RE: [TolkienDiscussions] Re: Earendel
- <<GUSTAVO: And I read somewhere, possibly 'The Book of Lost Tales II', that
master Ronald T. HAD to use the "¨" in the "a", although it was to
be on the "e", because of typological problems.
So, the name would actually be Ëarendil.
<<JACK: I dont think so the diaeresis mark goes on the second vowel
e.g. naïve, Citroën>>
Gustavo is correct, though, in what he says about BOLT II and the mark being
on the E in the original conception of JRR's, not the A. That is consistent
with other elven names whereas Earendil seems to sit outside the usual
conventions. (For why that is, see quoted text below.)
The fact that the diaresis is on the A is the main reason I began this
thread - because reading it made me wonder about the pronunciation of his
name and how folks dealt with the name, the divided vowel sounds of the E
and A, and if it was different than the normal way they read Tolkien names.
Usually the mark is above the E, for example Fëanor. It being above the A in
Earendil's name combined with the unwieldyness of the name as a whole and
the way the name came INTO the created mythology/languages from outside
instead of being borne FROM them as almost all the others seem to be is what
prompted me to raise the matter. (I just finished BOLT II again, you see.)
Currently I am reading the Poetic Edda and it is amusing to see how Tolkien
basically took Old English, Old Norse, etc. and redistributed them to come
up with his elvish languages. However, this does fit in with JRR's original
conception of the whole mythology as being "a mythology for England" and
having happened in the distant past, etc.
PS: Supplemental info on Earendil's name per Tolkien(s) in BOLT II:
"This name is' in fact (as is obvious) derived from Anglo-Saxon
earendel. When first studying Anglo-Saxon professionally (1913- )
-- I had done so as a boyish hobby when supposed to be learning Greek
and Latin -- I was struck by the great beauty of this word (or name),
entirely coherent with the normal style of Anglo-Saxon, but euphonic
to a peculiar degree in that pleasing but not 'delectable' language. Also
its form strongly suggests that it is in origin a proper name and not a
common noun. This is borne out by the obviously related forms in
other Germanic languages; from which amid the confusions and
debasements of late traditions it at least seems certain that it belonged
to astronomical-myth, and was the name of a star or star-group.
mind the Anglo-Saxon uses seem plainly to indicate that it was a star
presaging the dawn (at any rate in English tradition): that is what we
now call Venus: the morning star as it may be seen shining brilliantly
in the dawn, before the actual rising of the Sun. That is at any rate how
I took it.
Before 1914 I wrote a 'poem' upon Earendel who launched his
ship like a bright spark from the havens of the Sun. I adopted him into
my mythology -- in which he became a prime figure as a mariner, and
eventually as a herald star, and a sign of hope to men. Aiya Earendil
Elenion Ancalima ([The Lord of the Rings] II.329) 'hail Earendil
brightest of Stars' is derived at long remove from Eala Earendel
engla beorhtast. [From the Old English poem Crist: eala! earendel engla
beorhtast ofer mid-
dongeard monnum sended.] But the name could not be adopted just like that:
had to be accommodated to the Elvish linguistic situation, at the same
time as a place for this person was made in legend.
From this, far back
in the history of 'Elvish', which was beginning, after many tentative
starts in boyhood, to take definite shape at the time of the name's
adoption, arose eventually (a) the C[ommon]E[lvish] stem (*) AYAR'sea',
primarily applied to the Great Sea of the West, lying between Middle-
earth and Aman the Blessed Realm of the Valar; and (b) the element,
or verbal base (N)DIL, 'to love, be devoted to'- describing the attitude
of one to a person, thing, cause, or occupation to which one is devoted
for its own sake.
Earendil became a character in the earliest written
(1916-17) of the major legends: The Fall of Condolin, the greatest of
the Pereldar 'Half-elven', son of Tuor of the most renowned House of
the Edain, and Idril daughter of the King of Gondolin."
My father did not indeed here say that his Earendel contained from the
beginning elements that in combination give a meaning like 'Sea-lover',
but it is in any case clear that at the time of the earliest extant writings
the subject the name was associated with an Elvish word ea 'eagle' -- see
p. 256 on the name of Earendel's first ship Earame 'Eaglepinion'. In the
Name-list to The Fall of Condolin this is made explicit: 'Earendl [sic]
though belike it hath some kinship to the Elfin ea and earen "eagle" and
"eyrie" (wherefore cometh to mind the passage of Cristhorn and the use
of the sign of the Eagle by Idril [see p. 193]) is thought to be woven of
that secret tongue of the Gondothlim [see p. 165].'