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Re: re Hospital site identification in CS Army

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  • flagflop
    Gerry, 1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in US Army Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for the ambulance depot. ) However, I see in
    Message 1 of 14 , Feb 1, 2009
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      Gerry,

      1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in US Army
      Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for "the ambulance depot.")
      However, I see in Philip Katcher's 1994 "The Army of Robert E. Lee,"
      p. 170, citing J.O. Casler of Stonewall Brigade, that in the ANV
      hospitals were marked with yellow, rather than red.

      Dave Gaddy

      --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com, "G E Mayers" <gerry1952@...>
      wrote:
      >
      > Gang,
      >
      > Can anyone tell me quickly what the CS Army would have used as a
      > flag to identify a hospital? IIRC the Union Armies used a yellow
      > flag with a green H in the center; however, I am not sure what
      > the Confederacy would have used.
      >
      > If the information is in the relevant CS Regulations, just point
      > me to where and I can go look therein.
      >
      > Thanks!
      >
      > Yr. Obt. Svt.
      > G E "Gerry" Mayers
      >
      > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
      > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
      > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction from
      > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
      >
    • G E Mayers
      Dear Dave, Thanks for all the info. I do have a facsimile copy of the 1863 revision of the Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States and was fairly
      Message 2 of 14 , Feb 1, 2009
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        Dear Dave,

        Thanks for all the info. I do have a facsimile copy of the 1863
        revision of the "Regulations for the Army of the Confederate
        States" and was fairly sure the specific color was indeed red. I
        also have an electronic copy of the respective US Army
        Regulations.

        However, there is documentation the Union Army used a yellow
        rectangular flag with a large green H in the center. And, as you
        cite Phil Katcher (who is truly quite knowledgeable about the
        ANVa), that sounds pretty convincing to me.

        Would wonder if there were any General Orders from the War
        Department in Richmond, either via the Adjutant and Inspector
        General 's Office or the Medical Bureau modifying the stated
        regulations?

        I also have a copy of J. Boone Bartholmees's excellent work "Buff
        Facings and Gilt Buttons: Staff and Headquarters Operations in
        the Army of Northern Virginia: 1861-1865", which does state the A
        & IGO _did_ modify the regulations as published in the official
        regulations books by means of General Orders.

        Yr. Obt. Svt.
        G E "Gerry" Mayers

        To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
        on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
        Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction from
        the Almighty God. --Anonymous
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "flagflop" <dwgaddy@...>
        To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Sunday, February 01, 2009 2:55 PM
        Subject: [TalkAntietam] Re: re Hospital site identification in CS
        Army


        Gerry,

        1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in US
        Army
        Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for "the ambulance depot.")
        However, I see in Philip Katcher's 1994 "The Army of Robert E.
        Lee,"
        p. 170, citing J.O. Casler of Stonewall Brigade, that in the ANV
        hospitals were marked with yellow, rather than red.

        Dave Gaddy

        --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com, "G E Mayers"
        <gerry1952@...>
        wrote:
        >
        > Gang,
        >
        > Can anyone tell me quickly what the CS Army would have used as
        > a
        > flag to identify a hospital? IIRC the Union Armies used a
        > yellow
        > flag with a green H in the center; however, I am not sure what
        > the Confederacy would have used.
        >
        > If the information is in the relevant CS Regulations, just
        > point
        > me to where and I can go look therein.
        >
        > Thanks!
        >
        > Yr. Obt. Svt.
        > G E "Gerry" Mayers
        >
        > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
        > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
        > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction
        > from
        > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
        >
      • Dave
        Gerry and Dave, the citations I found for the yellow flag were for a field hospital, and were very early in the war. I did find a citation for a red flag on a
        Message 3 of 14 , Feb 1, 2009
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          Gerry and Dave, the citations I found for the yellow flag were for a
          field hospital, and were very early in the war. I did find a citation
          for a red flag on a ANV hospital ambulance. The quote I cited
          previously, that any soldier would recognize the yellow flag as a
          hospital, leads me to think that yellow was the normal flag color at
          that time. But, it's only a guess. Since one of the quotes was from
          Sumter, was the yellow flag standard for a field hospital in the pre-war
          army, and later changed by both sides? Would a field hospital and a
          main hospital have different color flags?

          Maybe you could contact the folks at the Pry house. The gentleman in
          there is very helpful and may have connections with the main ACW medical
          museum. I spent an enjoyable hour picking his brain in October, but
          never caught his name.

          Dave McGowan

          G E Mayers wrote:
          >
          > Dear Dave,
          >
          > Thanks for all the info. I do have a facsimile copy of the 1863
          > revision of the "Regulations for the Army of the Confederate
          > States" and was fairly sure the specific color was indeed red. I
          > also have an electronic copy of the respective US Army
          > Regulations.
          >
          > However, there is documentation the Union Army used a yellow
          > rectangular flag with a large green H in the center. And, as you
          > cite Phil Katcher (who is truly quite knowledgeable about the
          > ANVa), that sounds pretty convincing to me.
          >
          > Would wonder if there were any General Orders from the War
          > Department in Richmond, either via the Adjutant and Inspector
          > General 's Office or the Medical Bureau modifying the stated
          > regulations?
          >
          > I also have a copy of J. Boone Bartholmees's excellent work "Buff
          > Facings and Gilt Buttons: Staff and Headquarters Operations in
          > the Army of Northern Virginia: 1861-1865", which does state the A
          > & IGO _did_ modify the regulations as published in the official
          > regulations books by means of General Orders.
          >
          > Yr. Obt. Svt.
          > G E "Gerry" Mayers
          >
          > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
          > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
          > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction from
          > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
          > ----- Original Message -----
          > From: "flagflop" <dwgaddy@... <mailto:dwgaddy%40verizon.net>>
          > To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com <mailto:TalkAntietam%40yahoogroups.com>>
          > Sent: Sunday, February 01, 2009 2:55 PM
          > Subject: [TalkAntietam] Re: re Hospital site identification in CS
          > Army
          >
          > Gerry,
          >
          > 1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in US
          > Army
          > Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for "the ambulance depot.")
          > However, I see in Philip Katcher's 1994 "The Army of Robert E.
          > Lee,"
          > p. 170, citing J.O. Casler of Stonewall Brigade, that in the ANV
          > hospitals were marked with yellow, rather than red.
          >
          > Dave Gaddy
          >
          > --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com
          > <mailto:TalkAntietam%40yahoogroups.com>, "G E Mayers"
          > <gerry1952@...>
          > wrote:
          > >
          > > Gang,
          > >
          > > Can anyone tell me quickly what the CS Army would have used as
          > > a
          > > flag to identify a hospital? IIRC the Union Armies used a
          > > yellow
          > > flag with a green H in the center; however, I am not sure what
          > > the Confederacy would have used.
          > >
          > > If the information is in the relevant CS Regulations, just
          > > point
          > > me to where and I can go look therein.
          > >
          > > Thanks!
          > >
          > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
          > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
          > >
          > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
          > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
          > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction
          > > from
          > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
          > >
          >
          >
        • flagflop
          Gerry and T other Dave, Check out two postings by Tom Martin (Piedmont Flag Company) on the Civil War Flags Message Board, his 8665 of 3 Dec and his follow-up,
          Message 4 of 14 , Feb 2, 2009
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            Gerry and T'other Dave,

            Check out two postings by Tom Martin (Piedmont Flag Company) on the
            Civil War Flags Message Board, his 8665 of 3 Dec and his follow-up,
            msg 8670 of 5 Dec 2008, the latter at http://history-sites.com/cgi-
            bin/bbs53x/cwflags/webbbs_config.pl?read=8670--- Per his extensive
            research, he points out all of the complications -- that red
            (probably from European precedent) had been specified in regs, and
            that yellow was the quarantine flag. He goes on to note variations in
            usage by area, time period, commanding general, military vs. civilian
            doctors, hospital organization vs. ambulance corps, and other facets.

            Dave Gaddy
            -----------------------------
            In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com, Dave <gewehr@...> wrote:
            >
            > Gerry and Dave, the citations I found for the yellow flag were for
            a
            > field hospital, and were very early in the war. I did find a
            citation
            > for a red flag on a ANV hospital ambulance. The quote I cited
            > previously, that any soldier would recognize the yellow flag as a
            > hospital, leads me to think that yellow was the normal flag color
            at
            > that time. But, it's only a guess. Since one of the quotes was
            from
            > Sumter, was the yellow flag standard for a field hospital in the
            pre-war
            > army, and later changed by both sides? Would a field hospital and
            a
            > main hospital have different color flags?
            >
            > Maybe you could contact the folks at the Pry house. The gentleman
            in
            > there is very helpful and may have connections with the main ACW
            medical
            > museum. I spent an enjoyable hour picking his brain in October,
            but
            > never caught his name.
            >
            > Dave McGowan
            >
            > G E Mayers wrote:
            > >
            > > Dear Dave,
            > >
            > > Thanks for all the info. I do have a facsimile copy of the 1863
            > > revision of the "Regulations for the Army of the Confederate
            > > States" and was fairly sure the specific color was indeed red. I
            > > also have an electronic copy of the respective US Army
            > > Regulations.
            > >
            > > However, there is documentation the Union Army used a yellow
            > > rectangular flag with a large green H in the center. And, as you
            > > cite Phil Katcher (who is truly quite knowledgeable about the
            > > ANVa), that sounds pretty convincing to me.
            > >
            > > Would wonder if there were any General Orders from the War
            > > Department in Richmond, either via the Adjutant and Inspector
            > > General 's Office or the Medical Bureau modifying the stated
            > > regulations?
            > >
            > > I also have a copy of J. Boone Bartholmees's excellent work "Buff
            > > Facings and Gilt Buttons: Staff and Headquarters Operations in
            > > the Army of Northern Virginia: 1861-1865", which does state the A
            > > & IGO _did_ modify the regulations as published in the official
            > > regulations books by means of General Orders.
            > >
            > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
            > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
            > >
            > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
            > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
            > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction from
            > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
            > > ----- Original Message -----
            > > From: "flagflop" <dwgaddy@... <mailto:dwgaddy%40verizon.net>>
            > > To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com <mailto:TalkAntietam%
            40yahoogroups.com>>
            > > Sent: Sunday, February 01, 2009 2:55 PM
            > > Subject: [TalkAntietam] Re: re Hospital site identification in CS
            > > Army
            > >
            > > Gerry,
            > >
            > > 1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in US
            > > Army
            > > Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for "the ambulance depot.")
            > > However, I see in Philip Katcher's 1994 "The Army of Robert E.
            > > Lee,"
            > > p. 170, citing J.O. Casler of Stonewall Brigade, that in the ANV
            > > hospitals were marked with yellow, rather than red.
            > >
            > > Dave Gaddy
            > >
            > > --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com
            > > <mailto:TalkAntietam%40yahoogroups.com>, "G E Mayers"
            > > <gerry1952@>
            > > wrote:
            > > >
            > > > Gang,
            > > >
            > > > Can anyone tell me quickly what the CS Army would have used as
            > > > a
            > > > flag to identify a hospital? IIRC the Union Armies used a
            > > > yellow
            > > > flag with a green H in the center; however, I am not sure what
            > > > the Confederacy would have used.
            > > >
            > > > If the information is in the relevant CS Regulations, just
            > > > point
            > > > me to where and I can go look therein.
            > > >
            > > > Thanks!
            > > >
            > > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
            > > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
            > > >
            > > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
            > > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
            > > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction
            > > > from
            > > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
            > > >
            > >
            > >
            >
          • eighth_conn_inf
            Dave, Excellent info on that link, thank you. I now have another bookmark, too. Larry F. ... in ... civilian ... facets. ... for ... and ... gentleman ... work
            Message 5 of 14 , Feb 3, 2009
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              Dave,

              Excellent info on that link, thank you. I now have another bookmark,
              too.

              Larry F.

              --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com, "flagflop" <dwgaddy@...> wrote:
              >
              > Gerry and T'other Dave,
              >
              > Check out two postings by Tom Martin (Piedmont Flag Company) on the
              > Civil War Flags Message Board, his 8665 of 3 Dec and his follow-up,
              > msg 8670 of 5 Dec 2008, the latter at http://history-sites.com/cgi-
              > bin/bbs53x/cwflags/webbbs_config.pl?read=8670--- Per his extensive
              > research, he points out all of the complications -- that red
              > (probably from European precedent) had been specified in regs, and
              > that yellow was the quarantine flag. He goes on to note variations
              in
              > usage by area, time period, commanding general, military vs.
              civilian
              > doctors, hospital organization vs. ambulance corps, and other
              facets.
              >
              > Dave Gaddy
              > -----------------------------
              > In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com, Dave <gewehr@> wrote:
              > >
              > > Gerry and Dave, the citations I found for the yellow flag were
              for
              > a
              > > field hospital, and were very early in the war. I did find a
              > citation
              > > for a red flag on a ANV hospital ambulance. The quote I cited
              > > previously, that any soldier would recognize the yellow flag as a
              > > hospital, leads me to think that yellow was the normal flag color
              > at
              > > that time. But, it's only a guess. Since one of the quotes was
              > from
              > > Sumter, was the yellow flag standard for a field hospital in the
              > pre-war
              > > army, and later changed by both sides? Would a field hospital
              and
              > a
              > > main hospital have different color flags?
              > >
              > > Maybe you could contact the folks at the Pry house. The
              gentleman
              > in
              > > there is very helpful and may have connections with the main ACW
              > medical
              > > museum. I spent an enjoyable hour picking his brain in October,
              > but
              > > never caught his name.
              > >
              > > Dave McGowan
              > >
              > > G E Mayers wrote:
              > > >
              > > > Dear Dave,
              > > >
              > > > Thanks for all the info. I do have a facsimile copy of the 1863
              > > > revision of the "Regulations for the Army of the Confederate
              > > > States" and was fairly sure the specific color was indeed red. I
              > > > also have an electronic copy of the respective US Army
              > > > Regulations.
              > > >
              > > > However, there is documentation the Union Army used a yellow
              > > > rectangular flag with a large green H in the center. And, as you
              > > > cite Phil Katcher (who is truly quite knowledgeable about the
              > > > ANVa), that sounds pretty convincing to me.
              > > >
              > > > Would wonder if there were any General Orders from the War
              > > > Department in Richmond, either via the Adjutant and Inspector
              > > > General 's Office or the Medical Bureau modifying the stated
              > > > regulations?
              > > >
              > > > I also have a copy of J. Boone Bartholmees's excellent
              work "Buff
              > > > Facings and Gilt Buttons: Staff and Headquarters Operations in
              > > > the Army of Northern Virginia: 1861-1865", which does state the
              A
              > > > & IGO _did_ modify the regulations as published in the official
              > > > regulations books by means of General Orders.
              > > >
              > > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
              > > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
              > > >
              > > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
              > > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
              > > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction from
              > > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
              > > > ----- Original Message -----
              > > > From: "flagflop" <dwgaddy@ <mailto:dwgaddy%40verizon.net>>
              > > > To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com <mailto:TalkAntietam%
              > 40yahoogroups.com>>
              > > > Sent: Sunday, February 01, 2009 2:55 PM
              > > > Subject: [TalkAntietam] Re: re Hospital site identification in
              CS
              > > > Army
              > > >
              > > > Gerry,
              > > >
              > > > 1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in US
              > > > Army
              > > > Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for "the ambulance
              depot.")
              > > > However, I see in Philip Katcher's 1994 "The Army of Robert E.
              > > > Lee,"
              > > > p. 170, citing J.O. Casler of Stonewall Brigade, that in the ANV
              > > > hospitals were marked with yellow, rather than red.
              > > >
              > > > Dave Gaddy
              > > >
              > > > --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com
              > > > <mailto:TalkAntietam%40yahoogroups.com>, "G E Mayers"
              > > > <gerry1952@>
              > > > wrote:
              > > > >
              > > > > Gang,
              > > > >
              > > > > Can anyone tell me quickly what the CS Army would have used as
              > > > > a
              > > > > flag to identify a hospital? IIRC the Union Armies used a
              > > > > yellow
              > > > > flag with a green H in the center; however, I am not sure what
              > > > > the Confederacy would have used.
              > > > >
              > > > > If the information is in the relevant CS Regulations, just
              > > > > point
              > > > > me to where and I can go look therein.
              > > > >
              > > > > Thanks!
              > > > >
              > > > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
              > > > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
              > > > >
              > > > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or
              even
              > > > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
              > > > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction
              > > > > from
              > > > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
              > > > >
              > > >
              > > >
              > >
              >
            • G E Mayers
              Dear Dave, Good info on that post! However, re the yellow flagged hospitals vs the red flag ones...IIRC both armies had to resort to using contracted surgeons,
              Message 6 of 14 , Feb 3, 2009
              • 0 Attachment
                Dear Dave,

                Good info on that post! However, re the yellow flagged hospitals
                vs the red flag ones...IIRC both armies had to resort to using
                contracted surgeons, largely civilians, to help handle the
                massive influx of wounded and dying that would require medical
                attention after each major battle.

                Yr. Obt. Svt.
                G E "Gerry" Mayers

                To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or even
                on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in the
                Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction from
                the Almighty God. --Anonymous
                ----- Original Message -----
                From: "flagflop" <dwgaddy@...>
                To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com>
                Sent: Monday, February 02, 2009 11:40 PM
                Subject: [TalkAntietam] Re: re Hospital site identification in CS
                Army


                Gerry and T'other Dave,

                Check out two postings by Tom Martin (Piedmont Flag Company) on
                the
                Civil War Flags Message Board, his 8665 of 3 Dec and his
                follow-up,
                msg 8670 of 5 Dec 2008, the latter at
                http://history-sites.com/cgi-
                bin/bbs53x/cwflags/webbbs_config.pl?read=8670--- Per his
                extensive
                research, he points out all of the complications -- that red
                (probably from European precedent) had been specified in regs,
                and
                that yellow was the quarantine flag. He goes on to note
                variations in
                usage by area, time period, commanding general, military vs.
                civilian
                doctors, hospital organization vs. ambulance corps, and other
                facets.

                Dave Gaddy
                -----------------------------
                In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com, Dave <gewehr@...> wrote:
                >
                > Gerry and Dave, the citations I found for the yellow flag were
                > for
                a
                > field hospital, and were very early in the war. I did find a
                citation
                > for a red flag on a ANV hospital ambulance. The quote I cited
                > previously, that any soldier would recognize the yellow flag as
                > a
                > hospital, leads me to think that yellow was the normal flag
                > color
                at
                > that time. But, it's only a guess. Since one of the quotes
                > was
                from
                > Sumter, was the yellow flag standard for a field hospital in
                > the
                pre-war
                > army, and later changed by both sides? Would a field hospital
                > and
                a
                > main hospital have different color flags?
                >
                > Maybe you could contact the folks at the Pry house. The
                > gentleman
                in
                > there is very helpful and may have connections with the main
                > ACW
                medical
                > museum. I spent an enjoyable hour picking his brain in
                > October,
                but
                > never caught his name.
                >
                > Dave McGowan
                >
                > G E Mayers wrote:
                > >
                > > Dear Dave,
                > >
                > > Thanks for all the info. I do have a facsimile copy of the
                > > 1863
                > > revision of the "Regulations for the Army of the Confederate
                > > States" and was fairly sure the specific color was indeed
                > > red. I
                > > also have an electronic copy of the respective US Army
                > > Regulations.
                > >
                > > However, there is documentation the Union Army used a yellow
                > > rectangular flag with a large green H in the center. And, as
                > > you
                > > cite Phil Katcher (who is truly quite knowledgeable about the
                > > ANVa), that sounds pretty convincing to me.
                > >
                > > Would wonder if there were any General Orders from the War
                > > Department in Richmond, either via the Adjutant and Inspector
                > > General 's Office or the Medical Bureau modifying the stated
                > > regulations?
                > >
                > > I also have a copy of J. Boone Bartholmees's excellent work
                > > "Buff
                > > Facings and Gilt Buttons: Staff and Headquarters Operations
                > > in
                > > the Army of Northern Virginia: 1861-1865", which does state
                > > the A
                > > & IGO _did_ modify the regulations as published in the
                > > official
                > > regulations books by means of General Orders.
                > >
                > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
                > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
                > >
                > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or
                > > even
                > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in
                > > the
                > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction
                > > from
                > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
                > > ----- Original Message -----
                > > From: "flagflop" <dwgaddy@... <mailto:dwgaddy%40verizon.net>>
                > > To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com <mailto:TalkAntietam%
                40yahoogroups.com>>
                > > Sent: Sunday, February 01, 2009 2:55 PM
                > > Subject: [TalkAntietam] Re: re Hospital site identification
                > > in CS
                > > Army
                > >
                > > Gerry,
                > >
                > > 1862 and 1863 CS Army Regs, para 714, specify red. (Same in
                > > US
                > > Army
                > > Revised Regs 1861, para 736 as marker for "the ambulance
                > > depot.")
                > > However, I see in Philip Katcher's 1994 "The Army of Robert
                > > E.
                > > Lee,"
                > > p. 170, citing J.O. Casler of Stonewall Brigade, that in the
                > > ANV
                > > hospitals were marked with yellow, rather than red.
                > >
                > > Dave Gaddy
                > >
                > > --- In TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com
                > > <mailto:TalkAntietam%40yahoogroups.com>, "G E Mayers"
                > > <gerry1952@>
                > > wrote:
                > > >
                > > > Gang,
                > > >
                > > > Can anyone tell me quickly what the CS Army would have used
                > > > as
                > > > a
                > > > flag to identify a hospital? IIRC the Union Armies used a
                > > > yellow
                > > > flag with a green H in the center; however, I am not sure
                > > > what
                > > > the Confederacy would have used.
                > > >
                > > > If the information is in the relevant CS Regulations, just
                > > > point
                > > > me to where and I can go look therein.
                > > >
                > > > Thanks!
                > > >
                > > > Yr. Obt. Svt.
                > > > G E "Gerry" Mayers
                > > >
                > > > To Be A Virginian, either by birth, marriage, adoption, or
                > > > even
                > > > on one's mother's side, is an introduction to any state in
                > > > the
                > > > Union, a passport to any foreign country, and a benediction
                > > > from
                > > > the Almighty God. --Anonymous
                > > >
                > >
                > >
                >
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