Tecumseh was killed and identified as the Shawnee known as 'Tecumthe'.



              James Alexander Thom states that his book "PANTHER IN THE SKY"
              ISBN:0-345-30596-5 which chronicles the life of Tecumseh, was researched
              from original documents and Shawnee oral history which state Tecumseh was
              killed during the Battle of the Thames.

              As does John Sugden author of "TECUMSEH'S LAST STAND" ISBN: 0-8061-1944-6



              Altho reports verify for sure that Elvis is alive and works at a gas station
              in Hamtramik Michigan ....



              Yrs.,
              L2





              The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of square miles...

              Unit Contact information for North America:
              ---------------------------------
              Crown Forces Unit Listing:
              http://1812crownforces.tripod.com

              American Forces Unit Listing
              http://usforces1812.tripod.com
              Yahoo! Groups Links






              ============================================================
            • Scott McDonald
              This web page deals with several first hand accounts of Tecumseh s death. http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Cove/8286/tdeath.html enjoy Scott McD.
              Message 6 of 25 , Feb 2, 2006
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                This web page deals with several "first hand" accounts of Tecumseh's death.
                http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Cove/8286/tdeath.html
                enjoy

                Scott McD.

                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • Tom Fournier
                From one of Wolf s postings: That can be attributed to British Alligence and a Mohawk War Chief named Teyoninhokarawen! I ll bet nobody has ever heard of him
                Message 7 of 25 , Feb 4, 2006
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                  From one of Wolf's postings:

                  "That can be attributed to British Alligence and a Mohawk War Chief
                  named Teyoninhokarawen! I'll bet nobody has ever heard of him (trick
                  question)?"

                  Oh oh a trick question ...I was going to try Major John Norton ...

                  On another note, Wolf thank you for sharing your oral traditions and
                  your thoughts. To me they are a generous contribution, impactful and
                  the cause for reflection. It is impossible to picture the potential
                  outcomes of the conflict without considering your forefathers' many
                  significant contributions.

                  Your ally and your servant,

                  Tom Fournier
                  41st Regiment of Foot
                • wolf_bna
                  ... and ... and ... potential ... Mr. Fournier...and all Sir, You are most welcome! Congratulations on the trick question! Teyoninhokarawen is indeed Major
                  Message 8 of 25 , Feb 4, 2006
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                    --- In WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com, "Tom Fournier"
                    <tom4141fournier@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > From one of Wolf's postings:
                    >
                    > "That can be attributed to British Alligence and a Mohawk War Chief
                    > named Teyoninhokarawen! I'll bet nobody has ever heard of him (trick
                    > question)?"
                    >
                    > Oh oh a trick question ...I was going to try Major John Norton ...
                    >
                    > On another note, Wolf thank you for sharing your oral traditions
                    and
                    > your thoughts. To me they are a generous contribution, impactful
                    and
                    > the cause for reflection. It is impossible to picture the
                    potential
                    > outcomes of the conflict without considering your forefathers' many
                    > significant contributions.
                    >
                    > Your ally and your servant,
                    >
                    > Tom Fournier
                    > 41st Regiment of Foot
                    >

                    Mr. Fournier...and all

                    Sir,

                    You are most welcome! Congratulations on the trick question!
                    Teyoninhokarawen is indeed Major John Norton. However, the average
                    Canadian doesn't know who he was.

                    It is our earnest hope that we do not offend anyone but rather
                    explain our history as it pertains to us. The difficult part of re-
                    enacting for us is that we are charged with maintaining and telling
                    our Nations' history as it has been passed down from those we speak
                    about. We still have a Nation and a Clan to anwser to should our
                    actions become dishonorable.

                    We have the precarious responsibility to speak on behalf of our
                    ancestors and ultimately our people. In doing so we often find
                    ourselves in a battle of our history versus someone else's version.
                    At times it can become extremely frustrating. As you witnessed at the
                    41st Lecture I expressed the notion that most of the "written"
                    historical accounts were not lies so much as they were "cultural
                    misunderstandings."

                    As you are aware you (and anyone else) are always welcome at our camp
                    to discuss our history and culture.

                    In Peace and Friendship,

                    Capt. Wolf Thomas BNA
                  • Stalin15@aol.com
                    This is an essay I wrote about on the topic of Tecumseh s body: Tecumseh: From Confusion to Legacy” The War of 1812 is often considered a forgotten war in
                    Message 9 of 25 , Feb 7, 2006
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                      This is an essay I wrote about on the topic of Tecumseh's body:


                      Tecumseh: From Confusion to Legacy”
                      The War of 1812 is often considered a forgotten war in the minds of most
                      Americans. From the beginning, the war went badly for the Americans, and
                      blunders were abound on the fighting fronts. The results of the Treaty of Ghent,
                      which ended the war, maintained the “status quos,” meaning each side will
                      revert themselves to a pre-war position. Despite the apparent tie, the war
                      created many folk heroes and events that live on to this day. Andrew Jackson won
                      a huge victory at the Battle of New Orleans, which was later immortalized in
                      a song. The president’s house was burned by the British, and with a new coat
                      of paint, became the White House. Lastly, Tecumseh, the leader of an
                      Indian confederation, was killed at the Battle of the Thames (1814). While, the
                      other events and heroes have a clear-cut victor and story, the story of
                      Tecumseh is unique. The tale of his death at the hands of the Americans has been
                      conflicting and shrouded in mystery. The result of his mysterious demise
                      has turned Tecumseh into a malleable figure and propelled him from confusion to
                      legacy.
                      The death of Tecumseh has often been a controversial issue and some of the
                      sources have become politically tainted, as his death became a political warm
                      spot during the 1840 presidential campaign. However, “[t]here exists no less
                      than forty-five (perhaps considerable more!) accounts”_[1]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn1) of his death. These differing accounts are the fuels
                      that enhance Tecumseh’s mysterious death, as the competing players (British,
                      Americans, Indians) all have differing accounts of what happened to his
                      body. This paper will look at several claims of these three nations in order to
                      examine the confusion and creditability in thier claims.
                      In order to examine the claims, some background about the Battle of the
                      Thames needs to be considered. William Henry Harrison was commanding the
                      Americans, while the British were under command of General Procter and the Indians,
                      who were allied with the British, were under the control of Tecumseh. A
                      small swamp separated the forces. The Americans had around 3000 men arranged
                      such that they could swoop in, destroy the British lines, and descend upon the
                      Indians_[2]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn2) (see appendix A). Col.
                      Richard Mentor Johnson, leader of the Kentucky mounted rifles, was directed
                      “to take [the] ground to the left and forming upon that flank to endeavor to
                      turn the right of the Indians”._[3]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn3)
                      There are differing accounts of how many troops the British and Indians
                      had. Some put it as low as 1200_[4]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn4)
                      or as high as 2500;_[5]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn5) either way
                      the British and Indians were considerably outnumbered.
                      The battle itself lasted less then thirty minutes. Colonel Johnson, who was
                      on the left, charged to the right of the British line along with other
                      mounted men. This opened the door for additional infantry to pour through. The
                      British regulars “dispirited by long continued exposure and privation made but
                      a feeble resistance”_[6]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn6) and lasted
                      only a few minutes before surrendering. With the British left broken, and
                      Proctor fleeing, the Americans dismounted and converged upon the Indians.
                      Colonel Johnson was wounded “in a very painful part-his knuckles [and] in his
                      body”_[7]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn7) whlie leading this charge,
                      but was still able to aim and kill a tall, athletic and black-eyed warrior
                      with a dark complexion._[8]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn8)
                      Additional American troops broke through the swamp on the left and formed upon the
                      Indian rear. The fighting between the Kentuckians and Indians was short,
                      close-quarters and destructive. The natives lasted only a short while and in the “
                      usual Indian way Tecumseh’s warriors scattered and faded back through the
                      swamp”_[9]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn9) leaving only thirty-three
                      dead behind on the ground. It is among these thirty-three dead that Tecumseh’s
                      legacy starts.
                      The first claim by the Americans is that Colonel Richard Mentor Johnson
                      killed Tecumseh. However, as John Sugden, a professor at Hereward College in
                      England, points out, “[the] accounts from the Johnston camp fail to establish
                      that Tecumseh was killed by the Colonel,”_[10]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn10) as many of the accounts are contradictory and have been used to
                      further his political career. Further evidence is gathered from his
                      appearance. Tecumseh was said to have a “face oval rather then angular [. . .] his
                      eyes clear, transparent hazel [. . .] and his complexion more of a light brown
                      or tan”_[11]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn11) and not that of the
                      black-eyed warrior that Johnson claimed to have killed. Additionally, the
                      wounds of Tecumseh needs to be called into quiestion. Benson Lossing, who wrote
                      the first comprehensive story of the War of 1812, recites Johnson’s claim to
                      have killed Tecumseh outright with a pistol shot through the head._[12]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn12) However, William Caldwell remembers
                      overtaking and passing Tecumseh after the fight and noticed that a rifle bullet
                      penetrated his breast through his hunting coat._[13]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn13) This contradictory evidence suggests that the traditional
                      claim of Johnson killing Tecumseh is at least problematic if not unfounded.
                      Another traditional claim that has been purported is that Tecumseh was
                      disfigured and skinned by the Americans. General George Sanderson, who was a
                      captain in the American army and who knew Tecumseh, “saw the Kentucky troops in
                      the very act of cutting the skin from the body of the chief”._[14]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn14) This cannot be taken too seriously, as other
                      evidence suggests that “[a] fallen Potawatamie brave was probably taken for
                      Tecumseh [. . .] and mutilated.”_[15]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn15) Additional evidence, coming from Tecumseh’s Indian friend Shabeni
                      (Roundhead), in Sugden’s book, reinforces the claim that Tecumseh was, “by the side
                      of [. . .] another Indian whose skin has been taken off [and his] body has
                      not been touched”._[16]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn16) General
                      Harrison, as reported by Allan Eckert, who wrote a biography of Tecumseh, viewed
                      the mutilated body and thought, “it much too small”._[17]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn17) This just adds to the confusion and contradictory
                      evidence serves to expand Tecumseh’s legacy. This expansion of Tecumseh’s
                      legacy is furthered, in that his body has never been discovered..
                      Many people have claimed to possess Tecumseh’s body, or that they or know
                      what happened to his body. The Sac chief, Black Hawk claims that “Tecumseh’s
                      body was taken away and buried some five miles from the battlefield”._[18]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn18) This claim is supported by General
                      Procter’s native interpreter Clarke, who “asserted positively that Tecumseh
                      was killed, and his body was carried off by the Indians”._[19]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn19) David Edmunds, in an article for Timeline
                      magazine, suggestes that, “Since most of the slain were buried in a mass grave near
                      the battlefield, Tecumseh probably was interred with his fallen warriors”
                      ._[20]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn20) Furthermore, Walpole Island
                      has built a memorial cairn that supposedly has Tecumseh’s bones interred in it,
                      while Sugden reports a claim that “Tecumseh’s body was presented to the
                      British [. . .] who took it to Sandwhich for burial”._[21]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn21) The last claim, belongs to Shawnee tradition, and might
                      be the best supported claim as to the location of Tecumseh’s body. Thier
                      claim states, “No white man knows, or ever will know, where we took the body of
                      our beloved Tecumseh and buried him. Tecumseh will come again!”_[22]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn22) As shown by the differing claims,
                      Tecumseh’s death is an enigma that probably will never be solved.
                      The final moments of Tecumseh’s life are in dispute. Nobody is quite sure
                      who killed him, what happened to his body or even where his body is located.
                      History is abound in examples of individuals who are killed in mysterious ways
                      but who are later glorified. A cursory look in the twentieth century
                      reveals examples such as John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Martin Luther King and Mahatma
                      Gandhi. Tecumseh is not unique in being glorified but because he represented a
                      minority and a dying way of life he appeals to both Natives and Americans.
                      His name and spirit lives on in myth, mysticism and in the minds of people,
                      not just on a sign.
                      All cultures need, “people who embody ideals and aspirations about whom a
                      national identity can be hung [. . .] [i]ndians need such figures too”._[23]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn23) For America he fits the ideal
                      American mold. Throughout his life he exhibited those qualities that Americans
                      consider worthy. General Leslie Combs recalled Tecumseh saving his life at the
                      Ft. Miami Massacre and noted that he, “ [displayed] noble countenance, gallant
                      bearing [a] sonorous voice [while having] something noble and commanding in
                      all his actions”._[24]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn24) As Edmunds
                      points out these characteristics make “Tecumseh seem more ‘civilized’ and
                      therefore more acceptable”_[25]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn25) to
                      a white culture. Also, he is an American hero. Tecumseh was the underdog
                      trying to unite a people from an outside source. Americans could also relate
                      to Tecumseh as a patriot as he was advocating freedom and was willing to risk
                      death to fight for what he believed was right for the confederation. Themes
                      like those mentioned have been tangible and enduring to America since the
                      revolution.
                      Tecumseh has been exalted not only by his own tribe but by all Native
                      Americans as well. To oppressed groups whose lands are routinely lost and culture
                      systematically destroyed Tecumseh represents hope. Hope is shown in a
                      Shawnee legend that “predicted a second coming [. . .] by the flight of a star
                      across the heavens. When that day came all Indian tribes would unite”._[26]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn26) Indeed, Tecumseh’s confederation was
                      made up of numerous Indian tribes. Tecumseh’s opposition to intertribal
                      hostilities and for promoting peace and mutual support has made Tecumseh a
                      powerful pan-Indian symbol. This symbol is enlarged through his mysticism.
                      Tecumseh was a visionary in the most literal sense. Tecumseh visited Creek
                      country to invite them to join his confederation and won many over, especially
                      after predicting the 1811 earthquake in that nation. He also, “predicted the
                      falling of stars would prove the Indians’ ability to defeat the Americans”
                      _[27]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn27) while his brother seemed to be
                      a “purveyor of mystic mumbo-jumbo.”_[28]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn28) Especially, after the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) when Tecumseh’s
                      bother promised medicine that would make Indians invulnerable to bullets but
                      proved to be ineffective. The visions allowed Tecumseh to evolve past his
                      brother and take control of the confederation and change it from a religious
                      movement to a political movement that appealed to all Indians no matter what
                      tribe. Tecumseh also prophesized his own death at the Battle of the Thames
                      rather then surrender to the Americans._[29]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn29) The resurrection of Tecumseh is something that Shawnee tradition (as
                      previously stated) encourages. Thus, the duality of mysticism and myth
                      associated with Tecumseh has allowed him to enter the minds of America.
                      Tecumseh has been immortalized in popular culture and, “the aura of Tecumseh’
                      s fame has been felt on both sides of the St. Lawrence”_[30]_ (aoldb:
                      //mail/write/template.htm#_ftn30) and the Atlantic. A five act play about Tecumseh,
                      published in 1886 was regarded in it’s day as Canada’s “greatest literary
                      achievement”._[31]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn31) In America,
                      Tecumseh did not reach popularity until his death became a political issue during
                      the 1840 presidental campaign, as Richard Mentor Johnson ran for vice
                      president. A slew of “ballads, biographies, almanacs, and [. . .] novels [help]
                      put the Shawnee center stage” _[32]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn32)
                      in hearts and minds of Americans. Additionally, Tecumseh was transported
                      across the Atlantic and planted into German culture. Tecumseh literature
                      flourished during Nazi era and reinforced Hiterite ideals of “pan-ism”, uniting
                      under duress and strong central leadership. The fall of Nazism did not stop
                      Tecumseh as his story became an East German major motion picture in 1972 and, “
                      Tecumseh novels and biographies continue to leave German presses, the last in
                      1996 ”._[33]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn33) This “Tecumseh
                      Industry” has not stopped since its inception as many children biographies and
                      films have been published along with numerous novels which “testifies that
                      after nearly two hundred years Tecumseh has come to belong to all Americans”
                      _[34]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn34) , if not the world.
                      Tecumseh’s mysterious and violent death combined with the inability to
                      locate his body and surmise who killed him has given Tecumseh a universal appeal.
                      He exemplifies the European or American concept of ‘noble savage’ and many
                      of his personal qualities like gallantry, honesty, determination and
                      masculinity are easily identified with such an image._[35]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn35) Tecumseh’s myth and mysticism has resulted in a popular
                      culture response in not only literature but film and theater as well. Tecumseh
                      sells well and the effects of the “Tecumseh industry” has given him a
                      legendary status that has been maintained far longer then Tecumseh’s confederation.
                      The red response to Tecumseh has been in terms of hope, “that it might be
                      possible in a changing and turbulent world to find permanent peace and plenty”
                      ._[36]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn36) This dream still exists
                      today as traditional Shawnee legend bolsters a second coming of Tecumseh._[37]_
                      (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftn37) Perhaps, the second coming has
                      already occurred; perhaps Tecumseh was, will be and continues with everyone red or
                      white.


                      ____________________________________

                      _[1]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref1) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow in
                      Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam, 1992) 787.

                      _[2]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref2) Moses Dawson, Historical
                      Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                      (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 427.

                      _[3]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref3) Moses Dawson, Historical
                      Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                      (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 427.


                      _[4]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref4) Moses Dawson, Historical
                      Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                      (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 193.

                      _[5]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref5) Moses Dawson, Historical
                      Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                      (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 429.

                      _[6]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref6) Moses Dawson, Historical
                      Narrative of the Civil and Military Services of William H. Harrison.
                      (Cincinnati: Advertiser Office, 1824) 193.

                      _[7]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref7) Pioneer Scrapbook. Death of
                      Tecumseh. Bowling Green, Ohio. 1910: 60.

                      _[8]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref8) William Hutch, A Chapter
                      of the History of the War of 1812 in the Northwest. (Cincinnati: Miami
                      Printing and Publishing Company, 1872) 152.

                      _[9]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref9) John Oskison, Tecumseh and
                      his Times; The Story of a Great Indian. (1874) 218.


                      _[10]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref10) John Sugden, Tecumseh’s
                      Last Stand. (University of Oklahoma Press, 1985) 141.

                      _[11]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref11) William Hutch, A Chapter
                      of the History of the War of 1812 in the Northwest.
                      (Cincinnati: Miami Printing and Publishing Company, 1872) 113.

                      _[12]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref12) Benson Lossing,
                      Pictorial Fieldbook of the War of 1812, 1869, 2 Apr. 2004 <
                      http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~wcarr1/Lossing2/Chap26.html>.

                      _[13]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref13) Peter Clarke, Origin and
                      Traditional History of the Wyandotts and Sketches of other Indian Tribes of
                      North America. (Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Co., 1870) 114.

                      _[14]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref14) Pioneer Scrapbook. The
                      Death of Tecumseh. Bowling Green, Ohio. 1910: 60.

                      _[15]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref15) Peter Clarke, Origin and
                      Traditional History of the Wyandotts and Sketches of other Indian Tribes of
                      North America. (Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Co., 1870) 113.


                      _[16]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref16) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 377.

                      _[17]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref17) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow
                      in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) 792.

                      _[18]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref18) John Oskison, Tecumseh
                      and his Times; The Story of a Great Indian. (1874) 218.

                      _[19]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref19) Benson Lossing,
                      Pictorial Fieldbook of the War of 1812, 1869, 2 Apr. 2004 <
                      http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~wcarr1/Lossing2/Chap26.html>.

                      _[20]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref20) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                      Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                      17.

                      _[21]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref21) John Sugden, Tecumseh’s
                      Last Stand. (University of Oklahoma Press, 1985) 215.

                      _[22]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref22) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow in
                      Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) 794.

                      _[23]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref23) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 390.

                      _[24]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref24) Pioneer Scrapbook.
                      Tecumseh Described. (Bowling Green, Ohio. 1910) 59.

                      _[25]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref25) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                      Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                      10.

                      _[26]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref26) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 389.

                      _[27]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref27) Mary Jane McDaniel, “
                      Tecumseh’s Visits to the Creeks,” The Alabama Review 33 (1980): 8.

                      _[28]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref28) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                      Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                      9.

                      _[29]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref29) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 379.

                      _[30]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref30) David Edmunds, “The Thin
                      Red Line: Tecumseh, the Prophet and Shawnee Resistance.” Timeline Jan. 1988:
                      12.

                      _[31]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref31) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 392.

                      _[32]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref32) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 397.

                      _[33]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref33) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 395.

                      _[34]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref34) John Sugden, Tecumseh: A
                      Life. (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998) 400.

                      _[35]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref35) David Edmunds, Tecumseh
                      and the Quest for Indian Leadership. (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1984)
                      224.

                      _[36]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref36) John Oskison, Tecumseh
                      and his Times; The Story of a Great Indian. (1874) 237.

                      _[37]_ (aoldb://mail/write/template.htm#_ftnref37) Allan Eckert, A Sorrow
                      in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh. (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) 794.




                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • wolf_bna
                      I have the great honor of posting the following reply forwaded and posted with the permission of Panther Clan Mother Dark Rain Thom. For verification of her
                      Message 10 of 25 , Feb 7, 2006
                      • 0 Attachment
                        I have the great honor of posting the following reply forwaded and
                        posted with the permission of Panther Clan Mother Dark Rain Thom. For
                        verification of her right to speak 1812 Members may search for Dark
                        Rain Thom James Alexander Thom or Random House Canada.

                        MY Dear Cedar--

                        As usual you have found the heart of the matter and stated it very
                        well. He has now found the peace he was denied while alive, in the
                        bosom of Mother Earth - as it is intended.

                        At this time of the circle of time it matters not when nor why he
                        died. We do know that at this time he is in spirit and embraced by
                        those who orginally gave him life. Creator and Mother Earth. So it
                        shall always be. Aho

                        WHERE he was buried? When he died? By what means? Those who needed to
                        know KNEW. Those who did not need to know...wonder and throw out wild
                        suppositions. Those who were with him during the battle were well
                        experienced at tending to such events as a warriors death in battle.
                        This was certainly not their first experience in battle. Those who
                        survived knew well what to do and when and how and where. IF others
                        chose to not believe it or they chose to start or perpetuate their
                        own myths...so be it.

                        It matters not. Some say well, they need to pay tribute to him at his
                        resting place. NOT. His spirit now flies with the wind, shines with
                        the milky way, traverses the universe. He and his spirit is no longer
                        bound by PLACE. A tobacco offering, a prayer all reach him thru
                        immortal means.

                        I am comforted to know no curious, shallow thinking persons claiming
                        an entitlement to such sacred knowledge, can disturb him.

                        Thank you for speaking so well for our beloved departed warrior.
                        Love
                        Aunty Dark Rain

                        Single use by permission has been granted to:
                        Cedar Heart
                        also known as
                        r patrick nichols
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