Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Distinguishing Sources in 3ST

Expand Messages
  • E Bruce Brooks
    To: Synoptic On: Distinguishing Sources in 3ST From: Bruce The statistical interpretation of string behavior seems to have reached a lull. Perhaps I might take
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 20, 2007
    • 0 Attachment
      To: Synoptic
      On: Distinguishing Sources in 3ST
      From: Bruce

      The statistical interpretation of string behavior seems to have reached a
      lull. Perhaps I might take up the strings from a slightly different angle.

      PROBLEM

      GIVEN: The Matthew/Luke common material. CONJECTURED: That the Lukan form of
      that material comes from two sources: (a) an Aramaic sayings source,
      accessed directly, and (b) Matthew's version of some of the Aramaic
      material, accessed from Matthew. PREVIOUSLY DONE: A division between the two
      has previously been made, on other grounds than those here inspected. TO
      INQUIRE: Whether anything in the proportion of identical words between Mt
      and Lk conforms to, and thus supports, that proposed division.

      DATA: Here are Ron's statistics (as rearranged by myself):

      A. Luke draws on A [Ron's "sQ"]: 12 strings in 7 units

      A1. Sermon on the Mount
      6:24 // 16:13 / sQ / 26 [no man can serve two masters]
      6:29-30 // 12:27-28 / sQ / 13 [not even Solomon . . .]
      7:3 // 6:41 / sQ / 14 [the speck in your brother's eye]
      7:7-8 // 11:9-10 / sQ / 24 [ask and it will be given you]
      7:11 // 11:13 / sQ / 11 [if you know how to give good gifts . . .]
      A2. Foxes Have Holes
      8:20 // 9:58 // sQ / 24
      A3. The [Missionary] Laborers are Few
      9:37-38 // 10:2 / sQ / 15
      A4. He Who Is Not With Me
      12:30 // 11:23 / sQ / 15
      A5. Curses By:
      12:41 // 11:32 / sQ / 24 [the men of Nineveh]
      12:42 // 11:31 / sQ / 16 [the Queen of the South]
      A6. The Good Fortune of the Disciples
      13:17 // 10:24 / sQ / 11 [many desired to hear what you hear]
      A7. Simile of the Leaven
      13:33 // 13:21 / sQ / 13

      B. Luke uses Matthew's translation of A [Ron's xQ]: 23 strings in 13 units

      B1. Preaching of John
      3:7-8 // 3:7-8 / xQ / 12
      3:9-10 // 3:8-9 / xQ / 24
      3:10 // 3:9 / xQ / 20
      B2. Baptism of Jesus by John
      3:11-12 // 3:16-17 / xQ / 15
      B3. Temptation of Jesus by Satan
      4:6 // 4:11 / xQ / 11
      B4. Tale of the Centurion
      8:9 // 7:8-9 / xQ / 25
      B5. Signs of Jesus's Power, as Message to John
      11:5-6 // 7:22-23 / xQ / 11 [the blind see, etc]
      B6. Jesus Speaks of John
      11:7-8 // 7:24-25 / xQ / 19
      11:8-10 // 7:25-27 / xQ / 18
      11:10 // 7:27 / xQ / 14 [Isaiah quotation]
      B7. Woes to Galilean Churches
      11:21 // 10:13 / xQ / 12
      11:21 // 10:13 / xQ / 12
      B8. Thanks to the Father
      11:25 // 10:25 / xQ / 11
      11:25-27 // 10:21-22 / xQ / 27 [ . . who has concealed it from the wise]
      B9. All Things are Delivered to Jesus
      11:27 // 10:22 / xQ / 11
      B10. Beelzebul Controversy
      12:27 // 11:19 / xQ / 15
      12:28 // 11:20 / xQ / 13 [then the Kingdom of God has come upon you]
      B11. The Unclean Spirit Returns
      12:43 // 11:24 / xQ / 14
      12:45 // 11:26 / xQ / 14
      B12. Lament for Jerusalem
      23:37 // 13:34 / xQ / 14
      23:37-38 // 13:34-35 / xQ / 12 [cursing of Jerusalem]
      B13. Parable of the Evil Servant
      24:47-48 // 12:44-45 / xQ / 14 [cursing of Israel]
      24:50-51 // 12:46 / xQ / 26 [the Master will condemn the faithless]

      FREQUENCY PROFILES

      I extract from the above the information about number and length of strings
      of identical wording. An X equals one instance of a string of that length:

      A. From the Aramaic Source (12 strings)

      11wds: X X
      12wds:
      13wds: X X
      14wds: X
      15wds: X X
      16wds: X
      17wds:
      18wds:
      19wds:
      20wds:
      21wds:
      22wds:
      23wds:
      24wds: X X
      25wds:
      26wds: X X
      27wds:

      B. Via Matthew (23 strings)

      11wds: X X X X
      12wds: X X X X
      13wds: X
      14wds: X X X X X
      15wds: X X
      16wds:
      17wds:
      18wds: X
      19wds: X
      20wds: X
      21wds:
      22wds:
      23wds:
      24wds: X
      25wds: X
      26wds: X
      27wds: X

      INTERPRETATION

      1. The two profiles are rather similar, are they not? A big cluster at the
      low end of the scale, and a less pronounced cluster at the high end of the
      scale, and nothing much in between. Nothing emerges from visual inspection
      of the profiles which immediately suggests that these two samples are drawn
      from different populations. On the contrary, in this form, and allowing for
      the difference in sample size, they look much the same.

      2. The only feature of the profiles that might attract interest as violating
      the expectation that the instances of long strings will taper off at the
      high end of the range is the presence, in both lists, of visually noticeable
      numbers of very long strings, following virtual lacunae in the middle range.
      Interest thus attaches to those particular strings. Whatever is at work here
      seems to be equally at work in both inventories, but just what is at work?
      The identifications of those two groups of four strings each is here
      restored, as supporting data:

      (A: From the Conjectured Aramaic Source)

      Sermon on the Mount:
      6:24 // 16:13 / sQ / 26 [no man can serve two masters]
      7:7-8 // 11:9-10 / sQ / 24 [ask and it will be given you]
      Foxes Have Holes
      8:20 // 9:58 // sQ / 24
      Curses By:
      12:41 // 11:32 / sQ / 24 [the men of Nineveh]

      [Comment: The Sermon on the Mount is a long section, unless it be proposed
      to subdivide it, and in a long section, the chance of longer identical
      strings is probably greater. This tends to reduce the apparent significance
      of the first two cases. So also the fourth: the Nineveh paragraph is
      followed by a Queen of the South paragraph, and from this longish piece two
      strings were found, though only one of them made the 10wd experimental
      cutoff. One might then suspect that in most of this material, the size of
      the source passage may be a factor in the number and distribution of long
      strings].

      (B: Via Matthew)

      Preaching of John
      3:9-10 // 3:8-9 / xQ / 24
      Tale of the Centurion
      8:9 // 7:8-9 / xQ / 25
      Thanks to the Father
      11:25-27 // 10:21-22 / xQ / 27 [ . . who has concealed it from the wise]
      Parable of the Wicked Servant
      24:50-51 // 12:46 / xQ / 26 [the Master will condemn the faithless]

      [Comment: Again we have the pattern that three of the four long strings come
      from long stories, that is, stories long enough to have more than one
      qualifying string drawn from them. Only the Tale of the Centurion is
      represented by only one string. Is this because it consists of a relatively
      high proportion of narrative as against sayings material?].

      Without pushing this further at this moment, I seem to find that not only
      are the two frequency profiles rather similar, but the material which is
      perhaps distributionally significant in both cases seems to have the same
      explanation: they are drawn from relatively long original story units.
      Further investigation should probably focus on the type of material (saying,
      narration, whatever) as well as its probable post-Crucifixion Sitz im Leben
      (fixed anecdote, liturgically conditioned text, whatever).

      Dave G's modified report was that the pattern to which Ron had pointed does
      not reach the industrial standard significance level, and thus does not
      strongly support the idea of two sources. The present overview, though made
      from a different perspective, seems to reach a similar conclusion.

      What then do we have here, beyond the statistically likely fact that long
      stories will on average tend to produce longer identically worded strings in
      the derived text, and the often made observation that Luke tends to copy
      dialogue more faithfully than the narrative connective tissue?

      Respectfully submitted,

      Bruce

      E Bruce Brooks
      Warring States Project
      University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.