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Re: Research questions

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  • Patricia Elleven
    Excellent questions! I would like to add the following terms: ctvrtlanik (čtvrtláník) which a researcher for the family translated as farmer and
    Message 1 of 5 , Feb 27, 2011
      Excellent questions! I would like to add the following terms:
       "ctvrtlanik"  (čtvrtláník) which a researcher for the family translated as 'farmer' and 
      "podsednik"  which was also translated as 'farmer'.

      Can anyone point me to a general overview of the society of rural communities of the Czech-Slovak regions of the mid-late 1800's? 
      I would like to know about this hierarchy of occupations. 

      I also came across records that had -kach added at the end of the village name. What does that mean?

      Thanks!
      Pat Elleven
      Previously lurking only
       

      14. Research questions
         Posted by: "G Martisek" ggmartisek@... gmartisek
         Date: Sat Feb 26, 2011 1:08 pm ((PST))

      Just a few questions that have come up as I research online.

      If a woman's last name is listed as "Blahety" would that be the same as
      Blaha?

      What is a "vymenkar" or pensioner?

      What is the difference between a sedlak (farmer-large farm), domkar
      (cottager) and chalupnik (cottager, poor peasant)?

      What does Malem or Malum mean before the name of a village; example, Malem
      Petrvald.

      Thanks,
      Gerri



    • Ty Wenglar
      Here is the explanation I got from the Researcher that did my family research in the Czech Republic. Hope it helps. Occupations of your ancestors (and of
      Message 2 of 5 , Feb 27, 2011
        Here is the explanation I got from the Researcher that did my family research in the Czech Republic.  Hope it helps.

        Occupations of your ancestors (and of their godparents)

         

        FARMER

        Sedlak in Czech, Bauer or Grundbesitzer in German, rusticus in Latin. Farmers were also sorted by the area of the field – Bauer, ½ Bauer, ¼ Bauer (1 hide-, half hide- and quarter-hide-sized farmers)

        The English term hide is translation of the German term Lahn. The area of one Lahn was following:

        For soil mentioned in 1. Class: 1 Lahn = 100 Metz

        For soil mentioned in 2. Class: 1 Lahn = 125 Metz

        For soil mentioned in 3. Class: 1 Lahn = 150 Metz

         

        Metz was units of both, volume and area.

         

        Units of volume

        1 METZ  (62.4 liters) = 8 ACHTELs
        1 METZ  (16.5 gallons)

         

         

        Units of area

        Area seed by 1 METZ of grains was called also 1 METZ. 1/8 of the area was 1 ACHTEL.
        1 METZ is ca. 0.19 hectar i.e. ca. 0.47 acres

         

        COTTAGER

        Chalupnik in Czech, Chaluppner in German, gazarius or domunculator in Latin. Soil used by him was smaller than quarter of hide.

        ZAHRADNIK
        Zahradnik in Czech, Gartler in German, hortulanus in Latin.
        His status was between farmer and cottager.
         

        PODSEDNIK
        Podsednik in Czech, Podsedker in German, I did not find detailed explanation of this kind of farmer, yet.

         

        Summary: Farmers at Moravia were sorted into 3 categories:

        1.     Bauer, Sedlak (Podsednik?)

        2.     Gärtler, Zahradnik (Podsednik?)

        3.     Häusler, Domkar

         

        In Bohemia was the situation different, Gärtler (zahradnik) was term for the farmer of the 3rd category.

         

         

        PASEKAR
        – originated  from Czech word PASEKA -  clearence, a cleared area in a forest. It is not simple to translate it to English. The same problem had also the priests who wrote Passeker in German written records or Pasecarius in the records written in Latin. I will try to explain the term. The landowners provided their serfs with the right to clear a part of their forest and to build a house there and to change the clearance into an arable field, or pasture. It happened, when villages, located in valleys (mainly in mountainous areas) were overpopulated, and there was no more plot and no more possibility for increasing population to find and secure living for themselves in a village itself. Who cleared a forest for themselves, were then called PASEKARs. The process of forest clearing was called "clearing colonization". This PASEKA farm is typical for eastern regions of Moravia ( the Valachia, Beskydy Mountains).

         

         

        VYMINKAR (I translated sometimes the term as “RETIRED“)
        Vyminkar, vymenkar or vymenik in Czech, Ausgedinger or Auszügler in German inquilinus in Latin. Literally it means the stipulator. It was old retired farmer (cottager, miller etc.) who sold his house or farm to new holder
        (mainly his son or son in law). The new holder had to care for the former holders, who were mostly his parents or his in-laws. The types of care were described in the Land registers in greater detail, often very pedantic (academic). It is important to note, that in the older times no alternate forms of care existed for the old retired farmers (insurance, governmental care, etc.).
        When the old farmer sold his farmstead, he prescribed in the registers several stipulations.

        The stipulations described mainly the common living and heating in the farmstead, about animals, fields and fruit trees what will be in the property of the former retired farmstead holder, and how the new farmer will assist the older one.

         

        PODRUH
        Podruh in Czech, Inmann or Inwohner in German, inqulinus in Latin. Adult man who is not housekeeper but lives in the same household. It is often oldest son of the housekeeper who will inherit the house later. But sometimes it means the same as the term VYMINKAR.

         

        FOJT

        Rychtar, sometimes also fojt or soltys in Czech, Richter, Vogt or Schultheiss in German, judex, scultetus or advocatus in Latin. The simple equivalent in English does not exist, therefore is often translated as a judge, mayor, reeve or bailiff.
        All of it terms partly describing the meaning of the word RYCHTAR.
        RYCHTARs (fojts etc.) were not elected for the authority. They inherited (Erbrichter) or bought it. In reality RYCHTAR, was the person who collected financial and natural taxes from the peasants to landlords and he also
        watched whether peasants fulfilling their another obligations to landlords (drudgery etc.). RYCHTAR was free from the drudgery. Rychtar had often the right to sell alcohol (bought from landlords) to peasants, at his own house.
        The residence of RYCHTAR /FOJT was often the largest house in the village, part of the house (called RYCHTA or FOJTSTVI) was often the hall used as a pub.
        A lot of village pubs in the Czech Republic are called NA RYCHTE or NA FOJTSTVI (at rychta, at fojtstvi) until today.





        From: G Martisek <ggmartisek@...>
        To: TexasCzechs@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Sat, February 26, 2011 3:08:49 PM
        Subject: [TexasCzechs] Research questions

         

        Just a few questions that have come up as I research online.
         
        If a woman's last name is listed as "Blahety" would that be the same as Blaha?
         
        What is a "vymenkar" or pensioner?
         
        What is the difference between a sedlak (farmer-large farm), domkar (cottager) and chalupnik (cottager, poor peasant)?
         
        What does Malem or Malum mean before the name of a village; example, Malem Petrvald.
         
        Thanks,
        Gerri

      • Robert and Nancy
        This site has some information http://zlimpkk.tripod.com/Genealogy/ruralpopulation.html ... From: Patricia Elleven To: TexasCzechs@yahoogroups.com Sent:
        Message 3 of 5 , Mar 3, 2011
          
          ----- Original Message -----
          Sent: Sunday, February 27, 2011 7:47 PM
          Subject: [TexasCzechs] Re: Research questions

          Excellent questions! I would like to add the following terms:
           "ctvrtlanik"  (čtvrtláník) which a researcher for the family translated as 'farmer' and 
          "podsednik"  which was also translated as 'farmer'.

          Can anyone point me to a general overview of the society of rural communities of the Czech-Slovak regions of the mid-late 1800's? 
          I would like to know about this hierarchy of occupations. 

          I also came across records that had -kach added at the end of the village name. What does that mean?

          Thanks!
          Pat Elleven
          Previously lurking only
           

          14. Research questions
             Posted by: "G Martisek" ggmartisek@... gmartisek
             Date: Sat Feb 26, 2011 1:08 pm ((PST))

          Just a few questions that have come up as I research online.

          If a woman's last name is listed as "Blahety" would that be the same as
          Blaha?

          What is a "vymenkar" or pensioner?

          What is the difference between a sedlak (farmer-large farm), domkar
          (cottager) and chalupnik (cottager, poor peasant)?

          What does Malem or Malum mean before the name of a village; example, Malem
          Petrvald.

          Thanks,
          Gerri



        • Patricia Elleven
          Thank you Robert and Nancy! That site http://zlimpkk.tripod.com/ has some really good information. I ve bookmarked it. Best regards, Pat 16a. Re: Research
          Message 4 of 5 , Mar 3, 2011
            Thank you Robert and Nancy!

            That site http://zlimpkk.tripod.com/ has some really good information. I've bookmarked it. 

            Best regards,

            Pat


            16a. Re: Research questions
               Posted by: "Robert and Nancy" rschmidt@... lilladybug979
               Date: Thu Mar 3, 2011 12:15 pm ((PST))

            This site has some information http://zlimpkk.tripod.com/Genealogy/ruralpopulation.html
             ----- Original Message ----- 
             From: Patricia Elleven 
             To: TexasCzechs@yahoogroups.com 
             Sent: Sunday, February 27, 2011 7:47 PM
             Subject: [TexasCzechs] Re: Research questions





             Excellent questions! I would like to add the following terms:
              "ctvrtlanik"  (čtvrtláník) which a researcher for the family translated as 'farmer' and 
             "podsednik"  which was also translated as 'farmer'.


             Can anyone point me to a general overview of the society of rural communities of the Czech-Slovak regions of the mid-late 1800's? 
             I would like to know about this hierarchy of occupations. 


             I also came across records that had -kach added at the end of the village name. What does that mean?


             Thanks!
             Pat Elleven
             Previously lurking only
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