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When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening?

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  • BYT YHWH
    When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening? © 1995 Greg L. Price Still Waters Revival Books 4710-37A Ave. Edmonton AB Canada T6L 3T5 Voice (403) 450-3730
    Message 1 of 2 , Feb 6, 2008
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      When Does The

      Sabbath Begin?

      Morning or Evening?

      © 1995

      Greg L. Price

      Still Waters Revival Books

      4710-37A Ave. Edmonton AB Canada T6L 3T5

      Voice (403) 450-3730 or Email swrb@...

      2

      Historically, there has existed a controversy over the

      terminus a quo (i.e. the starting

      point) of a new day. Two views have predominated the discussion:

      (1) A new day begins

      at morning;

      or (2) A new day begins at evening. However, within each of these major

      views there are even further distinctions. On the one hand, if one holds that a new day

      begins in the morning, does it begin at midnight or sunrise? On the other hand, if one

      affirms that a new day begins in the evening, does it begin at noon or sunset?

      These are questions that may seem to be quite trivial at first glance. What difference

      does it make to God when I reckon a day to begin and end? There are certain duties I

      must perform each day in order to be faithful to the Lord and I must perform the same

      duties whether I reckon a day to begin in the morning or in the evening. Right? Wrong!

      The significance of this study revolves around the necessary issue of Sabbath keeping.

      It is a necessary and binding obligation upon all people everywhere to keep the Sabbath

      day holy unto the Lord. This moral duty rests upon the following warrant from God’s holy

      Word:

      (1) It is a creation mandate just as is marriage, procreation, labor, and dominion

      (Gen. 2:1-3);

      (2) It is a moral commandment from the Judge of the universe just as is the

      prohibition against worshipping other gods, murdering, committing adultery, stealing, or

      lying (Ex. 20:1-17);

      (3) It remains a binding duty upon "man" (not simply upon Israel)

      for the Son of Man continues to be Lord of the Sabbath (Mt. 12:8; Mk. 2:27-28); and

      (4)

      It marks the beginning of the new creation

      at the Lord’s resurrection (Mk. 16:9; Acts

      20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Heb. 4:9; Rev. 1:10). For further study on matters related to the

      Sabbath, you will find resources listed in the

      Bibliography (pp.28-29).

      Since it is a necessary and binding obligation to keep the Sabbath, one first must know

      which day to keep. The

      Westminster Confession of Faith (XXI:VII) accurately

      summarizes the view of Scripture as follows:

      As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for

      the worship of God; so, in his word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual

      commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in

      seven for a sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the

      world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the

      resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which in Scripture

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      is called the Lord’s Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the

      Christian Sabbath.

      There is good and necessary inference from the pages of the New Testament to deduce

      that the Sabbath of the Lord God has been changed from the seventh day of the Old

      Covenant to the first day of the New Covenant by the resurrection of the Lord of the

      Sabbath (Mk. 16:9; Jn. 20:1,19,26; Acts 2:1 cf. with Lev. 23:15-16; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor.

      16:2; Col.. 2:16-17; Heb. 4:9; Rev. 1:10).

      However, even when one concludes that the first day of the week is the Christian

      Sabbath, one must pursue the issue one step further. When does the first day of the week

      begin? Does it begin Saturday evening or Sunday morning? This question has both

      theological and practical implications. Theologically, all unnecessary work and

      employment of people is to cease on the Sabbath. Does working Saturday evening or

      Sunday evening constitute Sabbath breaking? That depends upon when the Christian

      Sabbath begins. Furthermore, the corporate worship of God’s people on the Sabbath is

      required by God (Lk. 4:16; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Heb. 4:9; Rev. 1:10). Can one be

      required to attend a worship service on Saturday evening or on Sunday evening? That

      depends on when the Sabbath begins. Practically, the government and discipline of a

      church within its congregations, presbyteries, and general assembly will have conflicting

      standards which will produce much confusion if there is not agreement on this issue. One

      can imagine a discipline case coming before the presbytery which involves Sabbath

      breaking due to a family going out to eat at a local restaurant on Sunday evening rather

      than coming to the worship service (or place the same circumstances on a Saturday

      evening). Think of charges being brought against a graduate student who missed a Sunday

      evening worship service in order to study for an exam on Monday morning because he

      believed the Sabbath ended Sunday at 6:00 p.m. Such cases could be multiplied. For

      those churches which take the Sabbath seriously, the issue as to when a day begins has

      both theological and practical significance. Thus, curiosity into the trivial is not the

      purpose of this study, but rather faithfulness in pursuing the individual’s as well as the

      church’s duty in Sabbath keeping.

      The evidence presented in this study is not based upon extrabiblical testimony. There

      has been a conscious effort to seek first the testimony of Scripture before appealing to

      resources outside the Bible ("Let God be true, but every man a liar" Rom. 3:4). Certainly,

      extrabiblical evidence is helpful in such a study, but helpful in corroborating the testimony

      of Scripture not in interpreting Scripture ("The infallible rule of interpretation of scripture

      is the scripture itself. . . ."

      The Westminster Confession of Faith, I:IX).

      4

      The position set forth in this study is that the Scripture teaches the

      terminus a quo

      (i..e. the start) of a new day to be at morning rather than at evening.

      The following

      evidence from Scripture is brought forth in order to demonstrate that a new day begins at

      morning.

      1. When expressions like "tomorrow", "that night", "the next day", or "the same

      day" are used in Scripture, the context in certain texts indicates that the night is a

      continuation of "the same day" that preceded it (and not the beginning of a new day).

      Whereas the following morning is distinguished from the previous night by being

      designated as "tomorrow" or as "the next day."

      a. Genesis 19:33-35

      All the incestuous events of Gen. 19:33 occur on "

      that night." However, the

      recounting of the events of the previous night actually occurred "

      on the morrow" (Gen.

      19:34). Also note that the dialogue between the daughters of Lot "

      on the morrow" (Gen.

      19:34) occurred before nightfall ("

      that night also", Gen. 19:35), and yet what occurred

      the night before (Gen. 19:33) and what occurred the day after (before nightfall) are

      reckoned as two different days ("

      the morrow", Gen. 19:34). This chain of events can

      only be reckoned as two separate days if the following morning begins a new day. If the

      previous evening begins a new day (as the evening view affirms), then one could not refer

      to the following morning and afternoon (before night) as "

      the morrow." For the previous

      night, the next morning, and the next afternoon (before night) would all be the same day

      and not two separate days.

      b. Exodus 16:23-25

      This passage is significant for it refers to the Sabbath. In preparing for the Sabbath,

      God commanded Israel to gather twice as much manna on the morning of the sixth day

      because they were not to gather manna at all on the seventh day (Ex. 16:22, 26). On the

      sixth day, Moses declared, "

      Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD"

      (Ex. 16:23). When is "

      tomorrow"? That same evening or the following morning? The

      text makes it clear that they were to bake and to boil all that they needed for food on that

      same day (the sixth day), and the manna they did not need for that day would be preserved

      from spoiling until the next morning (unlike other days, cf. Ex. 16:19-20). Moses states

      what is to be done with the manna that did not spoil on the morning of the seventh day:

      "Eat that

      today, for today is a sabbath unto the LORD; today ye shall not find it in the

      field" (Ex.. 16:25). The text does not indicate that leftover manna bred worms or became

      spoiled immediately before sunset on the sixth day (which would be the beginning of a

      new day according to the evening view), but rather that all leftover manna became spoiled

      before morning. Why? Because morning was the beginning of a new day. It is also

      significant to note that the text does not associate the start of the Sabbath with the evening,

      but rather Moses declared, "

      Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath" (Ex. 16:23). The

      "

      tomorrow" when the Sabbath began was the following morning (Ex. 16:23). On the

      5

      morning of the seventh day Moses stated, "

      Today is a sabbath unto the LORD" (16:25).

      There is no indication that the Sabbath began the night before. Is there even one example

      in Scripture where "

      tomorrow" refers to the evening that immediately follows the morning

      and afternoon that precedes it? I have not yet found such a passage.

      c. Leviticus 7:15

      The following morning cannot be accounted the same day as the previous evening for

      all of the peace offering must be eaten "

      the same day" it is offered and none of it can be

      eaten the following morning (Lev. 7:15). Why? Because the following morning is a new

      day. If a new day begins in the evening, one would expect that the text should say that the

      peace offering must be eaten "

      the same day" and none of it left until "evening."

      d. 1 Samuel 19:11

      This text distinguishes between two days: "

      tonight" and "tomorrow" (which according

      to the text is the following "

      morning"). Again, if a new day begins in the evening, one

      would expect Michal to have said, "If you do not save your life tonight,

      today in the

      morning

      you will be dead." To the contrary she refers to the following morning as

      "

      tomorrow."

      e. Jonah 4:7

      This passage identifies the following morning as "

      the next day." I have been unable to

      find even one text that would speak in a similar fashion of the "

      next day" beginning in the

      evening that immediately follows morning and afternoon (e.g. "in the evening on the next

      day").

      f. Mark 4:35

      Not only do we not find a text that reads, "in the evening on the next day;" to the

      contrary, I find this passage saying, "

      And the same day, when even had come." Again,

      I ask where is there a text which would indicate morning as being the same day as the

      previous evening using language similar to Mk. 4:35 (e.g. "On the same day, when

      morning had come")?

      2. The phrases, "the evening and the morning" or "the morning and the evening", do

      not necessarily indicate the order in which a day begins and ends.

      a. The phrase, "

      the evening and the morning", (and similar expressions) occurs in

      Gen. 1:5,8,13,19, 23, 31; Ex. 27:21; Lev. 24:3; Num. 9:21; Ps. 55:17 and Dan. 8:14,26.

      Consider the discussion below under

      Creation (pp.6-7).

      b. However, the phrase, "

      the morning and the evening", (or similar expressions)

      occurs in Ex. 18:13,14; 1 Sam. 17:16; 1 Chron. 16:40; 2 Chron. 2:4; 2 Chron. 13:11; 2

      Chron. 31:3; Ezra 3:3; Job 4:20; Ps. 65:8; Is. 21:12; Is. 28:19; and Acts 28:23.

      c. It is rather obvious that neither "

      the evening and the morning" nor "the morning

      and the evening

      " can specifically indicate the time in which a day begins without

      contradicting one another.

      6

      3. The phrases, "night and day" and "day and night", do not necessarily indicate the

      order in which a day begins and ends.

      a. The phrase, "

      night and day", (and similar expressions) occurs in 1 Sam. 25:16;

      1 Kgs. 8:29; Est. 4:16; Ps. 19:2; Ps. 91:5; Is. 27:3; Is. 34:10; Jer. 14:17; Mk. 4:27;

      Mk. 5:5; Lk. 2:37; Acts 20:31; Acts 26:7; 2 Cor. 11:25; 1 Thess. 2:9; 1 Thess. 3:10;

      2 Thess. 3:8; 1 Tim. 5:5; 2 Tim. 1:3.

      b. Whereas the phrase, "

      day and night", (or similar expressions) occurs in Gen. 1:18;

      Gen. 7:4; Gen. 8:22; Gen. 31:39,40; Ex.10:13; Ex. 13:21,22; Ex. 24:18;

      Ex. 34:28; Lev. 8:35; Num. 9:21; Deut. 9:9,11,18,25; Deut. 10:10; Deut. 28:66;

      Josh. 1:8; 1 Sam. 30:12; 2 Sam. 21:10; 1 Kgs. 8:59; 1 Kgs. 19:8; 1 Chron. 9:33;

      2 Chron. 6:20; Neh. 1:6; Neh. 4:9; Neh. 9:12,19; Job 2:13; Ps. 1:2; Ps. 32:4; Ps. 42:3; Ps.

      55:10; Ps. 74:16; Ps. 88:1; Ps. 121:6; Ps. 136:8-9; Eccl. 8:16; Is. 28:19;

      Is. 38:12,13; Is. 60:11; Is. 62:6; Jer. 9:1; Jer. 16:13; Jer. 33:20,25; Lam. 2:18; Jonah 1:17;

      Zech. 14:7; Mt. 4:2; Lk. 18:7; Acts 9:24; Rev. 4:8; Rev. 7:15; Rev. 12:10;

      Rev. 14:11; Rev. 20:10.

      c. It should be obvious that neither "

      night and day" nor "day and night" specifically

      identify when a new day begins. For example, note how Solomon in the same prayer uses

      "

      night and day" (1 Kgs. 8:29) and "day and night" (1 Kgs. 8:59)..

      4.. Creation (Genesis 1)

      a. Many have concluded from Gen. 1:5,8,13,19,23,31 that the phrase, "

      the evening

      and the morning

      ", definitively sets the terminus a quo (i.e. the beginning) of a new day

      in the evening.

      b. However, we ought not to look at "

      the evening and the morning" in Gen. 1 as an

      equation: evening + morning = 1 day. The phrase "

      the evening and the morning" is not

      defining the constituent parts of a 24 hr. day. Nowhere in Scripture does the phrase,

      "

      evening and morning", (or for that matter "morning and evening") specifically

      designate a 24 hour period of time (cf. the discussion under

      Refutation of Argument #1,

      pp.17-19).

      c. Noted Hebrew scholar, C. H. Leupold (

      Exposition of Genesis, Vol. 1, pp. 57-58)

      explains:

      The verse [Gen. 1:5], however, presents not an addition of items but the conclusion

      of a progression. On this day there had been the creation of heaven and earth in the

      rough, then the creation of light, the approval of light, the separation of day and

      night. Now with evening the divine activities ceased: they are works of light not

      works of darkness. The evening (‘erebh), of course, merges into night, and the night

      terminates with morning. But by the time morning is reached, the first day is

      concluded, as the account says succinctly, ‘the first day,’ and everything is in

      readiness for the second day’s task. For ‘evening’ marks the conclusion of the day,

      7

      and ‘morning’ marks the conclusion of the night. It is these conclusions, which

      terminate the preceding, that are to be made prominent."

      Leupold’s point is simply that after each day’s creative activity there followed "

      evening"

      and when "

      morning" arrived another day of creative activity began.

      d. Similarly, renowned Old Testament scholars, Keil and Delitzsch (

      Commentary on

      the Old Testament

      , Vol. 1, p. 51) understand the Hebrew text to teach:

      The first evening was not the gloom, which possibly preceded the full burst of light

      as it came forth from the primary darkness, and intervened between the darkness

      and full, broad daylight. It was not till after the light had been created, and the

      separation of the light from the darkness had taken place, that evening came, and

      after the evening the morning . . . .

      The important idea conveyed here is that "

      the evening and the morning" of Gen. 1:5 are

      not specifically the light and darkness that are separated in Gen. 1:5. "

      The evening and

      the morning

      " of Gen. 1:5 chronologically follow the separation of the light from darkness.

      "

      The evening and the morning" of each successive day (1:8,13,19, 23,31) likewise

      follows that day’s creative activity ("then came evening, then came morning" Leupold’s

      translation of the Hebrew phrase).

      e. Finally, highly esteemed Professor of Old Testament at Westminster Theological

      Seminary, Edward J. Young (

      Studies in Genesis One, p. 89) summarizes the Hebrew text

      as follows:

      When the light was removed by the appearance of darkness, it was evening, and the

      coming of light brought morning, the completion of a day. The days therefore, are

      to be reckoned from morning to morning. . . .

      f. Therefore, we may conclude that since a new day began on the morning of each of

      the six days of creation week, it would follow that God sanctified the Sabbath on the

      morning of the seventh day (not on the evening of the sixth day).. Thus, the first Sabbath

      (Gen. 2:1-3) began in the morning rather than in the evening.

      5. The Passover (Exodus 12)

      a. According to Ex. 12:6, the Passover lamb was to be killed on the fourteenth

      day of the first month "

      in the evening" (literally, "between the evenings"). Likewise, the

      Passover meal was to be eaten on the fourteenth day of the first month "

      in that night"

      (Ex. 12:8) "

      at even" (Ex. 12:18).

      b. Some who hold the view that a new day begins

      at evening place the slaying of the

      Passove

      r lamb between noon (the first evening) and sunset (the second evening).

      8

      However, this interpretation of the events of the Passover conflicts with certain details of

      the text. Note that the Passover meal was to be eaten on the same day as the slaying of the

      Passover lamb (cf. 2 Chron. 35:10-16 where the sacrificing of the Passover lamb and the

      celebrating of the Passover meal occur on "

      the same day"), namely, the fourteenth day

      "

      in that night" (Ex. 12:8) "at even" (Ex. 12:18). Therefore, the eating of the Passover

      meal is obviously after sunset.. Thus, we have two events occurring on the same day (the

      fourteenth day), one allegedly before sunset (the slaying of the Passover lamb) and one

      certainly after sunset (the eating of the Passover meal). Thus, sunset cannot begin a new

      day, otherwise the text would have indicated that the slaying of the Passover lamb was on

      the thirteenth day and the Passover meal on the fourteenth day, or that the slaying of the

      Passover lamb was on the fourteenth day and the Passover meal on the fifteenth day.

      c. The view that a new day begins

      at morning has no difficulty including the slaying

      of the Passover Lamb and the eating of the Passover meal on the same day (the fourteenth

      day) for a new day does not begin until the next morning. The phrase, "

      between the

      evenings

      ", (cf. the discussion under Refutation of Argument #4, pp.21-23) refers to the

      period of time between sunset (the first evening) and darkness (the second evening). Also

      observe that whatever was left over from the Passover lamb until the next morning was to

      be burned. Why? Because the next morning was no longer the Passover (the fourteenth

      day), but rather the day of

      the Feast of Unleavened Bread (the fifteenth day), cf. Ex.

      12:15-20; Lev. 23:5-6.

      d. The reference to eating unleavened bread from the evening of the fourteenth day

      until the evening of the twenty-first day (Ex. 12:18) does not define when the day begins,

      but the time of day when the initial holy convocation was to be celebrated (the evening of

      the fourteenth day), and the time of day when the final holy convocation was to be

      celebrated (the evening of the twenty-first day), cf. Ex. 12:14-16.

      e. Concerning

      the Feast of Unleavened Bread, God told Moses that it was to be

      observed on the "

      selfsame day" that I bring you out of the land of Egypt (Ex. 12:17; Ex.

      13:3; Num. 33:3). What day did God bring Israel out of the land of Egypt? On the

      fifteenth day of the first month (Num. 33:3, i.e.

      the day after Passover) "by night" ( Deut.

      16:1). Thus,

      the Feast of Unleavened Bread commemorates the exodus from Egypt.

      When did the exodus occur? The fifteenth day of the first month began

      at midnight

      following the Passover meal

      according to the morning view, whereas the fifteenth day

      began

      at sunset almost 24 hrs. after the Passover meal according to the evening view.

      Which view best comports with the events of Exodus 12?

      (1) It was about midnight that the firstborn child in each house was slain (Ex.

      12:29).

      (2) It was after midnight while it was yet "night" that Pharaoh and all the Egyptians

      rose to see their firstborn slain (Ex. 12:30).

      (3) It was still after midnight and yet "night" that Pharaoh called for Moses and

      Aaron and urged them to leave "in haste" (Ex. 12:31,33).

      9

      (4) The Israelites were to be ready to leave in a moment’s notice (Ex. 12:11,33,

      39).

      (5) The Israelites left Raames while it was yet night (Num. 33:3; Deut. 16:1).

      (6) All these events occurred during the night after midnight (Ex. 12:42).

      (7) The view that best comports with the events of Ex. 12 is the morning view.

      Israel did not yet have the benefit of the pillar of fire to lead them by night (Ex. 14:19,24).

      Thus, it is more likely they left Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month (Num. 33:3)

      with a full day of light ahead of them rather than a full day of light behind them.

      (7)

      The evening view cannot reconcile the slaying of the Passover lamb (before

      sunset) and the eating of the Passover meal (after sunset at night) with the fact that both

      events happen on the same day (i.e. the fourteenth day) rather than on two separate days

      (as would be the case if a new day began at sunset). Nor can

      the evening view reconcile

      the eating of the Passover meal (at night on the fourteenth day) and the exodus from Egypt

      on the following day (the fifteenth day) with the fact that these two events are not on the

      same day (as would be the case if a new day began at sunset), but on two separate days.

      6. The Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:26-32)

      a. Much emphasis is placed on Lev. 23:32 ("

      from even unto even") by many who

      uphold the view that a new day begins at evening (cf. the discussion under

      Refutation of

      Argument #5

      , pp.23-24).

      b. However, it is clear from the text that the Day of Atonement is on "the tenth day" of

      the seventh month (Lev. 23:27), rather than on "the ninth day" of the seventh month.

      c. Apparently,

      a time of preparation for the Day of Atonement began on the previous

      evening of "the ninth day" (just as there had developed a day of preparation the day before

      the Sabbath by the time of Christ, cp.. Mt. 27:62; Mk. 15:42; Lk. 23:54; Jn. 19:14,31,42).

      From the evening of the ninth day (the day before the Day of Atonement) to the evening of

      the tenth day (the Day of Atonement), there was to be observed a ceasing from all work

      and a solemn fast. This is a unique command that relates

      only to the Day of Atonement

      (i.e. this unique feature of the Day of Atonement is an aspect of the ceremonial law of the

      Old Covenant which was temporary and not binding upon believers in the New Covenant).

      Thus, this unique command in no way defines for us the ordinary time at which a day

      begins or even at which time the weekly Sabbath would ordinarily begin.

      7. The Day of Preparation (Matthew 27:57-62; Mark 15:42-46; Luke 23:50-54; John

      19:38-42)

      a. These passages speak of Joseph of Arimathea preparing the body of Jesus for burial

      on the Friday evening following the death of Christ (which "

      even" is not designated the

      Sabbath, but "the Day of Preparation" for the Sabbath). The practice of preparing for the

      Sabbath the evening before the Sabbath can be traced back to at least the time of

      Nehemiah (Neh. 13:15-22). Nehemiah forbade the gates of Jerusalem to remain open to

      10

      merchants after it had grown dark not because the Sabbath began at evening, but because

      there should be a due time of preparation the evening before the Sabbath was to begin (on

      the following morning). Joseph of Arimathea found himself in this period of preparation

      for the Sabbath (the evening before the Sabbath day began). Joseph knew that the body of

      Jesus could not be left hanging overnight according to the Law of God (Deut. 21:22-23;

      Josh. 8:29; Josh. 10:26-27). Thus, he was forced to prepare the body of Jesus for burial as

      quickly as possible on Friday evening.

      b. As one considers the above passages, it is important to observe that the word

      "

      even" (or "evening") as it is used throughout Scripture refers to a period of time at sunset

      or thereafter (Josh. 10:26-27; Judg. 19:10-16; 2 Chron. 18:34; Mt. 20:1-12;

      Mt. 26:20 cf. Ex. 12:8; Mk. 1:32; Mk. 6:47 cf. John 6:17). I am unaware of even one text

      in Scripture which would clearly identify "

      evening" with a period of time before sunset

      (e.g. at noon or 3 p.m.).

      c. Though both "

      the sixth hour" (noon) and "the ninth hour" (3 p.m.) are mentioned

      in the context in relation to Christ’s death (Mt. 27:45-46; Mk. 15:33-34; Lk. 23:44-45),

      neither of these hours is designated as "

      evening." Where in Scripture do we find noon or

      3 p.m. designated as "

      evening?" To the contrary, "noon" (the sixth hour) and "the ninth

      hour

      " (3 p.m.) are distinguished from "evening" in Scripture (Psalm 55:17; Matthew 20:1-

      8).

      d. It was already "

      evening" (sunset or thereafter) on the Day of Preparation (i.e.

      Friday evening) when Joseph left the scene of the crucifixion and entered the Praetorium in

      order to request permission from Pilate to take the Lord’s body (Mt. 27:57-58; Mk. 15:42-

      43). The text indicates that the following events occurred even after Joseph first sought

      permission from Pilate at "

      evening" to take the Lord’s body.

      (1) Pilate sent for the centurion who had supervised and witnessed the crucifixion in

      order to verify that Christ was dead (Mk. 15:44-45). Since he was responsible for the

      crucifixion, the centurion would have yet been at Golgotha (outside of Jerusalem) with the

      bodies. Thus, the message was sent from Pilate to the centurion, and the response was

      then sent back to Pilate by the centurion.

      (2) Joseph then left the Praetorium and purchased linen strips in order to wrap the

      body of Jesus (Mk. 15:46).

      (3) Joseph returned to the site of the crucifixion outside of Jerusalem to remove the

      body of Jesus from the cross (Mk. 15:46). The nails had to be carefully removed from

      Christ’s hands and feet before the body could be lowered from the cross (Ps. 22:16; Jn.

      20:27).

      (4) Nicodemus appeared at Golgotha with about 100 pounds of myrrh and aloes in

      order to give the Lord a royal burial (Jn. 19:39). The process Nicodemus followed in

      preparing the body for burial was according to the custom of the Jews (Jn. 19:40). This

      process would normally involve thoroughly washing the body, wrapping the body with

      11

      many individual pieces of linen, and placing the myrrh and aloes between each of the linen

      pieces.

      (5) Finally, the mummified body of the Lord was taken to the tomb nearby and a

      large stone was rolled in front of the entrance (Mk. 15:46; Jn. 19:41).

      (6) If it was already evening when Joseph first sought permission from Pilate to

      take the body, it was now hours into the evening by the time the body of Christ was

      actually laid in the tomb, and the Sabbath (which began the next morning) was indeed

      drawing near (Lk. 23:54).

      8. The Resurrection (Matthew 28; Mark 16; Luke 24; John 20)

      a. Christ was raised from the dead "

      early on the first day of the week" (Mk. 16:9).

      The first visitor to the tomb came on "

      the first day of the week . . . when it was yet

      dark

      " and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb (Jn. 20:1).

      b. Women arrived at the tomb "

      very early in the morning the first day of the

      week

      " to find the stone rolled away from the tomb (Mk. 16:2; Lk. 24:1). Incidently, if

      these women intended to bring spices in order to anoint the Lord’s body as soon after the

      Sabbath as they could (Lk. 23:55-56; Mk. 16:1-2), why did they not come Saturday after

      sunset when according to the evening view the Sabbath would have already ended?

      Rather the parallel passages indicate that when the Sabbath was over (Mk. 16:1), they

      came "

      very early in the morning the first day of the week" (Mk. 16:2).

      c. The "

      evening" of "the same day" in which Christ was resurrected is still "the first

      day of the week

      " (Jn. 20:19). According to the view that a new day begins at evening, it

      would be more appropriate to designate the time as "the

      next day at evening, being the

      second

      day of the week." There is no good and necessary inference to conclude that the

      "

      evening" mentioned in Jn. 20:19 is before sunset (cf. the discussion of "evening" under

      The Day of Preparation

      , #7b and c, p.10). Thus, the only reasonable way to explain

      how Christ’s resurrection on the first day of the week before sunrise and His appearance to

      the disciples later that evening after sunset could be on "the same day" is to adopt the view

      that a new day begins in the morning sometime before sunrise while it is yet dark.

      d. The "evening" of Jn. 20:19 should be considered in the light of Lk. 24:29.

      (1) Even before Jesus sat down to have a meal with these two believers, the text

      indicates that it was "

      toward evening" and that the day was "far spent" (literally,

      "already declined"). This is surely a reference to sunset quickly approaching, and yet the

      text states they were still only "

      nigh" to the village, not in the village or in the home where

      they were to eat.

      (2) They made preparations for the meal, and while eating, the Lord manifested

      Himself to them (Lk. 24:30-31).

      (3) Now upon realizing what had happened, they traveled some seven miles back to

      Jerusalem (Lk. 24:13,33) in order to relate these amazing events to the disciples of Christ

      12

      (even running a 10 minute mile for seven miles is 1 1/4 hours--a very conservative

      estimate).

      (4) Then as Jn. 20:19 explains, "

      the same day at evening, being the first day of

      the week

      " the Lord appeared to His disciples. By the time Christ appeared to His

      disciples "

      at evening", at least 2 hours had surely elapsed since it was already "toward

      evening

      " and the day was already "far spent" when he had first met the two disciples

      traveling to Emmaus.

      (5) The language that is used in Lk. 24:29 and in Jn. 20:19 is parallel with the

      language used in Judg. 19:11-16 where one finds in v.11 "

      the day was far spent", in

      v.14 "and

      the sun went down upon them ", and in v.16 "And, behold, there came an old

      man from his work out of the field

      at even."

      9. Historical Testimony

      a. In citing evidence from

      rabbinic writings to support the evening view, one must be

      cautious.

      (1)

      Rabbinic tradition is far from reliable. It was the very rabbinic tradition of

      the elders that Christ condemned as making empty the commandments of God (Mk. 7:1-

      13). This is no doubt what Paul had in mind when he commanded Timothy and Titus not

      to give heed to "Jewish fables and commandments of men" (Titus 1:14 cf.

      1 Tim. 1:4; 2 Tim. 4:4). Milton Terry in his classic work,

      Bbilical Hermeneutics, has

      demonstrated why much of the rabbinic tradition is unreliable:

      According to Jewish tradition Moses received at Sinai, in addition to the Pentateuch,

      an unwritten oral law, and afterward delivered it over to Joshua. Joshua delivered

      the same to the elders, and they to the prophets, from which it came into the

      possession of the men of the Great Synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the

      Just, who was a contemporary with Alexander the Great (B.C. 325). Simon

      transmitted it to Antigonus of Soco, and so it was passed onward until it came into

      possession of the schools of Hillel and Shammai. . . . These schools, especially that

      of Hillel, sifted and preserved these laws, until Rabbi Judah the Holy (about A.D.

      200) compiled and codified them in six Sedarim . . . thenceforth known as the

      Mishna (

      Biblical Hermeneutics, p.615).

      Similarly, it was rabbinic tradition which taught Jewish men to cover their heads while

      praying (and this is still practiced by orthodox Jews), yet this is clearly in violation of

      Scripture (1 Cor. 11:4,7). Because of the biblical evidence cited above and because of the

      unreliability of rabbinic tradition , I believe that rabbinic tradition (and even the practice of

      orthodox Jews today) which supports a view that the Sabbath begins at evening is in error.

      (2)

      Rabbinic tradition on this subject is in fact mixed. Harold Hoehner

      demonstrates from the

      Mishnah that there were actually two systems of reckoning a day at

      the time of Christ:

      13

      The Galileans and Pharisees used the sunrise-to-sunrise reckoning whereas the

      Judeans and Sadducees used the sunset-to-sunset reckoning. . . . This view not

      only satisfies the data of the Synoptics and the Gospel of John, it is also

      substantiated by the Mishnah. It was the custom of the Galileans to do no work on

      the day of the Passover while the Judeans worked until midday [the footnote

      reference is to

      Mishnah : Pesahim iv.5]. Since the Galileans’ day began at sunrise

      they would do no work on the entire day of the Passover. On the other hand the

      Judeans’ day began at sunset and they would work the morning but not the

      afternoon" (

      Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, p.87,88).

      Thus, if one is to lean heavily on the testimony of rabinnic tradition, he is even confronted

      with the question: Which rabbinic tradition should be followed?

      (3)

      Rabbinic tradition should not interpret Scripture, but only corroborate it.

      b. The following divines are both adherents to the Westminster Standards and

      adherents to the view that the Lord’s Day begins at morning. As will be noted, some of

      the divines cited were either directly or indirectly connected with the Westminster

      Assembly, thus making the case (unless evidence to the contrary can be produced) that the

      position of the Westminster Assembly was that the Sabbath begins in the morning.

      (1)

      Samuel Rutherford (1600-1661) was one of the Scottish commissioners to the

      Westminster Assembly. The following is an excerpt from his

      Ane Catachisme Conteining

      the Soume of Christian Religion

      (cited in Catechisms of the Second Reformation , by

      Alexander Mitchell, James Nisbet & Co., 1886, p.232). The original English of

      Rutherford has been preserved.

      Q. Quhat [What] is it to sanctifie the Sabbath?

      A. It is to sett all apairt from the dawning of the day untill midnight

      (Jn. 20:1; Acts 20:7) for Godis service.

      (2)

      Thomas Vincent (1634-1678) was a Puritan pastor in London and first

      published his

      Explanation of the Assembly’s Shorter Catechism in 1674. In "An Epistle

      To The Reader" the following words of commendation are found as an introduction to

      Vincent’s work:

      For such reasons as these, we highly approve the labours of this

      reverend brother, in his ‘Explanation of the Assembly’s Shorter

      Catechism.’ And having to our great satisfaction, perused it ourselves,

      in whole or in part, do readily recommend it to others: for though he

      14

      composed it at first for his own particular congregation, yet we judge

      it may be greatly useful to all Christians in general, especially to

      private families" (

      The Shorter Catechism Explained from Scripture ,

      The Banner of Truth Trust, 1980, p.v).

      This epistle was signed by 40 divines including stellar Puritans such as John Owen,

      Thomas Manton, Thomas Brooks, Thomas Watson, and three surviving commissioners of

      the Westminster Assembly (Joseph Caryl, Edmund Calamy, and Thomas Case). Needless

      to say, Vincent’s work was highly prized as a faithful tool in explaining the Shorter

      Catechism. In his discussion of Question 58 of the Shorter Catechism, Vincent asks and

      answers the following question:

      Q. 6 When doth this holy day or Sabbath begin, in the evening before

      [midnight] or that morning from midnight?

      A. In the evening before [midnight], by virtue of that word,

      "Remember to keep holy the seventh day," we ought to begin to

      prepare for the Sabbath; but the Sabbath itself doth not begin until

      the evening is spent, and midnight thereof over, and the morning

      after twelve of the clock beginneth (

      The Shorter Catechism

      Explained from Scripture

      , Banner of Truth Trust, 1980, p.139; cf.

      pp.139-141 for Vincent’s biblical defense of his view) .

      (3)

      Thomas Ridgeley (1667-1734) was an assistant minister in London to Thomas

      Gouge, a commissioner to the Westminister Assembly. Ridgeley composed a massive

      work entitled

      The Doctrines Of The Christian Religion Explained And Defended . This

      work is a commentary on the Larger Catechism. In it Ridgeley declares:

      Hence, the Lord’s day begins in the morning, before sun-rising; or,

      according to our usual way of reckoning, we may conclude,that it

      begins immediately after midnight, and continues till midnight

      following (

      Commentary On The Larger Catechism , Still Waters

      Revival Books, 1993, Vol.2, p.352; cf. pp.352-353 where Ridgeley

      articulates his position from Scripture).

      (4)

      Thomas Boston (1676-1732) in his classic work on the Shorter Catechism, An

      Illustration of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion Upon the Plan of the Assembly’s

      Shorter Catechism Comprehending A Complete Body of Divinity ,

      states the following:

      The day to be kept holy, is one whole day. . . . This day we begin in

      15

      the morning immediately after midnight; and so does the Sabbath

      begin, and not in the evening. . . . (

      Commentary On The Shorter

      Catechism

      , Still Waters Revival Books, 1993, Vol.2, p.189; cf.

      pp.189-190 for his biblical defense of the position).

      (5)

      James Fisher (1697-1775), a minister in the Associate Presbyterian Synod,

      was appointed by the Associate Presbyterian Synod (together with Ebenezer Erskine and

      Ralph Erskine) to compose what is now known as

      Fisher’s Catechism (1760) which is an

      exposition of the Shorter Catechism. Under the exposition of Question 58 of the Shorter

      Catechism, the following question and answer appear:

      Q. 10. When should we begin and end this day [i..e. the Sabbath]?

      A. We should measure it just as we do other days from midnight to

      midnight, without alienating any part of it to our own works (an

      extract from

      Fisher’s Catechism , cited in An Anthology of

      Presbyterian & Reformed Literature

      , Naphtali Press, Vol.5, p.198,

      1992).

      (6)

      John Brown of Haddington (1722-1787) a Scottish minister in the Associate

      Presbyterian Synod expounds the following in his explanation of the Shorter Catechism:

      Q. When doth the weekly Sabbath begin?

      A. In the morning, immediately after midnight.

      Q. How prove you that?

      A. As Christ rose early in the morning, and the evening after is called

      the evening of the same day; and Moses said, "Tomorrow (not this

      night) is a Sabbath to the Lord, Jn. 20:1,19; Ex. 16:23.

      Q. How then is it said, Lev. 23:32, "From evening to evening shall ye

      celebrate your Sabbath?

      A. That related to the ceremonial, not to the weekly Sabbath (

      An

      Essay, Towards an Easy, Plain, Practical, and Extensive

      Explication of the Assembly’s Shorter Catechism

      , printed by

      Henry Frick, 1818, p.255).

      (7)

      William S. Plumer, a nineteenth century Southern Presbyterian minister wrote

      the following in an exposition of the ten commandments entitled,

      The Law of God, as

      Contained in the Ten Commandments, Explained and Enforced

      (Presbyterian Board of

      Publication, 1864, pp.309-310):

      When does the Sabbath begin?

      16

      There is some diversity in the Christian world respecting the time, at

      which the Sabbath begins. Some date it from sunset on Saturday till

      sunset on Sabbath. When asked for their authority, they refer to a

      phrase which occurs several times in the first chapter of Genesis:

      "And the evening and the morning were the first day." This has not


      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

    • BYT YHWH
      Shalom Everyone! I would like to specify that the Scriptural Study previously posted, When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening? was from a Christian
      Message 2 of 2 , Feb 6, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        Shalom Everyone!
         
        I would like to specify that the Scriptural Study previously posted, "When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening?" was from a "Christian" source.
         
        It was posted ONLY to establish THE TIME when a Day Begins, and the Historical References for that, and NOT for the other WRONG "Christian" doctrines of the Sabbath on the "First Day of the Week", and the use of FALSE names and titles of "God", "Lord", and "Jesus Christ".
         
        May YHWH Bless you and yours!
         
        True Love in YHWSU,
         
        Carlo Tognoni
         
        BYT YHWH
         
        ========================================================
         




        ----- Original Message ----
        From: BYT YHWH <bytyhwh@...>
        To: Every Word Of Truth Group <EveryWordOfTruth@yahoogroups.com>; The True Community Group <TheTrueCommunity@yahoogroups.com>; The True Sabbaths And New Moons Group <TheTrueSabbathsAndNewMoons@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Thursday, February 7, 2008 12:19:13 AM
        Subject: [TheTrueCommunity] When Does The Sabbath Begin? Morning or Evening?

        When Does The

        Sabbath Begin?

        Morning or Evening?

        © 1995

        Greg L. Price

        Still Waters Revival Books

        4710-37A Ave. Edmonton AB Canada T6L 3T5

        Voice (403) 450-3730 or Email swrb@...

        2

        Historically, there has existed a controversy over the

        terminus a quo (i.e. the starting

        point) of a new day. Two views have predominated the discussion:

        (1) A new day begins

        at morning;

        or (2) A new day begins at evening. However, within each of these major

        views there are even further distinctions. On the one hand, if one holds that a new day

        begins in the morning, does it begin at midnight or sunrise? On the other hand, if one

        affirms that a new day begins in the evening, does it begin at noon or sunset?

        These are questions that may seem to be quite trivial at first glance. What difference

        does it make to God when I reckon a day to begin and end? There are certain duties I

        must perform each day in order to be faithful to the Lord and I must perform the same

        duties whether I reckon a day to begin in the morning or in the evening. Right? Wrong!

        The significance of this study revolves around the necessary issue of Sabbath keeping.

        It is a necessary and binding obligation upon all people everywhere to keep the Sabbath

        day holy unto the Lord. This moral duty rests upon the following warrant from God’s holy

        Word:

        (1) It is a creation mandate just as is marriage, procreation, labor, and dominion

        (Gen. 2:1-3);

        (2) It is a moral commandment from the Judge of the universe just as is the

        prohibition against worshipping other gods, murdering, committing adultery, stealing, or

        lying (Ex. 20:1-17);

        (3) It remains a binding duty upon "man" (not simply upon Israel)

        for the Son of Man continues to be Lord of the Sabbath (Mt. 12:8; Mk. 2:27-28); and

        (4)

        It marks the beginning of the new creation

        at the Lord’s resurrection (Mk. 16:9; Acts

        20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Heb. 4:9; Rev. 1:10). For further study on matters related to the

        Sabbath, you will find resources listed in the

        Bibliography (pp.28-29).

        Since it is a necessary and binding obligation to keep the Sabbath, one first must know

        which day to keep. The

        Westminster Confession of Faith (XXI:VII) accurately

        summarizes the view of Scripture as follows:

        As it is of the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for

        the worship of God; so, in his word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual

        commandment, binding all men in all ages, he hath particularly appointed one day in

        seven for a sabbath, to be kept holy unto him: which, from the beginning of the

        world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the

        resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which in Scripture

        3

        is called the Lord’s Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the

        Christian Sabbath.

        There is good and necessary inference from the pages of the New Testament to deduce

        that the Sabbath of the Lord God has been changed from the seventh day of the Old

        Covenant to the first day of the New Covenant by the resurrection of the Lord of the

        Sabbath (Mk. 16:9; Jn. 20:1,19,26; Acts 2:1 cf. with Lev. 23:15-16; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor.

        16:2; Col.. 2:16-17; Heb. 4:9; Rev. 1:10).

        However, even when one concludes that the first day of the week is the Christian

        Sabbath, one must pursue the issue one step further. When does the first day of the week

        begin? Does it begin Saturday evening or Sunday morning? This question has both

        theological and practical implications. Theologically, all unnecessary work and

        employment of people is to cease on the Sabbath. Does working Saturday evening or

        Sunday evening constitute Sabbath breaking? That depends upon when the Christian

        Sabbath begins. Furthermore, the corporate worship of God’s people on the Sabbath is

        required by God (Lk. 4:16; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Heb. 4:9; Rev. 1:10). Can one be

        required to attend a worship service on Saturday evening or on Sunday evening? That

        depends on when the Sabbath begins. Practically, the government and discipline of a

        church within its congregations, presbyteries, and general assembly will have conflicting

        standards which will produce much confusion if there is not agreement on this issue. One

        can imagine a discipline case coming before the presbytery which involves Sabbath

        breaking due to a family going out to eat at a local restaurant on Sunday evening rather

        than coming to the worship service (or place the same circumstances on a Saturday

        evening). Think of charges being brought against a graduate student who missed a Sunday

        evening worship service in order to study for an exam on Monday morning because he

        believed the Sabbath ended Sunday at 6:00 p.m. Such cases could be multiplied. For

        those churches which take the Sabbath seriously, the issue as to when a day begins has

        both theological and practical significance. Thus, curiosity into the trivial is not the

        purpose of this study, but rather faithfulness in pursuing the individual’s as well as the

        church’s duty in Sabbath keeping.

        The evidence presented in this study is not based upon extrabiblical testimony. There

        has been a conscious effort to seek first the testimony of Scripture before appealing to

        resources outside the Bible ("Let God be true, but every man a liar" Rom. 3:4). Certainly,

        extrabiblical evidence is helpful in such a study, but helpful in corroborating the testimony

        of Scripture not in interpreting Scripture ("The infallible rule of interpretation of scripture

        is the scripture itself. . . ."

        The Westminster Confession of Faith, I:IX).

        4

        The position set forth in this study is that the Scripture teaches the

        terminus a quo

        (i..e. the start) of a new day to be at morning rather than at evening.

        The following

        evidence from Scripture is brought forth in order to demonstrate that a new day begins at

        morning.

        1. When expressions like "tomorrow", "that night", "the next day", or "the same

        day" are used in Scripture, the context in certain texts indicates that the night is a

        continuation of "the same day" that preceded it (and not the beginning of a new day).

        Whereas the following morning is distinguished from the previous night by being

        designated as "tomorrow" or as "the next day."

        a. Genesis 19:33-35

        All the incestuous events of Gen. 19:33 occur on "

        that night." However, the

        recounting of the events of the previous night actually occurred "

        on the morrow" (Gen.

        19:34). Also note that the dialogue between the daughters of Lot "

        on the morrow" (Gen.

        19:34) occurred before nightfall ("

        that night also", Gen. 19:35), and yet what occurred

        the night before (Gen. 19:33) and what occurred the day after (before nightfall) are

        reckoned as two different days ("

        the morrow", Gen. 19:34). This chain of events can

        only be reckoned as two separate days if the following morning begins a new day. If the

        previous evening begins a new day (as the evening view affirms), then one could not refer

        to the following morning and afternoon (before night) as "

        the morrow." For the previous

        night, the next morning, and the next afternoon (before night) would all be the same day

        and not two separate days.

        b. Exodus 16:23-25

        This passage is significant for it refers to the Sabbath. In preparing for the Sabbath,

        God commanded Israel to gather twice as much manna on the morning of the sixth day

        because they were not to gather manna at all on the seventh day (Ex. 16:22, 26). On the

        sixth day, Moses declared, "

        Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD"

        (Ex. 16:23). When is "

        tomorrow"? That same evening or the following morning? The

        text makes it clear that they were to bake and to boil all that they needed for food on that

        same day (the sixth day), and the manna they did not need for that day would be preserved

        from spoiling until the next morning (unlike other days, cf. Ex. 16:19-20). Moses states

        what is to be done with the manna that did not spoil on the morning of the seventh day:

        "Eat that

        today, for today is a sabbath unto the LORD; today ye shall not find it in the

        field" (Ex.. 16:25). The text does not indicate that leftover manna bred worms or became

        spoiled immediately before sunset on the sixth day (which would be the beginning of a

        new day according to the evening view), but rather that all leftover manna became spoiled

        before morning. Why? Because morning was the beginning of a new day. It is also

        significant to note that the text does not associate the start of the Sabbath with the evening,

        but rather Moses declared, "

        Tomorrow is the rest of the holy sabbath" (Ex. 16:23). The

        "

        tomorrow" when the Sabbath began was the following morning (Ex. 16:23). On the

        5

        morning of the seventh day Moses stated, "

        Today is a sabbath unto the LORD" (16:25).

        There is no indication that the Sabbath began the night before. Is there even one example

        in Scripture where "

        tomorrow" refers to the evening that immediately follows the morning

        and afternoon that precedes it? I have not yet found such a passage.

        c. Leviticus 7:15

        The following morning cannot be accounted the same day as the previous evening for

        all of the peace offering must be eaten "

        the same day" it is offered and none of it can be

        eaten the following morning (Lev. 7:15). Why? Because the following morning is a new

        day. If a new day begins in the evening, one would expect that the text should say that the

        peace offering must be eaten "

        the same day" and none of it left until "evening."

        d. 1 Samuel 19:11

        This text distinguishes between two days: "

        tonight" and "tomorrow" (which according

        to the text is the following "

        morning"). Again, if a new day begins in the evening, one

        would expect Michal to have said, "If you do not save your life tonight,

        today in the

        morning

        you will be dead." To the contrary she refers to the following morning as

        "

        tomorrow."

        e. Jonah 4:7

        This passage identifies the following morning as "

        the next day." I have been unable to

        find even one text that would speak in a similar fashion of the "

        next day" beginning in the

        evening that immediately follows morning and afternoon (e.g.. "in the evening on the next

        day").

        f. Mark 4:35

        Not only do we not find a text that reads, "in the evening on the next day;" to the

        contrary, I find this passage saying, "

        And the same day, when even had come." Again,

        I ask where is there a text which would indicate morning as being the same day as the

        previous evening using language similar to Mk. 4:35 (e.g. "On the same day, when

        morning had come")?

        2. The phrases, "the evening and the morning" or "the morning and the evening", do

        not necessarily indicate the order in which a day begins and ends.

        a. The phrase, "

        the evening and the morning", (and similar expressions) occurs in

        Gen. 1:5,8,13,19, 23, 31; Ex. 27:21; Lev. 24:3; Num. 9:21; Ps. 55:17 and Dan. 8:14,26.

        Consider the discussion below under

        Creation (pp.6-7).

        b. However, the phrase, "

        the morning and the evening", (or similar expressions)

        occurs in Ex. 18:13,14; 1 Sam. 17:16; 1 Chron. 16:40; 2 Chron. 2:4; 2 Chron. 13:11; 2

        Chron. 31:3; Ezra 3:3; Job 4:20; Ps. 65:8; Is. 21:12; Is. 28:19; and Acts 28:23.

        c. It is rather obvious that neither "

        the evening and the morning" nor "the morning

        and the evening

        " can specifically indicate the time in which a day begins without

        contradicting one another.

        6

        3. The phrases, "night and day" and "day and night", do not necessarily indicate the

        order in which a day begins and ends.

        a. The phrase, "

        night and day", (and similar expressions) occurs in 1 Sam. 25:16;

        1 Kgs. 8:29; Est. 4:16; Ps. 19:2; Ps. 91:5; Is. 27:3; Is. 34:10; Jer. 14:17; Mk. 4:27;

        Mk. 5:5; Lk. 2:37; Acts 20:31; Acts 26:7; 2 Cor. 11:25; 1 Thess. 2:9; 1 Thess. 3:10;

        2 Thess. 3:8; 1 Tim. 5:5; 2 Tim. 1:3.

        b. Whereas the phrase, "

        day and night", (or similar expressions) occurs in Gen. 1:18;

        Gen. 7:4; Gen. 8:22; Gen. 31:39,40; Ex.10:13; Ex. 13:21,22; Ex. 24:18;

        Ex. 34:28; Lev. 8:35; Num. 9:21; Deut.. 9:9,11,18,25; Deut. 10:10; Deut. 28:66;

        Josh. 1:8; 1 Sam. 30:12; 2 Sam. 21:10; 1 Kgs. 8:59; 1 Kgs. 19:8; 1 Chron. 9:33;

        2 Chron. 6:20; Neh. 1:6; Neh. 4:9; Neh. 9:12,19; Job 2:13; Ps. 1:2; Ps. 32:4; Ps. 42:3; Ps.

        55:10; Ps. 74:16; Ps.. 88:1; Ps. 121:6; Ps. 136:8-9; Eccl. 8:16; Is. 28:19;

        Is. 38:12,13; Is. 60:11; Is. 62:6; Jer. 9:1; Jer. 16:13; Jer. 33:20,25; Lam. 2:18; Jonah 1:17;

        Zech. 14:7; Mt. 4:2; Lk. 18:7; Acts 9:24; Rev. 4:8; Rev. 7:15; Rev. 12:10;

        Rev. 14:11; Rev. 20:10.

        c. It should be obvious that neither "

        night and day" nor "day and night" specifically

        identify when a new day begins. For example, note how Solomon in the same prayer uses

        "

        night and day" (1 Kgs. 8:29) and "day and night" (1 Kgs. 8:59)..

        4.. Creation (Genesis 1)

        a. Many have concluded from Gen. 1:5,8,13,19, 23,31 that the phrase, "

        the evening

        and the morning

        ", definitively sets the terminus a quo (i.e. the beginning) of a new day

        in the evening.

        b. However, we ought not to look at "

        the evening and the morning" in Gen. 1 as an

        equation: evening + morning = 1 day. The phrase "

        the evening and the morning" is not

        defining the constituent parts of a 24 hr. day. Nowhere in Scripture does the phrase,

        "

        evening and morning", (or for that matter "morning and evening") specifically

        designate a 24 hour period of time (cf. the discussion under

        Refutation of Argument #1,

        pp.17-19).

        c. Noted Hebrew scholar, C. H. Leupold (

        Exposition of Genesis, Vol. 1, pp. 57-58)

        explains:

        The verse [Gen. 1:5], however, presents not an addition of items but the conclusion

        of a progression. On this day there had been the creation of heaven and earth in the

        rough, then the creation of light, the approval of light, the separation of day and

        night. Now with evening the divine activities ceased: they are works of light not

        works of darkness. The evening (‘erebh), of course, merges into night, and the night

        terminates with morning. But by the time morning is reached, the first day is

        concluded, as the account says succinctly, ‘the first day,’ and everything is in

        readiness for the second day’s task. For ‘evening’ marks the conclusion of the day,

        7

        and ‘morning’ marks the conclusion of the night. It is these conclusions, which

        terminate the preceding, that are to be made prominent."

        Leupold’s point is simply that after each day’s creative activity there followed "

        evening"

        and when "

        morning" arrived another day of creative activity began.

        d. Similarly, renowned Old Testament scholars, Keil and Delitzsch (

        Commentary on

        the Old Testament

        , Vol. 1, p. 51) understand the Hebrew text to teach:

        The first evening was not the gloom, which possibly preceded the full burst of light

        as it came forth from the primary darkness, and intervened between the darkness

        and full, broad daylight. It was not till after the light had been created, and the

        separation of the light from the darkness had taken place, that evening came, and

        after the evening the morning . . . .

        The important idea conveyed here is that "

        the evening and the morning" of Gen. 1:5 are

        not specifically the light and darkness that are separated in Gen. 1:5. "

        The evening and

        the morning

        " of Gen. 1:5 chronologically follow the separation of the light from darkness.

        "

        The evening and the morning" of each successive day (1:8,13,19, 23,31) likewise

        follows that day’s creative activity ("then came evening, then came morning" Leupold’s

        translation of the Hebrew phrase).

        e. Finally, highly esteemed Professor of Old Testament at Westminster Theological

        Seminary, Edward J. Young (

        Studies in Genesis One, p. 89) summarizes the Hebrew text

        as follows:

        When the light was removed by the appearance of darkness, it was evening, and the

        coming of light brought morning, the completion of a day. The days therefore, are

        to be reckoned from morning to morning. . . .

        f. Therefore, we may conclude that since a new day began on the morning of each of

        the six days of creation week, it would follow that God sanctified the Sabbath on the

        morning of the seventh day (not on the evening of the sixth day).. Thus, the first Sabbath

        (Gen. 2:1-3) began in the morning rather than in the evening.

        5. The Passover (Exodus 12)

        a. According to Ex. 12:6, the Passover lamb was to be killed on the fourteenth

        day of the first month "

        in the evening" (literally, "between the evenings"). Likewise, the

        Passover meal was to be eaten on the fourteenth day of the first month "

        in that night"

        (Ex. 12:8) "

        at even" (Ex. 12:18).

        b. Some who hold the view that a new day begins

        at evening place the slaying of the

        Passove

        r lamb between noon (the first evening) and sunset (the second evening).

        8

        However, this interpretation of the events of the Passover conflicts with certain details of

        the text. Note that the Passover meal was to be eaten on the same day as the slaying of the

        Passover lamb (cf. 2 Chron. 35:10-16 where the sacrificing of the Passover lamb and the

        celebrating of the Passover meal occur on "

        the same day"), namely, the fourteenth day

        "

        in that night" (Ex. 12:8) "at even" (Ex. 12:18). Therefore, the eating of the Passover

        meal is obviously after sunset.. Thus, we have two events occurring on the same day (the

        fourteenth day), one allegedly before sunset (the slaying of the Passover lamb) and one

        certainly after sunset (the eating of the Passover meal).. Thus, sunset cannot begin a new

        day, otherwise the text would have indicated that the slaying of the Passover lamb was on

        the thirteenth day and the Passover meal on the fourteenth day, or that the slaying of the

        Passover lamb was on the fourteenth day and the Passover meal on the fifteenth day.

        c. The view that a new day begins

        at morning has no difficulty including the slaying

        of the Passover Lamb and the eating of the Passover meal on the same day (the fourteenth

        day) for a new day does not begin until the next morning. The phrase, "

        between the

        evenings

        ", (cf. the discussion under Refutation of Argument #4, pp.21-23) refers to the

        period of time between sunset (the first evening) and darkness (the second evening). Also

        observe that whatever was left over from the Passover lamb until the next morning was to

        be burned. Why? Because the next morning was no longer the Passover (the fourteenth

        day), but rather the day of

        the Feast of Unleavened Bread (the fifteenth day), cf. Ex.

        12:15-20; Lev. 23:5-6.

        d. The reference to eating unleavened bread from the evening of the fourteenth day

        until the evening of the twenty-first day (Ex. 12:18) does not define when the day begins,

        but the time of day when the initial holy convocation was to be celebrated (the evening of

        the fourteenth day), and the time of day when the final holy convocation was to be

        celebrated (the evening of the twenty-first day), cf. Ex. 12:14-16.

        e. Concerning

        the Feast of Unleavened Bread, God told Moses that it was to be

        observed on the "

        selfsame day" that I bring you out of the land of Egypt (Ex. 12:17; Ex.

        13:3; Num. 33:3). What day did God bring Israel out of the land of Egypt? On the

        fifteenth day of the first month (Num. 33:3, i.e.

        the day after Passover) "by night" ( Deut.

        16:1). Thus,

        the Feast of Unleavened Bread commemorates the exodus from Egypt.

        When did the exodus occur? The fifteenth day of the first month began

        at midnight

        following the Passover meal

        according to the morning view, whereas the fifteenth day

        began

        at sunset almost 24 hrs. after the Passover meal according to the evening view.

        Which view best comports with the events of Exodus 12?

        (1) It was about midnight that the firstborn child in each house was slain (Ex.

        12:29).

        (2) It was after midnight while it was yet "night" that Pharaoh and all the Egyptians

        rose to see their firstborn slain (Ex.. 12:30).

        (3) It was still after midnight and yet "night" that Pharaoh called for Moses and

        Aaron and urged them to leave "in haste" (Ex. 12:31,33).

        9

        (4) The Israelites were to be ready to leave in a moment’s notice (Ex. 12:11,33,

        39).

        (5) The Israelites left Raames while it was yet night (Num. 33:3; Deut. 16:1).

        (6) All these events occurred during the night after midnight (Ex. 12:42).

        (7) The view that best comports with the events of Ex. 12 is the morning view.

        Israel did not yet have the benefit of the pillar of fire to lead them by night (Ex. 14:19,24).

        Thus, it is more likely they left Rameses on the fifteenth day of the first month (Num. 33:3)

        with a full day of light ahead of them rather than a full day of light behind them.

        (7)

        The evening view cannot reconcile the slaying of the Passover lamb (before

        sunset) and the eating of the Passover meal (after sunset at night) with the fact that both

        events happen on the same day (i.e. the fourteenth day) rather than on two separate days

        (as would be the case if a new day began at sunset). Nor can

        the evening view reconcile

        the eating of the Passover meal (at night on the fourteenth day) and the exodus from Egypt

        on the following day (the fifteenth day) with the fact that these two events are not on the

        same day (as would be the case if a new day began at sunset), but on two separate days.

        6. The Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:26-32)

        a. Much emphasis is placed on Lev. 23:32 ("

        from even unto even") by many who

        uphold the view that a new day begins at evening (cf. the discussion under

        Refutation of

        Argument #5

        , pp.23-24).

        b. However, it is clear from the text that the Day of Atonement is on "the tenth day" of

        the seventh month (Lev. 23:27), rather than on "the ninth day" of the seventh month.

        c. Apparently,

        a time of preparation for the Day of Atonement began on the previous

        evening of "the ninth day" (just as there had developed a day of preparation the day before

        the Sabbath by the time of Christ, cp.. Mt. 27:62; Mk. 15:42; Lk. 23:54; Jn. 19:14,31,42) .

        From the evening of the ninth day (the day before the Day of Atonement) to the evening of

        the tenth day (the Day of Atonement), there was to be observed a ceasing from all work

        and a solemn fast. This is a unique command that relates

        only to the Day of Atonement

        (i.e. this unique feature of the Day of Atonement is an aspect of the ceremonial law of the

        Old Covenant which was temporary and not binding upon believers in the New Covenant).

        Thus, this unique command in no way defines for us the ordinary time at which a day

        begins or even at which time the weekly Sabbath would ordinarily begin.

        7. The Day of Preparation (Matthew 27:57-62; Mark 15:42-46; Luke 23:50-54; John

        19:38-42)

        a. These passages speak of Joseph of Arimathea preparing the body of Jesus for burial

        on the Friday evening following the death of Christ (which "

        even" is not designated the

        Sabbath, but "the Day of Preparation" for the Sabbath). The practice of preparing for the

        Sabbath the evening before the Sabbath can be traced back to at least the time of

        Nehemiah (Neh. 13:15-22). Nehemiah forbade the gates of Jerusalem to remain open to

        10

        merchants after it had grown dark not because the Sabbath began at evening, but because

        there should be a due time of preparation the evening before the Sabbath was to begin (on

        the following morning). Joseph of Arimathea found himself in this period of preparation

        for the Sabbath (the evening before the Sabbath day began). Joseph knew that the body of

        Jesus could not be left hanging overnight according to the Law of God (Deut. 21:22-23;

        Josh. 8:29; Josh. 10:26-27). Thus, he was forced to prepare the body of Jesus for burial as

        quickly as possible on Friday evening.

        b.. As one considers the above passages, it is important to observe that the word

        "

        even" (or "evening") as it is used throughout Scripture refers to a period of time at sunset

        or thereafter (Josh. 10:26-27; Judg. 19:10-16; 2 Chron. 18:34; Mt. 20:1-12;

        Mt. 26:20 cf. Ex. 12:8; Mk. 1:32; Mk. 6:47 cf. John 6:17). I am unaware of even one text

        in Scripture which would clearly identify "

        evening" with a period of time before sunset

        (e.g. at noon or 3 p.m.).

        c. Though both "

        the sixth hour" (noon) and "the ninth hour" (3 p.m.) are mentioned

        in the context in relation to Christ’s death (Mt. 27:45-46; Mk. 15:33-34; Lk. 23:44-45),

        neither of these hours is designated as "

        evening." Where in Scripture do we find noon or

        3 p.m. designated as "

        evening?" To the contrary, "noon" (the sixth hour) and "the ninth

        hour

        " (3 p.m..) are distinguished from "evening" in Scripture (Psalm 55:17; Matthew 20:1-

        8).

        d. It was already "

        evening" (sunset or thereafter) on the Day of Preparation (i.e.

        Friday evening) when Joseph left the scene of the crucifixion and entered the Praetorium in

        order to request permission from Pilate to take the Lord’s body (Mt. 27:57-58; Mk. 15:42-

        43). The text indicates that the following events occurred even after Joseph first sought

        permission from Pilate at "

        evening" to take the Lord’s body.

        (1) Pilate sent for the centurion who had supervised and witnessed the crucifixion in

        order to verify that Christ was dead (Mk. 15:44-45). Since he was responsible for the

        crucifixion, the centurion would have yet been at Golgotha (outside of Jerusalem) with the

        bodies. Thus, the message was sent from Pilate to the centurion, and the response was

        then sent back to Pilate by the centurion.

        (2) Joseph then left the Praetorium and purchased linen strips in order to wrap the

        body of Jesus (Mk. 15:46).

        (3) Joseph returned to the site of the crucifixion outside of Jerusalem to remove the

        body of Jesus from the cross (Mk. 15:46). The nails had to be carefully removed from

        Christ’s hands and feet before the body could be lowered from the cross (Ps. 22:16; Jn.

        20:27).

        (4) Nicodemus appeared at Golgotha with about 100 pounds of myrrh and aloes in

        order to give the Lord a royal burial (Jn. 19:39). The process Nicodemus followed in

        preparing the body for burial was according to the custom of the Jews (Jn. 19:40). This

        process would normally involve thoroughly washing the body, wrapping the body with

        11

        many individual pieces of linen, and placing the myrrh and aloes between each of the linen

        pieces.

        (5) Finally, the mummified body of the Lord was taken to the tomb nearby and a

        large stone was rolled in front of the entrance (Mk. 15:46; Jn. 19:41).

        (6) If it was already evening when Joseph first sought permission from Pilate to

        take the body, it was now hours into the evening by the time the body of Christ was

        actually laid in the tomb, and the Sabbath (which began the next morning) was indeed

        drawing near (Lk. 23:54).

        8. The Resurrection (Matthew 28; Mark 16; Luke 24; John 20)

        a. Christ was raised from the dead "

        early on the first day of the week" (Mk. 16:9).

        The first visitor to the tomb came on "

        the first day of the week . . . when it was yet

        dark

        " and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb (Jn. 20:1).

        b. Women arrived at the tomb "

        very early in the morning the first day of the

        week

        " to find the stone rolled away from the tomb (Mk. 16:2; Lk. 24:1).. Incidently, if

        these women intended to bring spices in order to anoint the Lord’s body as soon after the

        Sabbath as they could (Lk. 23:55-56; Mk. 16:1-2), why did they not come Saturday after

        sunset when according to the evening view the Sabbath would have already ended?

        Rather the parallel passages indicate that when the Sabbath was over (Mk. 16:1), they

        came "

        very early in the morning the first day of the week" (Mk. 16:2).

        c. The "

        evening" of "the same day" in which Christ was resurrected is still "the first

        day of the week

        " (Jn. 20:19). According to the view that a new day begins at evening, it

        would be more appropriate to designate the time as "the

        next day at evening, being the

        second

        day of the week." There is no good and necessary inference to conclude that the

        "

        evening" mentioned in Jn. 20:19 is before sunset (cf. the discussion of "evening" under

        The Day of Preparation

        , #7b and c, p.10). Thus, the only reasonable way to explain

        how Christ’s resurrection on the first day of the week before sunrise and His appearance to

        the disciples later that evening after sunset could be on "the same day" is to adopt the view

        that a new day begins in the morning sometime before sunrise while it is yet dark.

        d. The "evening" of Jn. 20:19 should be considered in the light of Lk. 24:29.

        (1) Even before Jesus sat down to have a meal with these two believers, the text

        indicates that it was "

        toward evening" and that the day was "far spent" (literally,

        "already declined"). This is surely a reference to sunset quickly approaching, and yet the

        text states they were still only "

        nigh" to the village, not in the village or in the home where

        they were to eat.

        (2) They made preparations for the meal, and while eating, the Lord manifested

        Himself to them (Lk. 24:30-31).

        (3) Now upon realizing what had happened, they traveled some seven miles back to

        Jerusalem (Lk. 24:13,33) in order to relate these amazing events to the disciples of Christ

        12

        (even running a 10 minute mile for seven miles is 1 1/4 hours--a very conservative

        estimate).

        (4) Then as Jn. 20:19 explains, "

        the same day at evening, being the first day of

        the week

        " the Lord appeared to His disciples. By the time Christ appeared to His

        disciples "

        at evening", at least 2 hours had surely elapsed since it was already "toward

        evening

        " and the day was already "far spent" when he had first met the two disciples

        traveling to Emmaus.

        (5) The language that is used in Lk. 24:29 and in Jn. 20:19 is parallel with the

        language used in Judg. 19:11-16 where one finds in v.11 "

        the day was far spent", in

        v.14 "and

        the sun went down upon them ", and in v.16 "And, behold, there came an old

        man from his work out of the field

        at even."

        9. Historical Testimony

        a. In citing evidence from

        rabbinic writings to support the evening view, one must be

        cautious.

        (1)

        Rabbinic tradition is far from reliable. It was the very rabbinic tradition of

        the elders that Christ condemned as making empty the commandments of God (Mk. 7:1-

        13). This is no doubt what Paul had in mind when he commanded Timothy and Titus not

        to give heed to "Jewish fables and commandments of men" (Titus 1:14 cf.

        1 Tim. 1:4; 2 Tim. 4:4). Milton Terry in his classic work,

        Bbilical Hermeneutics, has

        demonstrated why much of the rabbinic tradition is unreliable:

        According to Jewish tradition Moses received at Sinai, in addition to the Pentateuch,

        an unwritten oral law, and afterward delivered it over to Joshua. Joshua delivered

        the same to the elders, and they to the prophets, from which it came into the

        possession of the men of the Great Synagogue, the last of whom was Simon the

        Just, who was a contemporary with Alexander the Great (B.C. 325). Simon

        transmitted it to Antigonus of Soco, and so it was passed onward until it came into

        possession of the schools of Hillel and Shammai. . . . These schools, especially that

        of Hillel, sifted and preserved these laws, until Rabbi Judah the Holy (about A.D.

        200) compiled and codified them in six Sedarim . . . thenceforth known as the

        Mishna (

        Biblical Hermeneutics, p.615).

        Similarly, it was rabbinic tradition which taught Jewish men to cover their heads while

        praying (and this is still practiced by orthodox Jews), yet this is clearly in violation of

        Scripture (1 Cor. 11:4,7). Because of the biblical evidence cited above and because of the

        unreliability of rabbinic tradition , I believe that rabbinic tradition (and even the practice of

        orthodox Jews today) which supports a view that the Sabbath begins at evening is in error.

        (2)

        Rabbinic tradition on this subject is in fact mixed. Harold Hoehner

        demonstrates from the

        Mishnah that there were actually two systems of reckoning a day at

        the time of Christ:

        13

        The Galileans and Pharisees used the sunrise-to-sunrise reckoning whereas the

        Judeans and Sadducees used the sunset-to-sunset reckoning. . . . This view not

        only satisfies the data of the Synoptics and the Gospel of John, it is also

        substantiated by the Mishnah. It was the custom of the Galileans to do no work on

        the day of the Passover while the Judeans worked until midday [the footnote

        reference is to

        Mishnah : Pesahim iv.5]. Since the Galileans’ day began at sunrise

        they would do no work on the entire day of the Passover. On the other hand the

        Judeans’ day began at sunset and they would work the morning but not the

        afternoon" (

        Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ, p.87,88).

        Thus, if one is to lean heavily on the testimony of rabinnic tradition, he is even confronted

        with the question: Which rabbinic tradition should be followed?

        (3)

        Rabbinic tradition should not interpret Scripture, but only corroborate it.

        b. The following divines are both adherents to the Westminster Standards and

        adherents to the view that the Lord’s Day begins at morning. As will be noted, some of

        the divines cited were either directly or indirectly connected with the Westminster

        Assembly, thus making the case (unless evidence to the contrary can be produced) that the

        position of the Westminster Assembly was that the Sabbath begins in the morning.

        (1)

        Samuel Rutherford (1600-1661) was one of the Scottish commissioners to the

        Westminster Assembly. The following is an excerpt from his

        Ane Catachisme Conteining

        the Soume of Christian Religion

        (cited in Catechisms of the Second Reformation , by

        Alexander Mitchell, James Nisbet & Co., 1886, p.232). The original English of

        Rutherford has been preserved.

        Q. Quhat [What] is it to sanctifie the Sabbath?

        A. It is to sett all apairt from the dawning of the day untill midnight

        (Jn. 20:1; Acts 20:7) for Godis service.

        (2)

        Thomas Vincent (1634-1678) was a Puritan pastor in London and first

        published his

        Explanation of the Assembly’s Shorter Catechism in 1674. In "An Epistle

        To The Reader" the following words of commendation are found as an introduction to

        Vincent’s work:

        For such reasons as these, we highly approve the labours of this

        reverend brother, in his ‘Explanation of the Assembly’s Shorter

        Catechism.’ And having to our great satisfaction, perused it ourselves,

        in whole or in part, do readily recommend it to others: for though he

        14

        composed it at first for his own particular congregation, yet we judge

        it may be greatly useful to all Christians in general, especially to

        private families" (

        The Shorter Catechism Explained from Scripture ,

        The Banner of Truth Trust, 1980, p.v).

        This epistle was signed by 40 divines including stellar Puritans such as John Owen,

        Thomas Manton, Thomas Brooks, Thomas Watson, and three surviving commissioners of

        the Westminster Assembly (Joseph Caryl, Edmund Calamy, and Thomas Case). Needless

        to say, Vincent’s work was highly prized as a faithful tool in explaining the Shorter

        Catechism. In his discussion of Question 58 of the Shorter Catechism, Vincent asks and

        answers the following question:

        Q. 6 When doth this holy day or Sabbath begin, in the evening before

        [midnight] or that morning from midnight?

        A. In the evening before [midnight], by virtue of that word,

        "Remember to keep holy the seventh day," we ought to begin to

        prepare for the Sabbath; but the Sabbath itself doth not begin until

        the evening is spent, and midnight thereof over, and the morning

        after twelve of the clock beginneth (

        The Shorter Catechism

        Explained from Scripture

        , Banner of Truth Trust, 1980, p.139; cf.

        pp.139-141 for Vincent’s biblical defense of his view) .

        (3)

        Thomas Ridgeley (1667-1734) was an assistant minister in London to Thomas

        Gouge, a commissioner to the Westminister Assembly. Ridgeley composed a massive

        work entitled

        The Doctrines Of The Christian Religion Explained And Defended . This

        work is a commentary on the Larger Catechism. In it Ridgeley declares:

        Hence, the Lord’s day begins in the morning, before sun-rising; or,

        according to our usual way of reckoning, we may conclude,that it

        begins immediately after midnight, and continues till midnight

        following (

        Commentary On The Larger Catechism , Still Waters

        Revival Books, 1993, Vol.2, p.352; cf. pp.352-353 where Ridgeley

        articulates his position from Scripture).

        (4)

        Thomas Boston (1676-1732) in his classic work on the Shorter Catechism, An

        Illustration of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion Upon the Plan of the Assembly’s

        Shorter Catechism Comprehending A Complete Body of Divinity ,

        states the following:

        The day to be kept holy, is one whole day. . . . This day we begin in

        15

        the morning immediately after midnight; and so does the Sabbath

        begin, and not in the evening. . . . (

        Commentary On The Shorter

        Catechism

        , Still Waters Revival Books, 1993, Vol.2, p.189; cf.

        pp.189-190 for his biblical defense of the position).

        (5)

        James Fisher (1697-1775), a minister in the Associate Presbyterian Synod,

        was appointed by the Associate Presbyterian Synod (together with Ebenezer Erskine and

        Ralph Erskine) to compose what is now known as

        Fisher’s Catechism (1760) which is an


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