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Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?

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  • PEGGY MATHEWS
    I was watching the videotape of the broadcast of the bicentennial ceremony at New Orleans last December (thanks Joe!) and the comment was made that British
    Message 1 of 6 , Feb 1, 2004
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      I was watching the videotape of the broadcast of the bicentennial ceremony at New Orleans last December (thanks Joe!) and the comment was made that British bankers loaned the infant United States the 15 million dollars to make purchase since the country didn't have that kind of money. So assuming this is correct, and some comments by the commentators weren't, was Britain so very unconcerned by the land deal or couldn't they control the banks?

      It would seem to be contrary to national interests to see Republican France get the money, and the United States gain territory that put them in immediate conflict with British interests. Since arguably the land deal contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 (my tenuous connection to the list), why did it occur?

      Inquiring minds want to know.

      Thanks,
      Michael Mathews


      Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality. The Dali Lama

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Peter Catley
      During the Napoleonic wars the shoemakers of Northampton (and others) sold their wares to both sides. In a genuine free enterprise economy the governments
      Message 2 of 6 , Feb 1, 2004
      • 0 Attachment
        During the Napoleonic wars the shoemakers of Northampton (and others) sold
        their wares to both sides. In a genuine free enterprise economy the
        governments have relatively limited influence on trade and economy.



        The answer to the question is you cannot let politics and war get in the way
        of profit, look at the whole Continental blockade policy of the Emperor
        honoured more in the breach than the observance..



        Cheers



        P**



        -----Original Message-----
        From: PEGGY MATHEWS [mailto:ciefranche21e@...]
        Sent: 02 February 2004 03:12
        To: 1812elist
        Subject: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?



        I was watching the videotape of the broadcast of the bicentennial ceremony
        at New Orleans last December (thanks Joe!) and the comment was made that
        British bankers loaned the infant United States the 15 million dollars to
        make purchase since the country didn't have that kind of money. So assuming
        this is correct, and some comments by the commentators weren't, was Britain
        so very unconcerned by the land deal or couldn't they control the banks?

        It would seem to be contrary to national interests to see Republican France
        get the money, and the United States gain territory that put them in
        immediate conflict with British interests. Since arguably the land deal
        contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 (my tenuous connection to the
        list), why did it occur?

        Inquiring minds want to know.

        Thanks,
        Michael Mathews


        Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality. The Dali Lama

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



        The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of
        square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of
        square miles...

        Unit Contact information for North America:
        ---------------------------------
        Crown Forces Unit Listing:
        http://1812crownforces.tripod.com

        American Forces Unit Lisiting
        http://usforces1812.tripod.com



        _____

        Yahoo! Groups Links

        * To visit your group on the web, go to:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/


        * To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
        WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        <mailto:WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com?subject=Unsubscribe>


        * Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of
        <http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/> Service.



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • dancingbobd@webtv.net
        Peter, The Emperor had no clothes -- oops --I mean no navy which made it hard for him to enforce much of his trade policy. You guys had the best navy in the
        Message 3 of 6 , Feb 2, 2004
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          Peter,

          The Emperor had no clothes -- oops --I mean no navy which made it hard
          for him to enforce much of his trade policy. You guys had the best navy
          in the world and could enforce the British trade rules. This was, of
          course, one of the reasons given for declaring War with GB in 1812. I
          am, however, not declaring that this was a major cause of the way.

          I would tend to support the view that the perception that the British
          government was promoting the Indian depredations in the NW Territories
          and the hope of a quick addition of Canada to the US were the major
          caused of the way. And of course, the farmers of New England sold beef
          and other food stuffs to the British
          Army through out the war. Not much different on this side of the pond
          it would seem.

          Regards,

          Bob
          Independence, Missouri USA
        • suthren@magma.ca
          Dear Michael From what I know of the War of 1812 American business was not particularly happy with Mr. Madison s War , as some called it. As the war ground
          Message 4 of 6 , Feb 2, 2004
          • 0 Attachment
            Dear Michael

            From what I know of the War of 1812 American business was not particularly
            happy with 'Mr. Madison's War', as some called it. As the war ground on,
            there was a very real secessionist movement in New England that threatened
            to have the young republic split right down the Champlain/Hudson corridor.
            The New Englanders got along fine with the Canadians to their north and were
            suffering badly as the RN slowly shut down the American seaboard and
            strangled the economy, which had been doing just fine as the British,
            grappling with Napoleon, needed to buy American goods. Albert Gallatin
            warned the President that the nation was approaching bankruptcy, and the
            British army in Upper and Lower Canada (Quebec and Ontario) and the Canadian
            militia marched very often in American shoes (sold for a fine profit) and
            ate Vermont beef, which was driven across the border in a regular cattle
            drive by the Vermont farmers. At least one serious skirmish between the
            Vermonters and US troops sent to stop this trade took place. Support for the
            war seemed to be the highest in the West, where the 'War Hawks' wanted the
            development of the Ohio/Indiana/Michigan lands to be unfettered by Indian
            resistance led by Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet; and lowest in New
            England (even with British impressment of American seamen being an
            issue)where a clandestine trade with their Canadian friends went on in spite
            of Washington. The War Hawks got their wish of removing Tecumseh and
            smashing the warrior resistance when the Kentuckians under Harrison won at
            Moraviantown in Canada in 1813, but that was a rare victory in Canada;
            Canada was not Mexico of the 1840s, and Congress became tired of hearing of
            yet another army being sent north (under Hull, or Dearborn, or Wilkinson, or
            Hampton) to defeat at the hands of the British and Canadians. The solid
            American naval victories at Put-in Bay and Plattsburg, the defense of New
            Orleans, and the single-ship successes of the USN's frigates that did manage
            to slide out past the RN blockade, added to British desires of calming
            things down to give America a sense of some success in the war, even though
            the national defense had essentially collapsed, and the national capital
            city had been taken. Geography and numbers helped a lot (the Duke of
            Wellington rightly said, as he looked at the vast sweep of America, that it
            was essentially unconquerable, and aren't we glad he was right). But
            business hadn't been happy about the war, and did its best to either ignore
            it or go around it.

            Yours aye

            Vic Suthren

            ----- Original Message -----
            From: Peter Catley <peter.catley@...>
            To: <WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com>
            Sent: Monday, February 02, 2004 2:58 AM
            Subject: RE: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?


            > During the Napoleonic wars the shoemakers of Northampton (and others)
            sold
            > their wares to both sides. In a genuine free enterprise economy the
            > governments have relatively limited influence on trade and economy.
            >
            >
            >
            > The answer to the question is you cannot let politics and war get in the
            way
            > of profit, look at the whole Continental blockade policy of the Emperor
            > honoured more in the breach than the observance..
            >
            >
            >
            > Cheers
            >
            >
            >
            > P**
            >
            >
            >
            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: PEGGY MATHEWS [mailto:ciefranche21e@...]
            > Sent: 02 February 2004 03:12
            > To: 1812elist
            > Subject: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?
            >
            >
            >
            > I was watching the videotape of the broadcast of the bicentennial ceremony
            > at New Orleans last December (thanks Joe!) and the comment was made that
            > British bankers loaned the infant United States the 15 million dollars to
            > make purchase since the country didn't have that kind of money. So
            assuming
            > this is correct, and some comments by the commentators weren't, was
            Britain
            > so very unconcerned by the land deal or couldn't they control the banks?
            >
            > It would seem to be contrary to national interests to see Republican
            France
            > get the money, and the United States gain territory that put them in
            > immediate conflict with British interests. Since arguably the land deal
            > contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 (my tenuous connection to
            the
            > list), why did it occur?
            >
            > Inquiring minds want to know.
            >
            > Thanks,
            > Michael Mathews
            >
            >
            > Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality. The Dali Lama
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >
            > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of
            > square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS
            of
            > square miles...
            >
            > Unit Contact information for North America:
            > ---------------------------------
            > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
            > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
            >
            > American Forces Unit Lisiting
            > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
            >
            >
            >
            > _____
            >
            > Yahoo! Groups Links
            >
            > * To visit your group on the web, go to:
            > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
            >
            >
            > * To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            > <mailto:WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com?subject=Unsubscribe>
            >
            >
            > * Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of
            > <http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/> Service.
            >
            >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of
            square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of
            square miles...
            >
            > Unit Contact information for North America:
            > ---------------------------------
            > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
            > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
            >
            > American Forces Unit Lisiting
            > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
            >
            >
            > Yahoo! Groups Links
            >
            > To visit your group on the web, go to:
            > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
            >
            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to:
            > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            >
            >
          • PEGGY MATHEWS
            Well yes Vic, our internal southern hawks vs. the New England profiteers is well known. But that isn t part of British foreign policy. I m just surprised
            Message 5 of 6 , Feb 2, 2004
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              Well yes Vic, our internal southern "hawks" vs. the New England profiteers is well known. But that isn't part of British foreign policy. I'm just surprised that the government had so little influence over the British banking system that they would finance a land deal that was contrary to the current agenda. i.e. Aiding Bonaparte, allowing growth in the former colonies, and removing vulnerable French possessions.

              It seems like the navy and army were fond of capturing isolated French (or whomever they were currently fighting) colonies for profit, removing privateer bases, and morale building.

              If as Peter says it's just business as usual, it seems somewhat akin to say, Donald Trump openly loaning money to Al-Quida for purchase of Stinger ground to air missiles.

              Regards,
              Michael Mathews
              ----- Original Message -----
              From: suthren@...
              To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Monday, February 02, 2004 7:31 AM
              Subject: Re: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?


              Dear Michael

              From what I know of the War of 1812 American business was not particularly
              happy with 'Mr. Madison's War', as some called it. As the war ground on,
              there was a very real secessionist movement in New England that threatened
              to have the young republic split right down the Champlain/Hudson corridor.
              The New Englanders got along fine with the Canadians to their north and were
              suffering badly as the RN slowly shut down the American seaboard and
              strangled the economy, which had been doing just fine as the British,
              grappling with Napoleon, needed to buy American goods. Albert Gallatin
              warned the President that the nation was approaching bankruptcy, and the
              British army in Upper and Lower Canada (Quebec and Ontario) and the Canadian
              militia marched very often in American shoes (sold for a fine profit) and
              ate Vermont beef, which was driven across the border in a regular cattle
              drive by the Vermont farmers. At least one serious skirmish between the
              Vermonters and US troops sent to stop this trade took place. Support for the
              war seemed to be the highest in the West, where the 'War Hawks' wanted the
              development of the Ohio/Indiana/Michigan lands to be unfettered by Indian
              resistance led by Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet; and lowest in New
              England (even with British impressment of American seamen being an
              issue)where a clandestine trade with their Canadian friends went on in spite
              of Washington. The War Hawks got their wish of removing Tecumseh and
              smashing the warrior resistance when the Kentuckians under Harrison won at
              Moraviantown in Canada in 1813, but that was a rare victory in Canada;
              Canada was not Mexico of the 1840s, and Congress became tired of hearing of
              yet another army being sent north (under Hull, or Dearborn, or Wilkinson, or
              Hampton) to defeat at the hands of the British and Canadians. The solid
              American naval victories at Put-in Bay and Plattsburg, the defense of New
              Orleans, and the single-ship successes of the USN's frigates that did manage
              to slide out past the RN blockade, added to British desires of calming
              things down to give America a sense of some success in the war, even though
              the national defense had essentially collapsed, and the national capital
              city had been taken. Geography and numbers helped a lot (the Duke of
              Wellington rightly said, as he looked at the vast sweep of America, that it
              was essentially unconquerable, and aren't we glad he was right). But
              business hadn't been happy about the war, and did its best to either ignore
              it or go around it.

              Yours aye

              Vic Suthren

              ----- Original Message -----
              From: Peter Catley <peter.catley@...>
              To: <WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com>
              Sent: Monday, February 02, 2004 2:58 AM
              Subject: RE: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?


              > During the Napoleonic wars the shoemakers of Northampton (and others)
              sold
              > their wares to both sides. In a genuine free enterprise economy the
              > governments have relatively limited influence on trade and economy.
              >
              >
              >
              > The answer to the question is you cannot let politics and war get in the
              way
              > of profit, look at the whole Continental blockade policy of the Emperor
              > honoured more in the breach than the observance..
              >
              >
              >
              > Cheers
              >
              >
              >
              > P**
              >
              >
              >
              > -----Original Message-----
              > From: PEGGY MATHEWS [mailto:ciefranche21e@...]
              > Sent: 02 February 2004 03:12
              > To: 1812elist
              > Subject: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?
              >
              >
              >
              > I was watching the videotape of the broadcast of the bicentennial ceremony
              > at New Orleans last December (thanks Joe!) and the comment was made that
              > British bankers loaned the infant United States the 15 million dollars to
              > make purchase since the country didn't have that kind of money. So
              assuming
              > this is correct, and some comments by the commentators weren't, was
              Britain
              > so very unconcerned by the land deal or couldn't they control the banks?
              >
              > It would seem to be contrary to national interests to see Republican
              France
              > get the money, and the United States gain territory that put them in
              > immediate conflict with British interests. Since arguably the land deal
              > contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 (my tenuous connection to
              the
              > list), why did it occur?
              >
              > Inquiring minds want to know.
              >
              > Thanks,
              > Michael Mathews
              >
              >
              > Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality. The Dali Lama
              >
              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              >
              >
              > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of
              > square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS
              of
              > square miles...
              >
              > Unit Contact information for North America:
              > ---------------------------------
              > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
              > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
              >
              > American Forces Unit Lisiting
              > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
              >
              >
              >
              > _____
              >
              > Yahoo! Groups Links
              >
              > * To visit your group on the web, go to:
              > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
              >
              >
              > * To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
              > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
              > <mailto:WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com?subject=Unsubscribe>
              >
              >
              > * Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of
              > <http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/> Service.
              >
              >
              >
              > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              >
              >
              > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of
              square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of
              square miles...
              >
              > Unit Contact information for North America:
              > ---------------------------------
              > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
              > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
              >
              > American Forces Unit Lisiting
              > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
              >
              >
              > Yahoo! Groups Links
              >
              > To visit your group on the web, go to:
              > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
              >
              > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
              > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
              >
              > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to:
              > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
              >
              >


              The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of square miles...

              Unit Contact information for North America:
              ---------------------------------
              Crown Forces Unit Listing:
              http://1812crownforces.tripod.com

              American Forces Unit Lisiting
              http://usforces1812.tripod.com

              Yahoo! Groups Links

              To visit your group on the web, go to:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/

              To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
              WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com

              Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to:
              http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/




              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • suthren@magma.ca
              Dear Michael Thanks for your good note. My understanding was that British financial and banking interests, and British commerce generally, were in fact anxious
              Message 6 of 6 , Feb 2, 2004
              • 0 Attachment
                Dear Michael

                Thanks for your good note. My understanding was that British financial and
                banking interests, and British commerce generally, were in fact anxious for
                the United States to grow and do well; it was a potentially vast market, was
                a vital supplier of raw materials and other goods for the booming British
                industrial revolution, and was a cousin nation with which political
                disagreements were seen as transitory and not fundamentally antagonistic.
                Support for the war was weak in Parliament, and the natural alliance and
                common interests of Britain and America were always bubbling up to the
                surface in spite of saber-rattling jingoists. Getting the French out of
                America meant reducing the long-term resources of the true enemy. The Brits
                knew the French would spend America's borrowed purchase price in a month,
                and in the long term knew supporting Jonathan and his new republic was in
                Britain's best interests---as history since then has revealed to be true.

                Yours aye

                Vic

                ----- Original Message -----
                From: PEGGY MATHEWS <ciefranche21e@...>
                To: <WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com>
                Sent: Monday, February 02, 2004 9:26 AM
                Subject: Re: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?


                > Well yes Vic, our internal southern "hawks" vs. the New England profiteers
                is well known. But that isn't part of British foreign policy. I'm just
                surprised that the government had so little influence over the British
                banking system that they would finance a land deal that was contrary to the
                current agenda. i.e. Aiding Bonaparte, allowing growth in the former
                colonies, and removing vulnerable French possessions.
                >
                > It seems like the navy and army were fond of capturing isolated French (or
                whomever they were currently fighting) colonies for profit, removing
                privateer bases, and morale building.
                >
                > If as Peter says it's just business as usual, it seems somewhat akin to
                say, Donald Trump openly loaning money to Al-Quida for purchase of Stinger
                ground to air missiles.
                >
                > Regards,
                > Michael Mathews
                > ----- Original Message -----
                > From: suthren@...
                > To: WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com
                > Sent: Monday, February 02, 2004 7:31 AM
                > Subject: Re: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?
                >
                >
                > Dear Michael
                >
                > From what I know of the War of 1812 American business was not
                particularly
                > happy with 'Mr. Madison's War', as some called it. As the war ground on,
                > there was a very real secessionist movement in New England that
                threatened
                > to have the young republic split right down the Champlain/Hudson
                corridor.
                > The New Englanders got along fine with the Canadians to their north and
                were
                > suffering badly as the RN slowly shut down the American seaboard and
                > strangled the economy, which had been doing just fine as the British,
                > grappling with Napoleon, needed to buy American goods. Albert Gallatin
                > warned the President that the nation was approaching bankruptcy, and the
                > British army in Upper and Lower Canada (Quebec and Ontario) and the
                Canadian
                > militia marched very often in American shoes (sold for a fine profit)
                and
                > ate Vermont beef, which was driven across the border in a regular cattle
                > drive by the Vermont farmers. At least one serious skirmish between the
                > Vermonters and US troops sent to stop this trade took place. Support for
                the
                > war seemed to be the highest in the West, where the 'War Hawks' wanted
                the
                > development of the Ohio/Indiana/Michigan lands to be unfettered by
                Indian
                > resistance led by Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet; and lowest in
                New
                > England (even with British impressment of American seamen being an
                > issue)where a clandestine trade with their Canadian friends went on in
                spite
                > of Washington. The War Hawks got their wish of removing Tecumseh and
                > smashing the warrior resistance when the Kentuckians under Harrison won
                at
                > Moraviantown in Canada in 1813, but that was a rare victory in Canada;
                > Canada was not Mexico of the 1840s, and Congress became tired of hearing
                of
                > yet another army being sent north (under Hull, or Dearborn, or
                Wilkinson, or
                > Hampton) to defeat at the hands of the British and Canadians. The solid
                > American naval victories at Put-in Bay and Plattsburg, the defense of
                New
                > Orleans, and the single-ship successes of the USN's frigates that did
                manage
                > to slide out past the RN blockade, added to British desires of calming
                > things down to give America a sense of some success in the war, even
                though
                > the national defense had essentially collapsed, and the national capital
                > city had been taken. Geography and numbers helped a lot (the Duke of
                > Wellington rightly said, as he looked at the vast sweep of America, that
                it
                > was essentially unconquerable, and aren't we glad he was right). But
                > business hadn't been happy about the war, and did its best to either
                ignore
                > it or go around it.
                >
                > Yours aye
                >
                > Vic Suthren
                >
                > ----- Original Message -----
                > From: Peter Catley <peter.catley@...>
                > To: <WarOf1812@yahoogroups.com>
                > Sent: Monday, February 02, 2004 2:58 AM
                > Subject: RE: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?
                >
                >
                > > During the Napoleonic wars the shoemakers of Northampton (and others)
                > sold
                > > their wares to both sides. In a genuine free enterprise economy the
                > > governments have relatively limited influence on trade and economy.
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > The answer to the question is you cannot let politics and war get in
                the
                > way
                > > of profit, look at the whole Continental blockade policy of the
                Emperor
                > > honoured more in the breach than the observance..
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > Cheers
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > P**
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > -----Original Message-----
                > > From: PEGGY MATHEWS [mailto:ciefranche21e@...]
                > > Sent: 02 February 2004 03:12
                > > To: 1812elist
                > > Subject: [WarOf1812] Britain finances Louisiana Purchase?
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > I was watching the videotape of the broadcast of the bicentennial
                ceremony
                > > at New Orleans last December (thanks Joe!) and the comment was made
                that
                > > British bankers loaned the infant United States the 15 million dollars
                to
                > > make purchase since the country didn't have that kind of money. So
                > assuming
                > > this is correct, and some comments by the commentators weren't, was
                > Britain
                > > so very unconcerned by the land deal or couldn't they control the
                banks?
                > >
                > > It would seem to be contrary to national interests to see Republican
                > France
                > > get the money, and the United States gain territory that put them in
                > > immediate conflict with British interests. Since arguably the land
                deal
                > > contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 (my tenuous connection
                to
                > the
                > > list), why did it occur?
                > >
                > > Inquiring minds want to know.
                > >
                > > Thanks,
                > > Michael Mathews
                > >
                > >
                > > Share your knowledge. It's a way to achieve immortality. The Dali Lama
                > >
                > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds
                of
                > > square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of
                THOUSANDS
                > of
                > > square miles...
                > >
                > > Unit Contact information for North America:
                > > ---------------------------------
                > > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
                > > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
                > >
                > > American Forces Unit Lisiting
                > > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > _____
                > >
                > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                > >
                > > * To visit your group on the web, go to:
                > > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
                > >
                > >
                > > * To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                > > <mailto:WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com?subject=Unsubscribe>
                > >
                > >
                > > * Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of
                > > <http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/> Service.
                > >
                > >
                > >
                > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                > >
                > >
                > > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds
                of
                > square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of
                THOUSANDS of
                > square miles...
                > >
                > > Unit Contact information for North America:
                > > ---------------------------------
                > > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
                > > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
                > >
                > > American Forces Unit Lisiting
                > > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
                > >
                > >
                > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                > >
                > > To visit your group on the web, go to:
                > > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
                > >
                > > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                > >
                > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to:
                > > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                > >
                > >
                >
                >
                > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds
                of square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS
                of square miles...
                >
                > Unit Contact information for North America:
                > ---------------------------------
                > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
                > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
                >
                > American Forces Unit Lisiting
                > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
                >
                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                >
                > To visit your group on the web, go to:
                > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
                >
                > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                >
                > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to:
                > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                >
                >
                > The War of 1812: In Europe, thousands fought over the fate of hundreds of
                square miles: in North America, hundreds determined the fate of THOUSANDS of
                square miles...
                >
                > Unit Contact information for North America:
                > ---------------------------------
                > Crown Forces Unit Listing:
                > http://1812crownforces.tripod.com
                >
                > American Forces Unit Lisiting
                > http://usforces1812.tripod.com
                >
                > Yahoo! Groups Links
                >
                > To visit your group on the web, go to:
                > http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WarOf1812/
                >
                > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                > WarOf1812-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                >
                > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to:
                > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                >
                >
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