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[TalkAntietam] Cook's (8th Mass) Btty at South Mt.

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  • Bill or Glenna Jo Christen
    ... Mark, Here s is an unfinished excerpt from a project the TR Livesey and I have started. It s still in the development stage. We are using a chronological
    Message 1 of 4 , Jan 19, 2002
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      ringgold61 wrote:

      > How badly were Cook's boys treated? From Durell's unit history, I
      > thought they had simply been driven from their guns by a scalding
      > fire from close Confederate infantry. The Massachusetts men were
      > able to retire their guns from the field while the Pennsylvanians
      > were serving their pieces.

      Mark,

      Here's is an unfinished excerpt from a project the TR Livesey and I have
      started. It's still in the development stage. We are using a chronological
      ordering of all accounts and TR's excellent mapping skills. We hope to take
      advantage of 3-D maps to help study the fighting at Fox's and Turner's Gaps.
      It's still a year, or so from completion as TR is waiting patiently for me to
      finish my Pauline Cushman book (later this spring). Our approach is
      copyrighted and will eventually include more than the OR accounts. What I
      have included here is just a sample of how we have reordered the account
      presentations in a chronology.

      NOON -- ACROSS FROM THE HOFMAN HOUSE

      [The house is still there with a modern structure across the road where
      Cook's battery went into action. I have pictures of the house and fields from
      the early 1920s.]

      The command [COOK'S BATTERY] proceeded up the road to a point about 400 yards
      from the summit of the mountain, where, at about 12 o'clock [NOON], two
      pieces were brought into battery and commenced firing on a battery of the
      enemy on an elevation about a mile to the right. (12)

      ... [17TH MICHIGAN] proceeded far up the road towards the crest...and moving
      to the support of a section of Cook's battery...sent up the mountain to open
      on the enemy's guns on the right of the gap [TURNER'S]. (1)

      The road at this point was deeply gullied and very narrow, obliging us to
      move by the flank, the banks on either side being steep and six to ten feet
      high. (1)

      I [WILLCOX]...was proceeding to take up a position on his [COX] right, when I
      was ordered by...Reno to take position overlooking the main pike to our
      right. I planted a section of Cook's battery near the turn of the road, and
      opened fire on the enemy's battery across the main pike. After a few good
      shots, the enemy unmasked a battery on his left, over Shriver's Gap, from a
      small field enveloped by woods. He threw canister and shell, and drove Cook's
      cannoneers and drivers down the road with their limbers. (3)

      One section of Cook's battery was placed in position near the turn of the
      road (on the crest), and opened fire on the enemy's batteries across the gap.
      (2)

      Before reaching the summit, I [CHRIST] was ordered to form in line of battle
      on the right of the road, but before this movement was completed the enemy
      opened a battery which command this road. Cook's battery, which was just
      being placed in position at this time, received this fire directly in front,
      and from its great severity they were obliged to retire with their caissons,
      leaving two of their pieces in danger of being taken. (4)

      At this juncture, and while we [17MI] were about to deploy on the right, the
      enemy suddenly opened (at about 200 yards) with a battery which enfiladed the
      road at this point... (1)

      The division [WILLCOX'S] was proceeding to deploy to the right of the road,
      when the enemy suddenly opened (at 150 yards) with a battery which enfiladed
      the road at this point...(?)

      After firing about four rounds one of the pieces became disabled, and was
      withdrawn. While another piece was coming forward to replace it, the enemy
      opened a very heavy fire of canister upon us from a masked battery of
      12-pounders, about 150 yards off, on our flank. (12)

      Arrived at the foot of the mountain, I [WELSH] placed my troops in position
      on the left of Christ's brigade, the right of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania
      resting on the road and the left of the Forty-sixth New York extending toward
      the command of...Cox. (5)

      The regiment [46NY]..formed in line of battle on the left of the 45th
      Pennsylvania Volunteers, under a very heavy fire of shot and shell. The
      regiment covered themselves behind fences and hills till the order was given
      to advance. (14)

      I [WELSH] then caused two companies of the Forty-fifth Pennsylvania to be
      moved forward to the top of the hill as skirmishers, who soon discovered the
      enemy's infantry in great force and his artillery completely commanding and
      shelling the woods. Heavy masses of infantry, covered by trees and stone
      fences supported the artillery. (5)

      The column of caissons and the disabled piece were ordered to the rear, when
      the enemy's fire became so heavy, 1 man...killed and 4 wounded in one section
      by the first discharge, the cannoneers were directed to retire to cover.
      (12)

      ...drove off Cook's cannoneers with their limbers, several of our [who's?]
      men being killed by shot and shell of the enemy. The cannoneers with their
      horses and limbers came rushing down the road through our dense ranks... (1)

      ...drove off Cook's cannoners with their limbers, and caused a temporary
      panic, in which the guns were nearly lost. (2)

      Cook gallantly remained with his guns. Cook here lost 1 man killed, 4
      wounded, and 2 horses killed. (3)

      The men [COOK'S BTTY] consequently fell back to shelter in the woods until a
      later hour in the day... (12)

      ...causing a temporary panic among some of the troops... (1)

      But the Seventy-ninth New York and Seventeenth Michigan promptly rallied,
      changed front under a heavy fire, and moved to protect the guns, with which
      Captain Cook had remained. (2)

      ...promptly changed front under a heavy fire of shot and shell, but as we had
      never had a battalion drill we formed our line of battle by countermarching,
      and moved out with the Seventy-ninth New York veterans to protect the
      battery. (1)

      ...the Seventy-ninth New York...was immediately ordered to the front on left
      of the road, and the Seventeenth Michigan...on the right of the road, to
      protect these pieces. (4)

      Order was soon restored, and the division [WILLCOX'S] formed in line on the
      right of Cox, and was kept concealed as much as possible under the shelter of
      the hillside...exposed...to fire of the battery in front, but
      also...batteries on the other side of the turnpike... (2)

      The attack was so sudden, the whole division being under fire (a flank fire),
      that a temporary panic occurred until I [WILLCOX] caused the Seventy-ninth
      New York...and Seventeenth Michigan... on the extreme left to draw across the
      road, facing the enemy, who were so close that we expected a charge to take
      Cook's battery. (3)

      The Seventy-ninth [NY] and Seventeenth [MI] here deserve credit for their
      coolness and firmness in rallying and changing front under a heavy fire. (3)

      Here the regiment [17M] extended across the Old Sharpsburg road and lay in
      line of battle, sheltered...by the sloping ground until nearly 4 p.m. (1)

      I [WILLCOX] now made a new disposition of the division...The rear,
      Seventy-ninth up in front and left of Cook's pieces, and the Seventeenth on
      right and little in rear; Seventy-ninth as skirmishers along whole line,
      supported by Forty-fifth Pennsylvania...connected Welsh's brigade with Cox's
      right, and stretched Christ's brigade from Welsh and across the road, holding
      the On hundredth Pennsylvania...in reserve, and moved up my whole command
      under the cover of the hillside. (3)

      Meantime the enemy's guns continued to play on us, killing and wounding at
      all points, but few in number. We lay silent and kept concealed. Our picket
      officers reported the enemy in heavy force of regiments in rear of their
      skirmishers. (3)

      (1) REPORT OF COLONEL FREDERIC W. SWIFT FROM MICHIGAN IN THE WAR,
      COMPILED BY JOHN ROBERTSON, LANSING, MICHIGAN, 1882 375-376 17MI

      (2) THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: A COMPILATION OF THE OFFICIAL RECORDS OF
      THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES, VOLUME XIX, US DEPARTMENT OF WAR,
      WASHINGTON DC, 1880-1901 (GENERAL REPORT NO. 2) -- 15 OCTOBER 1862 MAJOR
      GENERAL GEORGE B. McCLELLAN 24-53 AOP

      (3) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 139) -- 21 SEPTEMBER 1862 BRIGADIER
      GENERAL ORLANDO B. WILLCOX 427-429 1/IX

      (4) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 143) -- [no date possibly SEPTEMBER 1862]

      COLONEL B.C. CHRIST 437-438 1/1/IX

      (5) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 144) -- 18 SEPTEMBER 1862 COLONEL THOMAS
      WELSH 439-440 2/1/IX

      (12) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 140) -- 21 SEPTEMBER 1862 CAPTAIN ASA M.
      COOK 433-434 8MA BTTY

      (14) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 145) -- 16 SEPTEMBER 1862 LIEUTENANT
      COLONEL JOSEPH GERHARDT 441-442 46NY

      We have the ORs and a few other accounts almost completed. The project covers
      13-16 September from Middletown to the two Gaps. We will be adding our
      analysis and annotations as well. TR is working on an interactive feature
      that will account for the time of day in regard to sun positions.

      Bill Christen
    • NJ Rebel
      Group: I have posed some additional questions to the chronological account. Bill, great thing you and TR are doing. It might take years, but would be a great
      Message 2 of 4 , Jan 20, 2002
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        Group:

        I have posed some additional questions to the chronological
        account. Bill, great thing you and TR are doing. It might take
        years, but would be a great thing to do for all the portions of
        the Battle of Antietam as well!

        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "Bill or Glenna Jo Christen" <gwjchris@...>
        To: <TalkAntietam@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Sunday, January 20, 2002 2:21 AM
        Subject: [TalkAntietam] Cook's (8th Mass) Btty at South Mt.


        >
        >
        > ringgold61 wrote:
        >
        > > How badly were Cook's boys treated? From Durell's unit
        history, I
        > > thought they had simply been driven from their guns by a
        scalding
        > > fire from close Confederate infantry. The Massachusetts men
        were
        > > able to retire their guns from the field while the
        Pennsylvanians
        > > were serving their pieces.
        >
        > Mark,
        >
        > Here's is an unfinished excerpt from a project the TR Livesey
        and I have
        > started. It's still in the development stage. We are using a
        chronological
        > ordering of all accounts and TR's excellent mapping skills. We
        hope to take
        > advantage of 3-D maps to help study the fighting at Fox's and
        Turner's Gaps.
        > It's still a year, or so from completion as TR is waiting
        patiently for me to
        > finish my Pauline Cushman book (later this spring). Our
        approach is
        > copyrighted and will eventually include more than the OR
        accounts. What I
        > have included here is just a sample of how we have reordered
        the account
        > presentations in a chronology.
        >
        > NOON -- ACROSS FROM THE HOFMAN HOUSE
        >
        > [The house is still there with a modern structure across the
        road where
        > Cook's battery went into action. I have pictures of the house
        and fields from
        > the early 1920s.]
        >
        > The command [COOK'S BATTERY] proceeded up the road to a point
        about 400 yards
        > from the summit of the mountain, where, at about 12 o'clock
        [NOON], two
        > pieces were brought into battery and commenced firing on a
        battery of the
        > enemy on an elevation about a mile to the right. (12)
        >
        > ... [17TH MICHIGAN] proceeded far up the road towards the
        crest...and moving
        > to the support of a section of Cook's battery...sent up the
        mountain to open
        > on the enemy's guns on the right of the gap [TURNER'S]. (1)
        >
        > The road at this point was deeply gullied and very narrow,
        obliging us to
        > move by the flank, the banks on either side being steep and six
        to ten feet
        > high. (1)
        >
        > I [WILLCOX]...was proceeding to take up a position on his [COX]
        right, when I
        > was ordered by...Reno to take position overlooking the main
        pike to our
        > right. I planted a section of Cook's battery near the turn of
        the road, and
        > opened fire on the enemy's battery across the main pike. After
        a few good
        > shots, the enemy unmasked a battery on his left, over Shriver's
        Gap, from a
        > small field enveloped by woods. He threw canister and shell,
        and drove Cook's
        > cannoneers and drivers down the road with their limbers. (3)
        >
        Question: Where is Shriver's Gap? and in relation to Fox's and
        Turner's Gaps?

        > One section of Cook's battery was placed in position near the
        turn of the
        > road (on the crest), and opened fire on the enemy's batteries
        across the gap.
        > (2)
        >
        > Before reaching the summit, I [CHRIST] was ordered to form in
        line of battle
        > on the right of the road, but before this movement was
        completed the enemy
        > opened a battery which command this road. Cook's battery, which
        was just
        > being placed in position at this time, received this fire
        directly in front,
        > and from its great severity they were obliged to retire with
        their caissons,
        > leaving two of their pieces in danger of being taken. (4)
        >
        > At this juncture, and while we [17MI] were about to deploy on
        the right, the
        > enemy suddenly opened (at about 200 yards) with a battery which
        enfiladed the
        > road at this point... (1)
        >

        Would this have been a masked battery?

        > The division [WILLCOX'S] was proceeding to deploy to the right
        of the road,
        > when the enemy suddenly opened (at 150 yards) with a battery
        which enfiladed
        > the road at this point...(?)
        >
        > After firing about four rounds one of the pieces became
        disabled, and was
        > withdrawn. While another piece was coming forward to replace
        it, the enemy
        > opened a very heavy fire of canister upon us from a masked
        battery of
        > 12-pounders, about 150 yards off, on our flank. (12)
        >
        > Arrived at the foot of the mountain, I [WELSH] placed my troops
        in position
        > on the left of Christ's brigade, the right of the Forty-fifth
        Pennsylvania
        > resting on the road and the left of the Forty-sixth New York
        extending toward
        > the command of...Cox. (5)
        >
        > The regiment [46NY]..formed in line of battle on the left of
        the 45th
        > Pennsylvania Volunteers, under a very heavy fire of shot and
        shell. The
        > regiment covered themselves behind fences and hills till the
        order was given
        > to advance. (14)
        >
        > I [WELSH] then caused two companies of the Forty-fifth
        Pennsylvania to be
        > moved forward to the top of the hill as skirmishers, who soon
        discovered the
        > enemy's infantry in great force and his artillery completely
        commanding and
        > shelling the woods. Heavy masses of infantry, covered by trees
        and stone
        > fences supported the artillery. (5)
        >
        > The column of caissons and the disabled piece were ordered to
        the rear, when
        > the enemy's fire became so heavy, 1 man...killed and 4 wounded
        in one section
        > by the first discharge, the cannoneers were directed to retire
        to cover.
        > (12)
        >
        > ...drove off Cook's cannoneers with their limbers, several of
        our [who's?]
        > men being killed by shot and shell of the enemy. The cannoneers
        with their
        > horses and limbers came rushing down the road through our dense
        ranks... (1)
        >
        > ...drove off Cook's cannoners with their limbers, and caused a
        temporary
        > panic, in which the guns were nearly lost. (2)
        >
        > Cook gallantly remained with his guns. Cook here lost 1 man
        killed, 4
        > wounded, and 2 horses killed. (3)
        >

        Was all this due to heavy Confederate artillery fire, small arms
        fire or a combination of both?

        > The men [COOK'S BTTY] consequently fell back to shelter in the
        woods until a
        > later hour in the day... (12)
        >
        > ...causing a temporary panic among some of the troops... (1)
        >
        > But the Seventy-ninth New York and Seventeenth Michigan
        promptly rallied,
        > changed front under a heavy fire, and moved to protect the
        guns, with which
        > Captain Cook had remained. (2)
        >
        > ...promptly changed front under a heavy fire of shot and shell,
        but as we had
        > never had a battalion drill we formed our line of battle by
        countermarching,
        > and moved out with the Seventy-ninth New York veterans to
        protect the
        > battery. (1)
        >
        > ...the Seventy-ninth New York...was immediately ordered to the
        front on left
        > of the road, and the Seventeenth Michigan...on the right of the
        road, to
        > protect these pieces. (4)
        >
        > Order was soon restored, and the division [WILLCOX'S] formed in
        line on the
        > right of Cox, and was kept concealed as much as possible under
        the shelter of
        > the hillside...exposed...to fire of the battery in front, but
        > also...batteries on the other side of the turnpike... (2)
        >
        > The attack was so sudden, the whole division being under fire
        (a flank fire),
        > that a temporary panic occurred until I [WILLCOX] caused the
        Seventy-ninth
        > New York...and Seventeenth Michigan... on the extreme left to
        draw across the
        > road, facing the enemy, who were so close that we expected a
        charge to take
        > Cook's battery. (3)
        >

        How close were Confederate troops at this point in time to the
        79th NY and 17th MI?

        > The Seventy-ninth [NY] and Seventeenth [MI] here deserve credit
        for their
        > coolness and firmness in rallying and changing front under a
        heavy fire. (3)
        >
        > Here the regiment [17M] extended across the Old Sharpsburg road
        and lay in
        > line of battle, sheltered...by the sloping ground until nearly
        4 p.m. (1)
        >
        > I [WILLCOX] now made a new disposition of the division...The
        rear,
        > Seventy-ninth up in front and left of Cook's pieces, and the
        Seventeenth on
        > right and little in rear; Seventy-ninth as skirmishers along
        whole line,
        > supported by Forty-fifth Pennsylvania...connected Welsh's
        brigade with Cox's
        > right, and stretched Christ's brigade from Welsh and across the
        road, holding
        > the On hundredth Pennsylvania...in reserve, and moved up my
        whole command
        > under the cover of the hillside. (3)
        >
        > Meantime the enemy's guns continued to play on us, killing and
        wounding at
        > all points, but few in number. We lay silent and kept
        concealed. Our picket
        > officers reported the enemy in heavy force of regiments in rear
        of their
        > skirmishers. (3)
        >
        > (1) REPORT OF COLONEL FREDERIC W. SWIFT FROM MICHIGAN IN
        THE WAR,
        > COMPILED BY JOHN ROBERTSON, LANSING, MICHIGAN, 1882
        375-376 17MI
        >
        > (2) THE WAR OF THE REBELLION: A COMPILATION OF THE OFFICIAL
        RECORDS OF
        > THE UNION AND CONFEDERATE ARMIES, VOLUME XIX, US DEPARTMENT OF
        WAR,
        > WASHINGTON DC, 1880-1901 (GENERAL REPORT NO. 2) -- 15
        OCTOBER 1862 MAJOR
        > GENERAL GEORGE B. McCLELLAN 24-53 AOP
        >
        > (3) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 139) -- 21 SEPTEMBER 1862
        BRIGADIER
        > GENERAL ORLANDO B. WILLCOX 427-429 1/IX
        >
        > (4) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 143) -- [no date possibly
        SEPTEMBER 1862]
        >
        > COLONEL B.C. CHRIST 437-438 1/1/IX
        >
        > (5) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 144) -- 18 SEPTEMBER 1862
        COLONEL THOMAS
        > WELSH 439-440 2/1/IX
        >
        > (12) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 140) -- 21 SEPTEMBER 1862
        CAPTAIN ASA M.
        > COOK 433-434 8MA BTTY
        >
        > (14) O.R., VOL. XIX (REPORT NO. 145) -- 16 SEPTEMBER 1862
        LIEUTENANT
        > COLONEL JOSEPH GERHARDT 441-442 46NY
        >
        > We have the ORs and a few other accounts almost completed. The
        project covers
        > 13-16 September from Middletown to the two Gaps. We will be
        adding our
        > analysis and annotations as well. TR is working on an
        interactive feature
        > that will account for the time of day in regard to sun
        positions.
        >
        > Bill Christen
        >
        >
        Your humble servant,
        Gerry Mayers
        Co. B, "Tom Green Rifles",
        Fourth Regiment, Texas Volunteer Infantry

        A Proud American by Birth, Southern by Choice!

        http://home.earthlink.net/~gerry1952/index.html

        "I know of no fitter resting-place for a soldier than the field
        on which he has nobly laid down his life." --General Robert
        Edward Lee
      • Bill or Glenna Jo Christen
        ... Shriver s Gap is further up the South Mountain chain. Not all officers were familiar with the names is the local geographic gazetteer. Here he is probably
        Message 3 of 4 , Jan 20, 2002
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          NJ Rebel wrote:

          > > shots, the enemy unmasked a battery on his left, over Shriver's Gap, from
          > a small field enveloped by woods. He threw canister and shell, and drove
          > Cook's cannoneers and drivers down the road with their limbers. (3)
          >
          > Question: Where is Shriver's Gap? and in relation to Fox's and Turner's
          > Gaps?

          Shriver's Gap is further up the South Mountain chain. Not all officers were
          familiar with the names is the local geographic gazetteer. Here he is
          probably referring to some guns of Boundourant's battery (Jeff Davis
          Artillery) at the top of Fox's Gap along the old mountain road leading to
          Turner's Gap. The location of the battery was probably 100-150 yards away
          from where Reno's monument is today...to the north/northeast.

          > > At this juncture, and while we [17MI] were about to deploy on the right,
          > the enemy suddenly opened (at about 200 yards) with a battery which
          > enfiladed the road at this point... (1)
          >
          > Would this have been a masked battery?

          It was Boundurants's. When the guns were rolled forward to the edge of the
          woods bordering Wise's large field across from the Reno Monument they had a
          direct line of sight down the road (today Reno Monument Road) and into the
          field across from the Hofman House. The woods today obscure that line of
          sight. I do not know how many guns were deployed...probably a section not the
          entire battery. There were also CS guns on the north side of Turner's Gap
          that could fire into Wise's fields and the are near the Hofman House.

          > > Cook gallantly remained with his guns. Cook here lost 1 man killed, 4
          > wounded, and 2 horses killed. (3)
          >
          > Was all this due to heavy Confederate artillery fire, small arms fire or a
          > combination of both?

          Probably the balance of the fire was from CS artillery. This took place
          during the "lull" that occurred around noon. CS infantry ws spread thin along
          the old road to the Mountain House. There was probably sporadic small arms
          fire that increased as CS troops (Drayton's Brigade) formed behind the
          stonewalls lining the old road at the top of Wise's large field .

          > > The attack was so sudden, the whole division being under fire (a flank
          > fire), that a temporary panic occurred until I [WILLCOX] caused the
          > Seventy-ninth New York...and Seventeenth Michigan... on the extreme left to
          > draw across the road, facing the enemy, who were so close that we expected
          > a charge to take Cook's battery. (3)

          > How close were Confederate troops at this point in time to the 79th NY and
          > 17th MI?

          At the top of the road near the intersection of Fox's Gap Road and the old
          mountain road. Soldiers in the 17th wrote of being pinned down by artillery
          and infantry fire for some time. The order for a general advance would not
          come for a few hours. At that time the veterans of the 79th teased the green
          troops of the 17th about there dress uniforms and hats. Some 17th boys still
          had their white gloves tucked into their belts according to veteran's tales.
          The CS troops did not leave their lines in the old road.

          Willcox's order to deploy came after the initial artillery attack that caused
          some confusion in the ranks of the 17th who were in column (either in
          platoons or by four's). The road just down from the Hofman House goes through
          a narrow cut.

          Bill
        • Sharon Barnes
          You have the wrong person. I m Thomas in N.C.
          Message 4 of 4 , Jan 21, 2002
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            You have the wrong person. I'm Thomas in N.C.

            Bill or Glenna Jo Christen wrote:

            > NJ Rebel wrote:
            >
            > > > shots, the enemy unmasked a battery on his left, over Shriver's Gap, from
            > > a small field enveloped by woods. He threw canister and shell, and drove
            > > Cook's cannoneers and drivers down the road with their limbers. (3)
            > >
            > > Question: Where is Shriver's Gap? and in relation to Fox's and Turner's
            > > Gaps?
            >
            > Shriver's Gap is further up the South Mountain chain. Not all officers were
            > familiar with the names is the local geographic gazetteer. Here he is
            > probably referring to some guns of Boundourant's battery (Jeff Davis
            > Artillery) at the top of Fox's Gap along the old mountain road leading to
            > Turner's Gap. The location of the battery was probably 100-150 yards away
            > from where Reno's monument is today...to the north/northeast.
            >
            > > > At this juncture, and while we [17MI] were about to deploy on the right,
            > > the enemy suddenly opened (at about 200 yards) with a battery which
            > > enfiladed the road at this point... (1)
            > >
            > > Would this have been a masked battery?
            >
            > It was Boundurants's. When the guns were rolled forward to the edge of the
            > woods bordering Wise's large field across from the Reno Monument they had a
            > direct line of sight down the road (today Reno Monument Road) and into the
            > field across from the Hofman House. The woods today obscure that line of
            > sight. I do not know how many guns were deployed...probably a section not the
            > entire battery. There were also CS guns on the north side of Turner's Gap
            > that could fire into Wise's fields and the are near the Hofman House.
            >
            > > > Cook gallantly remained with his guns. Cook here lost 1 man killed, 4
            > > wounded, and 2 horses killed. (3)
            > >
            > > Was all this due to heavy Confederate artillery fire, small arms fire or a
            > > combination of both?
            >
            > Probably the balance of the fire was from CS artillery. This took place
            > during the "lull" that occurred around noon. CS infantry ws spread thin along
            > the old road to the Mountain House. There was probably sporadic small arms
            > fire that increased as CS troops (Drayton's Brigade) formed behind the
            > stonewalls lining the old road at the top of Wise's large field .
            >
            > > > The attack was so sudden, the whole division being under fire (a flank
            > > fire), that a temporary panic occurred until I [WILLCOX] caused the
            > > Seventy-ninth New York...and Seventeenth Michigan... on the extreme left to
            > > draw across the road, facing the enemy, who were so close that we expected
            > > a charge to take Cook's battery. (3)
            >
            > > How close were Confederate troops at this point in time to the 79th NY and
            > > 17th MI?
            >
            > At the top of the road near the intersection of Fox's Gap Road and the old
            > mountain road. Soldiers in the 17th wrote of being pinned down by artillery
            > and infantry fire for some time. The order for a general advance would not
            > come for a few hours. At that time the veterans of the 79th teased the green
            > troops of the 17th about there dress uniforms and hats. Some 17th boys still
            > had their white gloves tucked into their belts according to veteran's tales.
            > The CS troops did not leave their lines in the old road.
            >
            > Willcox's order to deploy came after the initial artillery attack that caused
            > some confusion in the ranks of the 17th who were in column (either in
            > platoons or by four's). The road just down from the Hofman House goes through
            > a narrow cut.
            >
            > Bill
            >
            >
            >
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