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Is Lunar Based Shabbat scriptural?

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  • Tesh Turner
    Shalom! I am new to this group, so please bear with me. I understand that you have dealt with and discussed lunar based shabbat before but I would like to
    Message 1 of 49 , Aug 1, 2007
      Shalom! I am new to this group, so please bear with me. I understand that you have "dealt with" and "discussed lunar based shabbat before but I would like to address it again if that is ok?....I was a weekly (Gregorian/Rome) shabbat keeper for quite some time as was my husband. After much study and prayer, we have switched to the lunar based keeping. The reasons will be shown below and I hope either that some will come to see the truth of the scriptures, or show us our error from scriptures.
       
      Here is my question to you all...YES! we are to keep the 7th day set apart....but ask this question...the 7th day from WHEN or WHAT?....we have assumed the Jews were right...were they?  Let's see.
       
      In the past, many have separated the Sabbath from the yearly festivals.  Yet a deeper look reveals that it is one of the “moed” or “congregations” just like the rest:
       
      “Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts [mo'ed] of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts [mo'ed]. Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the LORD in all your dwellings. These are the feasts [mo'ed] of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons. In the fourteenth day of the first month at even [is] the LORD’S passover . . .” Leviticus 23:2-4
       
      This is shown clearly in Numbers 28:1-29:39 as well.  That is certainly something we do know was established at creation. So Genesis 1:14 must at least refer to this.
       
      “ . . . And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years." (Jubilees 2:9-10)
       
      Notice how expanded this account is.  Rather then just saying "seasons" it goes on to tell us which seasons (this text doesn't mention the moon, but the light of the moon comes from the sun).  Again, we find the Sabbath classed in along with all the other feast days within this text.  Evidence that this is indeed the weekly Sabbath would be the order of the reference (days/Sabbaths, months/feasts, years/Sabbaths of years/Jubilees) as well as the mention of all seasons, which according to Leviticus 23 the weekly Sabbath is a part of
       
      Another statement from an ancient manuscript would tend to be a strong indication of an anciently lunar based Sabbath:
       
      The Dead Sea Scrolls, A New Translation, translate the fragment for lunar day 8 as follows --
      "On the eighth of the month [chodesh], the moon rules all the day in the midst of the sky...and when the sun sets, its light ceases to be obscured, and thus the moon begins to be revealed on the FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK" (pp. 301-303). 
       
      The Hebrew month is a lunar month and THE QUARTER OF THIS PERIOD -- ONE PHASE OF THE MOON -- appears to have determined the WEEK OF SEVEN DAYS" (Encyclopedia Biblica,  The MacMillan Company. P. 4780).
       
      As we can see, history would tend to show quite strongly that the ancient calendar was at one point lunar.  If this is true, then where would have the fixed week come from?  Who changed it and why?
      We can deal with THIS later!  LOL...now on to show lunar based from scripture....
       
      Before I begin, I just want to post what is written in the Jewish Encyclopedia, pg 410 in response to those Jews that say Shabbat is weekly.
       
      To begin with, let’s look at perhaps the most intriguing of recent discoveries.  In the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, page 410 under the heading “Holidays”, :
       
      “1. Sabbath and New Moon (Rosh Hodesh), both periodically recurring in the course of the year.  The New Moon is still, and the Sabbath originally was, dependent upon the lunar cycle. Both date back to the nomadic period of Israel. Originally the New Moon was celebrated in the same way as the Sabbath; gradually it became less important, while the Sabbath became more and more a day of religion and humanity, of religious meditation and instruction, or peace and delight of the soul, and produced powerful and beneficent effects outside of Judaism.”
       
      Gen. 1:14 – “….let them be for signs, and for appointed times, and for days and years.”
          (original text does not say “seasons” as in KJV. Word used is “moed” which means appointed times…especially festivals. Same applies to Ps 104:19 verse))
      Lev. 23:1-4 – connects the Shabbat as an appointed time as well as the Feasts. FIRST listed is the Shabbat!! Moses said new moon for MOEDIM!!
      Ps. 104:19 – Moon is appointed for appointed Feasts (connects with Gen 1:14)
      Jer. 10:2 – Thus saith Yahweh, Learn not the way of the heathen, and be not dismayed at the signs of heaven; for the heathen are dismayed at them. (See Lev 18:3 as well)
       
      Scriptures that positively connect the new moon with the Shabbat:
       
      2Kings 4:23 – connects new moon with Shabbat
      Isa. 66:23 – connects new moon with Shabbat in the millennium
      Ezk. 46:1-4 – connects new moon with Shabbat. Gates closed on holy days.
      Amos 8:5 – Shabbat and new moon connects, but people were more concerned with conducting their commerce (in modern day, now more concerned with finding an employer that will allow Shabbat keeping) the word “and” is a connecting verb.
      Col. 2:16 – connects new moon with Shabbat again; it is the believers who are to judge, not unbelievers. Stop arguing with non-believers on this issue
       
      What rises at night? Ps 104:19
       
      • The Sabbath is an appointed time….. Lev.23:3  CANNOT REFUTE THIS SCRIPTURE!!!!!!!
      • We are to be compliant as believers and people of the covenant, to observe the appointed times our Creator gave us forever.
      • God set the lights in the skies as indicators and we are to observe them. The moon sets the appointed times, not the sun and day sky.
      • Roman calendar is solar Biblical calendar is lunar.
      • Roman calendar use names of false gods for both days and months! L God numbered the days and months
       
       
      Gal 4:8,9,10 – ye observe days, months times and years (your own, not Yahweh’s)
      Amos 5:21 – YOUR feasts (the ones brought out of Babylon. Or connected to the Roman calendar we now know?)
      2 Cor. 6:17 – touch not the unclean thing.
      Isaiah 52:11 – “….be clean…”
      Lev 22:2 – “….do not call unclean clean..”  separate yourselves!
      Rev 18:4 - come out of her MY people
       
      Matthew 15:3,6; Mark 7:8,9,13;  Col 2:8
             You make Yahweh’s commandments of no effect by man’s traditions.
       
      Mixing a solar (weekly Shabbat) with Lunar (Feasts) is what’s confusing because we were raised with pagan thinking that was based on solar sun worship.  Exodus 31:14; Lev 20:26, 21:14  Deut 7:6; 14:2; 28:9;
       
      Don’t mention the names of false gods. Ex: 23:12,13; Joshua 23:7 (coupled with) Matt 5:17-20. Deut 12:3.
      Isaiah 47:13 – We cannot trust man’s calculation or astrologers. “..Let your astrologers save you…”
       

      Restoration of correct time keeping. Dan 12:4,9,10; Isa 66:4,6,22-24; 65:12

       
      Dark Moon (Conjunction)
       
      Its only “new” because it seems to disappear for a time. It’s an astronomical moon. The “dark moon” is still illuminated in outer space and is still illuminated when the sun, moon and earth are aligned. The so-called dark moon is not an issue. It should correctly be called “renewal”.
       
      It can only be seen by man-made calculations. There is nothing “new” about a new moon. It is simply renewing itself.
       
      RABBINICS RECOGNIZE WHEN MESSIAH RETURNS OR COMES BACK THAT THEY WILL RETURN TO LUNAR SHABBAT AND WILL GIVE INFORMATION TO THE NEW SANNEHEDRIN. THIS CAN BE VERIFIED IN THEIR OWN WRITINGS AND BY THEIR OWN TESTIMONY.
       
      The scriptures translate “chodesh” as “new moon” which is derived from “chadash”. Thayer’s concordance defines this as follows:
       
      02318 chadash {khaw-dash'}
      a primitive root; TWOT - 613; v
      AV - renew 7, repair 3; 10
      1) to be new, renew, repair
      1a) (Piel)
      1a1) to renew, make anew
      1a2) to repair
       
      “New moon” verses are: 
       
      I SAM 20:5, 18:24; 2 KINGS 4:23; PS 81:3; ISA 66:23; EZEK 46:1, 6; AMOS 8:5; COLOS 2:16  All use H2320 – Chodesh: from 2318- new moon, month, monthly.  #2318 – root word, chadash – to be new; to rebuild; renew or repair
       
      POINTS TO PONDER –
       
      #1. The sighting of the new moon starts the biblical new month. ACCORDING TO SCRIPTURE, WHAT BEGINS A NEW MONTH? THE SIGHTING OF SLIVER OF THE NEW MOON. If you count 7 days from THAT and every 7th day thereafter, , guess what appears in the sky? The phases of the moon.
      #2. Hebrew (lunar) calendar and Roman (solar) calendar are not the same.
      #3. Scripture consistently shows a connection between new moon observance and observance of Shabbat.
      #4. “Seasons” is mistranslated. Word used is MOED (appointed times).
      #5. Paul spoke of the new moon AND Shabbat and Jeremiah spoke of the “signs of heaven”.
      #6. Jewish historians also support the fact that ancient people kept lunar. The switch was made in 359 AD (Hillel, a Jewish Rabbi), which is observed today by the Rabbinics. But during 2nd temple times, the rabbinics followed the aviv. Both Philo and Josephus in their historical writings, along with the Jewish Encyclopedia state that the ancient Israelites determined the Sabbath by the new moon citing.
      #7. The scriptures cannot be broken!  “…precept upon precept, line upon line….”
      #8. If the Feasts are broken down into months, days and weeks, according to the new moon cycle, why is the weekly Shabbat different according to biblical timekeeping? Is this scriptural or is this man’s reckoning? (Dan 7:24,25)
      #9. It’s impossible therefore to disconnect the concept of the moon for reckoning Sabbath days while pretending to keep all other appointed times according to the lunar periods. The moon gives perfect cycle of the 7 days between its phases. Only light in the night sky is the moon for the day of rest.
      #10. There is no month named “Aviv”. When Aviv is mentioned, it is simply saying the month of the greening of the ears. There is always the word “the” before the word Aviv. It is a description of a particular month and not a name of a month.
      #11. The Equinox is not a scriptural term. The scriptures only show two “seasons”. It does not support four seasons.
      #12. The weekly Sabbath that is kept is rabbinic…and came out from Babylon.
       
      ***Additional thoughts regarding “New Moon” -
       
      *Deut 16:1 tells us to “observe the month of the greening (Aviv)…”  the first month is NOT named Aviv, but rather “Nisan”. 14 days after this is Passover. There is no way we can calculate Pasach without paying attention to the barley in Israel. Just ask yourself HOW you “observe the month of aviv (greening)?
       
      *Amos 8:5; IIKings 4:23; Isa 66:23; Ezekial 46:1-4; Col 2:6; Ps 81:3  shows us the new moon is to be kept as a day of rest.
       
      Read Leviticus 23:1-3 VERY carefully....and not with a preconceived mind. It says "..these are my feasts..." and the Sabbath is a moed (appointed time with Yah), and is the very first moed mentioned. No one can dispute this. Its very clear.
       
      One "argument" that is used is that they agree that the new moon starts the new month..but then go on to say that it doesnt start the new week!! How preposterous is that?  LOL....a new  month of course would start a new week....we MUST get rid of our Gregorian thinking (brainwashing) and start thinking with  hebrew mind.
       
      Fact of the matter is...we cant even go by what the Jews do either because scripture even says that they would change things...this following verse doesnt just apply to "Rome" but Rabbinics as well.........actually..Rome was started by corrupted Levitical priests :( ...Dan 7:25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.
      Its pretty much common knowledge that they changed almost everything and have perverted it....reason being....they HATE our Yahshua...and Satan HATES the shabbat because it shows WHO we worship!!!....I hope I have given you some things to at least think about and ponder...Look those scriptures up...and ask Yah. He will show you. IF you truly want to know.
       
      To any who might be Jewish....Even your Sanhedrin in times past kept lunar based shabbat...and will again by their own admission. My question to you then is this....WHO is your authoirty? The Sanhedrin? Or Yod Hey Vav Hey?.....
       
       
      All it really takes to understand biblical timekeeping is about 10 interconnected scriptures -- once
      you peel out the perversion! Here are some key ones for this introduction:
      KJV: G
      EN 1:14 AND GOD SAID, LET THERE BE LIGHTS IN THE FIRMAMENT OF THE HEAVEN TO DIVIDE
      THE DAY FROM THE NIGHT
      ; AND LET THEM BE FOR SIGNS, AND FOR SEASONS, AND FOR DAYS, AND
      YEARS
      :
      Proper rendering: G
      EN 1:14 AND ELOHIYM SAID, LET LIGHTS COME TO BE IN THE EXPANSE OF THE
      HEAVENS TO SEPARATE THE DAY FROM THE NIGHT
      , AND LET THEM BE FOR SIGNS AND APPOINTED
      TIMES
      , AND FOR DAYS AND YEARS,
      ---------------------------------------------------------------
      KJV: P
      SA 104:19 * HE APPOINTED THE MOON FOR SEASONS: 6213 3394 4150 THE SUN 8121 KNOWETH 3045 HIS
      GOING DOWN
      . 3996
      * Strong’s numbers added.
      Proper rendering: H
      E MADE THE MOON FOR APPOINTED TIMES; THE SUN KNOWS ITS GOING DOWN
      What we see in common in those two TWISTED KJV passages is the word "seasons" substituted
      for "appointed times." Western logic is that a "season" is "spring, summer, fall & winter." That is a
      mistake -- and a VERY big one!
      His "appointed times" are VERY specific. They are found clearly in Leviticus, Chapter 23. And
      the FIRST one listed is SABBATH!
      So, if the MOON was made as a SIGN to identify ALL His "appointed times," then we have
      uncovered some VERY DANGEROUS teachings in "traditional" "religions."
      First let us consider the Israelites. One need not look very far in scripture to see prophets
      HAMMERING on Israelites for chasing after false gods, observing the WRONG day for the Sabbath, and
      etc. (Remember those nuckleheads out in the wilderness after just leaving Egyptian captivity?) Indeed,
      the FALSE MODES OF WORSHIP being reproved by the prophets litter the scriptures like a dump.
      Would any critically thinking person, for one minute, believe that 2000 years after rejecting THEIR OWN
      Page 6 of 35
      tribesman-MESSIAH that the remnant Jews are somehow better at Sabbath keeping now than then?
      That proposition is so ridiculous as to not even be considerable. Yet they swear up and down that they
      can keep a XXXXXday shabbot, and simultaneously be RIGHT ON throughout the centuries!
      One cannot violate one commandment to keep another. But their reckoning of a "never ending"
      series of Sabbath days places a sun-worshiping Gregorian calender day (and false deity name) along
      with otherwise lunar timekeeping. They then claim "this is the perfect will of the Creator." It boggles the
      mind. It CANNOT be!
       
      Leviticus 23 is where we find the list of “appointed times.” When told that keeping a FALSE day
      makes them sound like Rabbis, Karaite Yehudi (who come out of Rabbinic thinking MOST of the time)--
      get red faced and mad! Messianic Jews as well, but for whatever reason they just REFUSE to see that
      Sabbath is a Mo'ed (appointed time), and the very FIRST listed in Torah (Lev. 23). Sabbath is a mo’ed –
      just like Passover, Tabernacles, etc.
      We CANNOT (if we are FULLY obedient) break scripture. We can't throw out verse 3 of Lev. 23,
      and pretend to keep "the rest" of them. How can we somehow place the Sabbath in a SOLAR scheme of
      time, but do everything else (calculate months, for example) by the moon? Isn't that "mixing seed" which
      is also prohibited? Isn't that "learning the ways of the heathen" who gave them this notion to make peace
      with Rome?
       
      In context, it is quite clear (unless our motive is to excuse a lie, rather than fix our mode of
      worship accordingly) that nothing there changes the correct time for Sabbath observance. Truth be told,
      the names we currently assign to days from that Gregorian calendar did not even exist at the time the NT
      was written.
      Over and over mainline theology has stood on very sandy soil when trying to justify relocating
      His Mo'ed to other "mixed seed" lines of thinking. When studied with sincerity, those sandy foundations
      crumble, leaving the believer at a loss as to what he/she is supposed to do. (Continuing to study
      scripture, and fixing ourselves, is the only answer.)
      The father's plan is SO SIMPLE even a 5 year old can do it.
      The "sign" is in the night (moon) sky, not day (sun). It says so in Genesis. That ALONE tells us
      the SUN IS NOT IT! Solar calendars are of Babylonian origin. "Mystery Babylon" is all over our religious
      practices. If we are to come out of Babylon, we must divorce ourselves of EVERY vestige of it. The
      Gregorian/Julian calendar is at the top on the list.
      Biblical timekeeping is simple. Walk outside and look up, after dark. The FIRST day of any
      month is the very first sliver of a crescent moon you see after the renewal. To find Sabbath, count
      forward. The seventh day you will look up and see a 1st Quarter -- perfectly. The 14th day you will see a
      perfectly FULL moon. The 21st day you will see a perfect 3rd quarter. Day 28 is the New Moon.
      Recognizing the “pattern of sevens” that the Father prefers in just about all things, it is easy to see how
      this calendar has YHWH’s name written all over it. The 7
      th, 14th, 21st, and 28th of each month is an
      “appointment” we have with our Creator.
      Now before you get all "scientific" and talk about "conjunctions" and "extra days" and the
      "renewal" time involving 29 vs. 30 day months, etc .... just nail down that basic concept we just covered.
      Don't confuse yourself. We can physically "observe" the Creator's signs that indicates when His regular,
      weekly Sabbaths are. A 5 year old can do it. In fact, it is so simple and precise that if you were locked in
      a cave for 10 years, and walked outside, you could not only tell the day of the month, but also the month
      of the year! No paper required. No elaborate grids. (We’ll save the “how to” of that for a later lecture).
      Of course, trying to do that on a Gregorian calendar is a riot. The months don't line up. The
      named days of the week fall off the edge of the page. Sabbath lands on one day one Gregorian month,
      and moves the next. Things don't fit neatly. That's ok. It is by design. The Father has HIS calendar, and
      Babylon/Satan has their own. Oil and water never did mix nicely
       
      Once that first day is known by positive viewing ("let every thing be established in the mouth of
      two or three witnesses," remember) we can then lay out our monthly plan, and calculate our Sabbaths
      and appointed times!
      Of course, this smacks hard at "being in the world." Corporations don't generally like people who
      Page 7 of 35
      have "floating" Sabbath observances. But then again, scripture proves that man is more concerned with
      "commerce" than with YHWH's commandments. Amos 8:5 shows this CRYSTAL CLEAR, even in
      ancient Yisra'el:
      "S
      AYING, WHEN WILL THE NEW MOON BE GONE, THAT WE MAY SELL CORN? AND THE SABBATH, THAT
      WE MAY SET FORTH WHEAT
      , AND MAKE THE EPHAH SMALL, AND THE SHEKEL GREAT, AND FALSIFY THE
      WEIGHTS BY DECEIT
      ?
      Notice also in that verse how the new moon and Sabbath have an inseparable link?
       
      I could go on and on...maybe this will suffice?..If not, I have a longer article that was done by a very knowledgable believer..and would be most happy to pass it on...you can request it if you want...teshturner@........shalom and blessings in Yahshua Ha Masiach.....
       
      P.S. be verrry careful of links on this topic on the internet...they vary greatly and many are meant to confuse and divide....
       
       
       


      Jimmy & Tesh Turner


      Yahoo! oneSearch: Finally, mobile search that gives answers, not web links.
    • PWC
      Dear Br. Carlo, While the author of the article below is earnest in his desire to prove that the scriptural daily cycle runs from sunrise to sunrise, he is
      Message 49 of 49 , Aug 15, 2007
        Dear Br. Carlo,
                While the author of the article below is earnest in his desire to prove that the scriptural daily cycle runs from sunrise to sunrise, he is another author confused over the correct definitions of Evening and Morning. Until these errors are corrected, such articles are still put forth in error. Evening is absolutely a time of Daylight and morning is absolutely a time of Darkness. The confusion that has to be dispelled is that Even is when Night begins as the Sun's trailing edge sinks below the horizon; and Morn - Boqer / Dawn / New Day - is when the Sun's trailing edge breaks over the horizon. Until this confusion is cleared up there will always be arguing over what really is the scriptural daily cycle.
         
        YashaNa.
        Br. Paul

        The Community of YAHWEH <yahwehcommunity@...> wrote:
         
        What Constitutes a Day in Scripture?
         
        Scripture Study
        © 2005 by Daniel Middleton

        CURRENTLY, WHEN WE speak of time in relation to a
        day, many of us usually regard that day as a 24-hour
        period, and this generally because of tradition. It has been
        habit forming from generation to generation, but where did
        this 24-hour day originate, and furthermore, is it Scriptural?

        We will examine those questions here, especially with
        regard to what actually constitutes a Sabbath day,
        according to Scripture.

        It is believed that in ancient times, to mark divisions in the
        day, the Sumerians, with their palms facing them, used their
        thumbs to count each of the three bendable segments of
        the four fingers on both hands, which, taken together,
        numbers 12 each, one hand representing night, the other,
        day. Each segment of the finger represented an hour, and
        the Sumerians’ base number was 12, unlike what we use
        as our base today, that being 10 (ten dimes in a dollar, ten
        tens in a hundred, ten hundreds in a thousand, etc.).

        Building on this the Babylonians developed a more
        sophisticated system to further measure time, using instead
        their base number 60, known as a sexigesimal number
        system, thus giving the hour 60 minutes, which in later Latin
        became known as pars minuta prima, or the first small part,
        meaning “minute,” and 60 seconds in that minute, known as
        pars minuta secunda, or the second small part, meaning
        “second.”

        Essentially, all this gives us so far are divisions of days into
        hours of 12 and nights into hours of 12 (and those hours
        carved up into minutes and seconds of course) but a 24-
        hour day and night period was not introduced until
        Hipparchus of Rhodes, a Greek astronomer from the 2nd
        century BCE, came along. Of note, he also suggested the
        system of latitude and longitude, as well as that of the
        brightness of stars, known as magnitude, which we still use
        today, among other important discoveries.

        By the time of Messiah, this system of 24-hour days was
        already in play, though he did not acknowledge it. Why?
        Because the Scriptures themselves bear out what
        constitutes a day, without the double meaning of a 12 and
        24-hour period.

        Going back to the book of Bereshith (Genesis), beginning
        at chapter 1 and verse 3 we read: “And Elohim said, ‘Let
        light come to be,’ and light came to be. And Elohim saw the
        light, that it was good. And Elohim separated the light from
        the darkness. And Elohim called the light ‘day’ and the
        darkness He called ‘night’ ”—Bereshith 1:3-5.

        The verse goes on to say that evening came and morning
        came, the first day. Now many take this and tend to run
        with it, saying that the evening and morning constitute a 24-
        hour period, when we clearly see that Elohim, or Yeshua
        himself that is—Ibrim (Hebrews) 1:2—separated the light,
        subsequently called day, from the darkness, known as
        night, thus day and night were separate and distinct.

        The evening and morning having come simply refers to a
        night period that passed, which in essence meant that the
        work of creation stopped as an example to man, for
        Yeshua himself said, and we’ll take the literal sense here:
        “It is necessary for Me to work the works of Him who sent
        Me while it is day—night is coming, when no one is able to
        work”—Yochanan (John) 9:4. So you see, the evening to
        morning period marked the night that caused work to
        cease, as when men slept when night came long ago, prior
        to electricity, unable to work until the morning light arrived.
        But the works of the first day of creation were officially
        counted when the night, the period of darkness attached to
        the previous separate and distinct day, was over.

        Incidentally, the Hebrew word used for day in Scripture is
        most often yom, which means to be hot, or warm, which
        references the actions of the sun. The sun is only out during
        daylight hours, thus yom, or day, meant, literally, the period
        of light that is generally 12 hours during the spring and fall
        seasons, and not a period of 24 hours, with day and night
        combined. Another instance of a Hebrew word being
        translated as day is boqer, which means dawn, or break of
        day, and morning. Boqer is used in Shophetim (Judges) 16:
        2, where it is translated in ISR’s the Scriptures as “daylight.”

        Citing that verse as well as the one before it we read: “And
        Shimshon (Samson) went to Azzah and saw a woman
        there, a whore, and went in to her—the Azzathites saying,
        ‘Shimshon has come here!’ So they went round and lay in
        wait for him all night at the gate of the city, and kept silent
        all night, saying, ‘In the morning, when it is daylight (boqer)
        then we shall kill him’ ”—Shophetim 16:1, 2. In a twisted
        way, this fulfills Yeshua’s statement: “night is coming, when
        no one is able to work.”

        Another Hebrew word used as day in some translations is
        shachar, which means dawn, and comes from another word
        of roughly the same spelling which means, to dawn or be
        early. To deviate a bit, some hold that the day begins and
        ends at evening, and that a seventh-day Sabbath lasts from
        sunset to sunset, but neither of these assumptions are
        proven from Scripture.

        When the beginning of day is spoken of in Scripture it is
        usually done so by being referenced as the dawn of, or
        break of day, seeing day involves light and not darkness, so
        cannot begin when it is growing dark out, like so many
        falsely believe.

        The word shachar, in addition to boqer, is another
        wonderful example of this. Shachar is used in a very
        familiar passage of Scripture that has Ya’aqob (Jacob)
        wrestling with a messenger of Yah. In Bereshith (Genesis)
        32:24 we read: “And Ya’aqob was left alone. And a man
        wrestled with him until the breaking of day (shachar).” Two
        verses later we read: “And He (the messenger) said: ‘Let
        Me go, for the day (shachar) breaks.’ ”

        So dawn, and not evening, according to two Hebrew
        words, boqer and shachar, marks the beginning of the day,
        which itself, attested to by yet another Hebrew word, yom,
        occurs during daylight hours, and not night, thus negating
        the 24-hour day theory.

        The next example in our study is the Hebrew word
        mochoratham, which means simply, the morrow, or
        tomorrow. It is found in 1 Shemu’el (Samuel) 30:17, in a
        passage that recounts a fierce battle between King Dawid
        (David) and the Philistines. There we read: “And Dawid
        smote them from twilight until the evening of the next day
        (mochoratham) .” This verse could easily be used by
        someone trying to prove the day-begins-at- evening theory,
        but it would be done so in falsehood, for the word
        mochoratham, translated day, in that it is the morrow,
        means only that the period of daylight following the current
        one is being mentioned.

        Note that both twilight and evening are mentioned, but not
        as beginning periods of the day, but rather as the final
        portions within that daylight period. Twilight of course refers
        to the time of the day when the sun is just below the
        horizon, especially the period between sunset and dark
        when light is diffused. This can occur during early morning
        as well, but here I believe the word twilight is speaking of
        early evening, given the fact that in Hebrew it is nesheph,
        which refers to a prevailing evening breeze. Thus, Dawid
        smote the Philistines from the early evening of one day, all
        through the night and up to the evening of the day that
        followed. In other words, the smiting took about 24 hours.

        This word, mochoratham, to further lay bare the theory of a
        24-hour day, is also found in the book of Yonah (Jonah)
        chapter 4 and verse 7. It reads: “But as morning dawned
        the next day (mochoratham) . . .” illuminating once more
        that the morrow, the day following, began in the morning.

        Again, owr, for yet another example, is a Hebrew word
        which means to be or make, luminous. And luminosity, as
        we should all know, has to do with something emitting light,
        or something that is full of light. Therefore, when we come
        to 2 Shemu’el 2:32, we can again glean the essential truth
        that has been highlighted in this study, for there we read:
        “And they brought Asah’el and buried him in his father’s
        tomb, which was in Beyth Lechem (Bethlehem). And Yo’ab
        and his men went all night, and they came to Chebron
        (Hebron) at daybreak (owr).”

        Thus the day, as even a child knows, begins in the morning,
        when light appears, and ends at evening, when light
        diminishes, having nothing to do with the night, which means
        it is not a period of 24-hours.

        Now, without explaining the stories surrounding the texts,
        we will quote some verses that will further demonstrate,
        from Scripture, that a day is actually from morning to
        evening. First we give you Shophetim (Judges) 19:9: “And
        the man arose to go, he and his concubine and his servant.
        But his father-in-law, the young woman’s father, said to
        him, ‘See, the day is now drawing toward evening. Please
        spend the night. See, the day is coming to an end. Stay
        here, and let your heart be glad. And you shall rise early
        tomorrow for your journey, and you shall go to your tent.’ ”

        Again in Shophetim 19:25, 26 we read: “But the men would
        not listen to him. So the man took his concubine and
        brought her out to them. And they knew her and rolled
        themselves on her all night until morning, and let her go
        when the day began to break. And as morning appeared
        the woman came back and fell down at the door of the man’
        s house where her master was, till it was light.”

        Often, we read these fascinating accounts in Scripture that
        cause us to get so caught up in the details of the stories
        that we in turn miss the important points of truth concerning
        subjects such as the one we are covering herein, that is,
        what constitutes a day in Scripture. Therefore, we are
        cutting to the chase so to speak and giving you the meat of
        the texts dealing with our topic, the day.

        Moving on to the book of Shemoth (Exodus) 18:13 we
        read: “And it came to be, on the next day, that Mosheh
        (Moses) sat to rightly rule the people. And the people stood
        before Mosheh from morning until evening.”

        Also, Shemoth 32:5, 6 reads: “And Aharon (Aaron) saw
        and built an altar before it. And Aharon called out and said,
        ‘Tomorrow is a festival to YHWH.’ And they rose early on
        the next day, and offered burnt offerings, and brought
        peace offerings. And the people sat down to eat and drink,
        and rose up to play.”

        Then there is Shemoth 19:10, 11, 16: “And YHWH said to
        Mosheh, ‘Go to the people and set them apart today and
        tomorrow. And they shall wash their garments, and shall be
        prepared by the third day. For on the third day YHWH shall
        come down upon Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the
        people.’ . . . And it came to be, on the third day in the
        morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a
        thick cloud on the mountain. And the sound of the ram’s
        horn was very loud, and all the people who were in the
        camp trembled.”

        This lesson is not limited to the Old Testament alone, for in
        Luke 24:29 we read, quite plainly, and startlingly: “But they
        urged Him strongly, saying, ‘Stay with us, for it is toward
        evening, and the day has declined.’ And He went in to stay
        with them.”

        Yeshua himself, the Messiah of Yah, spoke plainly of the
        day as well. In the book of Yochanan (John) chapter 11,
        which is the chapter that speaks of his friend, El’azar
        (Lazarus) dying, in verses 9 and 10 we read: “Yeshua
        answered, ‘Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone
        walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees
        the light of this world. But if anyone walks in the night, he
        stumbles, because the light is not in him.’ ” This was spoken
        just before Passover, as the beginning of the very next
        chapter illustrates. Thus, it was springtime, and in
        Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) this meant that there would
        indeed be around 12 full hours of daylight unlike in winter,
        so Yeshua spoke the truth as always.

        The Sabbath Day

        When Sabbath-keeping believers speak of the Sabbath, or
        observe it, this usually entails a 24-hour, evening to evening
        period. Let us look at the relevance of this from Scripture.
        Beginning in the book of Shemoth (Exodus) chapter 16, we
        will look at verses 19-26 which picks up in the middle of an
        incident dealing with the bread, the “Manna” that was to
        rain from the heavens:

        19And Mosheh said, “Let no one leave any of it until
        morning.” 20And they did not listen to Mosheh, so some of
        them left part of it until morning, and it bred worms and
        stank. And Mosheh was wroth with them. 21And they
        gathered it every morning each one according to his need.
        And when the sun became hot, it melted. 22And it came to
        be, on the sixth day, that they gathered twice as much
        bread, two omers for each one. And all the rulers of the
        congregation came and told Mosheh. 23And he said to
        them, “This is what YHWH has said, ‘Tomorrow is a rest, a
        Sabbath set-apart to YHWH. That which you bake, bake;
        and that which you cook, cook. And lay up for yourselves all
        that is left over, to keep it until morning.’ ” 24And they laid it
        up till morning, as Mosheh commanded. And it did not stink,
        and no worm was in it. 25And Mosheh said, “Eat it today,
        for today is a Sabbath to YHWH, today you do not find it in
        the field. 26“Gather it six days, but on the seventh day,
        which is the Sabbath, there is none.”
        —Shemoth 16:19-26.

        Please note that the verses specifically say that
        “Tomorrow” was “a rest, a Sabbath,” and that the people
        laid up the bread “till morning,” and not until that morning
        actually appeared did Mosheh come out and say, “Eat it
        today, for today is a Sabbath.” The Sabbath did not begin
        the evening before, but in the morning, when it was
        declared “today is a Sabbath.”

        Next we have another witness in Nechemyah (Nehemiah)
        where in chapter 13:15-19 we read:

        15In those days I saw in Yehudah (Judah) those treading
        wine presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and
        loading donkeys with wine, grapes, and figs, and all kinds
        of burdens, which they brought into Yerushalayim on the
        Sabbath day. So I warned them on the day they sold food.
        16And men of Tsor (Tyre) dwelt there, bringing in fish and
        all kinds of goods, and sold them on the Sabbath to the
        children of Yehudah, and in Yerushalayim. 17Then I
        contended with the nobles of Yehudah, and said to them,
        “What evil matter is this that you are doing, profaning the
        Sabbath day? 18“Did not your fathers do the same so that
        our Elohim brought all this evil on us and on this city? Yet
        you bring added wrath on Yisra’el (Israel) by profaning the
        Sabbath.” 19And it came to be, at the gates of
        Yerushalayim, as it began to be dark before the Sabbath,
        that I commanded the gates to be shut, and commanded
        that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath. And I
        stationed some of my servants at the gates, so that no
        burdens would be brought in on the Sabbath day.
        —Nechemyah 13:15-19.

        Now to elaborate on verse 19, how can it be dark “before
        the Sabbath” if the Sabbath occurs during the night as well
        and is supposed to begin at “evening?” Doesn’t the term “it
        began to be dark” refer to the evening, at which point the
        Sabbath allegedly begins? So why do we have it that this
        was also “before the Sabbath?” This means that Sabbath
        rightly occurs only during daylight hours, from morning to
        evening. When it began to be dark, the gates were
        commanded to be shut, not because Sabbath was about to
        begin, but because it would have been considered work
        closing them on the morning of the Sabbath, and it couldn’t
        be done during the night darkness, so it was done before it
        became fully dark. Yeshua said it best: “night is coming,
        when no one is able to work.”

        Another passage in Nechemyah further demonstrates this
        point. In chapter 4 and verses 21 and 22 we read: “So we
        labored in the work, and half of them held the spears from
        the break of day until the stars appeared. At that time I
        also said to the people, ‘Let each man and his servant
        spend the night in Yerushalayim, and they shall be our
        guard by night, and for the work by day.’ ”

        Finally we come to the mother of all quotes when dealing
        with this subject, and it is found in the book of Wayyiqra
        (Leviticus) chapter 23. There we find the law pertaining to
        the Day of Atonement. Many use these verses to, again,
        “prove” a 24-hour day. Beginning at verse 27, and we won’t
        quote it in its entirety, we read, “ ‘On the tenth day of this
        seventh month is the Day of Atonement.’ ” Moving down to
        verse 32 we read: “ ‘It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you
        shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the month at
        evening, from evening to evening, you observe your
        Sabbath.’ ”

        First let us note that this is the only text wherein descriptive
        language is used to explain the duration of a Sabbath, and
        it is one of only two that is known as a high Sabbath, which
        we’ll explain shortly. Second, note that Yah mentions both
        the ninth and tenth day here. People tend to use this to say
        the tenth day begins on the evening of the ninth day, but
        that is confusing and misleading. The ninth day at evening is
        self-explanatory, in that the “ninth day” is in and of itself its
        own day, and not the beginning of the tenth, otherwise it
        would be called the tenth day. This was a rare Sabbath,
        hence the thorough explanation by Yah regarding its
        observance.

        The other high Sabbath was the first day of the Festival of
        Unleavened Bread, the details of which can also be found in
        Wayyiqra chapter 23. Preceding the first day of the Festival
        of Unleavened Bread was the Passover, which, according
        to verse 5 of chapter 23, was commanded to be held,
        according to the Hebrew sense, between the evenings,
        whereas others translate it evening.

        Between the evenings is a Hebrew idiom that refers to
        either 3:00 p.m., according to the Pharisees, or dusk,
        according to the Sadducees. Regardless of who was right,
        Yah darkened the day from the sixth to the ninth hour to
        fulfill it. At the ninth hour, being 3:00 p.m., is when Yeshua
        died, fulfilling the role of our Passover lamb—see
        Mattithyahu (Matthew) 27:46-50; Mark 15:34-37; Luke 23:
        44-46. Note that the first hour began at 6:00 a.m., further
        proof that a day does not begin at evening. How could the
        ninth hour be 3:00 p.m. if the day started in the evening?
        Error regarding these simple truths has persisted for far too
        long.

        Now remember that the Passover was to be observed all
        night, as we read in the book of Shemoth (Exodus) chapter
        12, thus it ran into the first day of Unleavened Bread,
        making that day a high Sabbath. This leads us to ask, what
        exactly is a high Sabbath?

        In Yochanan (John) 19:31 we read: “Therefore, since it
        was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain
        on the stake on the Sabbath—for that Sabbath was a high
        one—the Yehudim (tribe of Judah) asked Pilate to have
        their legs broken, and that they be taken away.”

        For one thing, and this is a study in and of itself, Yeshua
        was not killed on a Friday, contrary to popular Christian
        belief, for that would not encompass three days and three
        nights, which was the declared length of time he was to
        remain dead—Mattithyahu 12:40. Again we see the
        distinction here between days and nights.

        Remember that the Day of Atonement was called a
        Sabbath by Yah himself back in the book of Wayyiqra
        (Leviticus) chapter 23. Thus the seventh-day Sabbath was
        not the only Sabbath observed by the Yedudim in Yeshua’s
        day. In fact, the high Sabbath referred to in Yochanan 19:
        31 is in fact the first day of Unleavened Bread, which fell,
        not on a Saturday, but most likely on a Thursday. Again,
        this is another study we cannot get into here.

        The word “high” in Yochanan 19:31, which refers to the
        type of Sabbath they were preparing for, is the Greek word
        megas, which means big, and it is associated with two
        other Greek words, megistos, which means greatest, and
        meizon, which means larger. What does all this mean
        exactly? Well, it falls in line with exactly what we have been
        saying herein. A regular Sabbath was and is from morning
        to evening, but a high Sabbath, or megas Sabbath, is big,
        or as its associated word, meizon denotes, it is larger than
        usual. This is because a previous night is attached to it.
        Again, there are only two high, or big Sabbaths found in the
        entire Scriptures, and they are the first day of Unleavened
        Bread and the Day of Atonement.

        Yeshua once said wisely, while confronting a few
        Pharisees, “Why do you also transgress the command of
        Elohim because of your tradition?”—Mattithyahu 15:3. If
        this light is new to you, and you must chew the cud of it
        awhile, then do so, but when light comes, if indeed it is
        light, then we must live up to it. The traditions of men
        causes us to err, but when we learn the truth behind these
        false traditions, which in effect makes them nothing but
        darkness, then we are required to live up to what we know,
        for “To him, then, who knows to do good and does not do
        it, to him it is sin.”—Ya’aqob (James) 4:17.

        So begin to observe the Sabbath as you have now learned
        from the Scriptures, and not as tradition dictates. “. . . It is
        fitting for us to fill all righteousness.” Matthew 3:15.



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