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Re: [Synoptic-L] Directionality Determinations

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  • Ron Price
    ... Bruce, Hasn t Bruce Metzger just sold off his whole library of books? I m not sure that someone in that position would want to be answering such questions.
    Message 1 of 17 , Dec 5, 2006
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      Bruce Brooks wrote:

      > Before bothering any eminent persons, let's see if we can clear up this
      > matter locally. .......
      > Ron, how say you?

      Bruce,

      Hasn't Bruce Metzger just sold off his whole library of books? I'm not sure
      that someone in that position would want to be answering such questions.

      Then there is the problem of which Jeffrey Gibson has reminded the list,
      namely that Metzger's principle was enunciated in the context of Textual
      Criticism, whereas we have been discussing Source Criticism.

      As far as I know, Text Critics rarely do more than speculate about the broad
      characteristics of any non-extant text supposed to lie behind two divergent
      extant texts. This is in marked contrast to some Source Critic proponents of
      Q. Can we learn something from this? The comparison of Source Critical
      methodology with Text Critical methodology sounds like a good subject for a
      thesis.

      So even if we had an authoritative answer from your namesake, it would not
      necessarily be definitive for Source Criticism.

      Ron Price

      Derbyshire, UK

      Web site: http://homepage.virgin.net/ron.price/index.htm
    • E Bruce Brooks
      To: Synoptic Cc: WSW In Response To: Ron Price About: Bruce Metzger and the Basic Principle of Text Philology From: Bruce RON: Hasn t Bruce Metzger just sold
      Message 2 of 17 , Dec 5, 2006
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        To: Synoptic
        Cc: WSW
        In Response To: Ron Price
        About: Bruce Metzger and the Basic Principle of Text Philology
        From: Bruce

        RON: Hasn't Bruce Metzger just sold off his whole library of books?

        BRUCE: Yes, or at any rate many of them. Not necessarily the core basics.

        RON: I'm not sure that someone in that position would want to be answering
        such questions.

        BRUCE: No harm trying. At least the folks at Princeton Theological Seminary
        did not discourage me from making contact; on the contrary, they advised me
        of the channel which he himself prefers. That preference is being respected.
        If Metzger prefers not to answer, all he need do is simply not answer. And
        if he cares to give it, the opinion of someone with that much experience of
        the subject would probably be worth knowing. No?

        RON: Then there is the problem of which Jeffrey Gibson has reminded the
        list, namely that Metzger's principle was enunciated in the context of
        Textual Criticism, whereas we have been discussing Source Criticism.

        BRUCE: I dislike capitalizing, and by implication hypostatizing, what ought
        to be different tools in the same kit. It breaks up the discipline
        unhelpfully. But it's perfectly correct that Metzger articulated his
        principle at the beginning of a discussion of standard text critical
        (variant-discrimination) guidelines. The issue is whether he would
        countenance an extension to cases where the priority of texts is being
        discussed in the absence of manuscript variants. I think it is a fair and
        straightforward methodological question. Doesn't everybody?

        RON: As far as I know, Text Critics rarely do more than speculate about the
        broad characteristics of any non-extant text supposed to lie behind two
        divergent extant texts. This is in marked contrast to some Source Critic
        proponents of Q. Can we learn something from this? The comparison of Source
        Critical methodology with Text Critical methodology sounds like a good
        subject for a thesis.

        BRUCE: Or for daily work, which is where I am trying to apply it. I can only
        agree that, with some notable exceptions, one often observes a weakness in
        what NT and even OT scholars do when manuscript variants are not available
        to adjudicate, and that in general, not only in NT, the treatment of what
        lies *behind* the text-critical archetype has not been as well considered as
        the treatment of what *leads back* to the archetype. My suggestion, not only
        to NT but to philology at large, is that the same large principles apply to
        both cases, and can yield useful results in both cases. Whether that
        suggestion is original with me or not is a matter of less import, though
        since it has come up, I join with what I take to be the list consensus in
        thinking that it is not fair to hang it on Metzger if he himself is
        uncomfortable with it.

        On that small point of honor and citation precision, then, I hope to report
        presently. Thanks to Ron and others for their timely and clarifying
        responses, on such short notice.

        Bruce

        E Bruce Brooks
        Warring States Project
        University of Massachusetts at Amherst
        http://www.umass.edu/wsp
      • Chuck Jones
        Hey John, Are you arguing for the priority of Luke? And you didn t mention it when I first asked the question in the thread named Why not Mt used Lk? You
        Message 3 of 17 , Dec 5, 2006
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          Hey John,

          Are you arguing for the priority of Luke? And you didn't mention it when I first asked the question in the thread named Why not Mt used Lk? You tease.....

          Chuck

          Rev. Chuck Jones
          Atlanta, Georgia

          John Lupia wrote:
          Lukan priority is consistent in every single case with
          no exception. Matthew consistently borrows from Luke
          the exact same way and Mark consistently follows
          Matthew also the exact same way, in every single case.

          If anyone objectively examines each parallel they will
          find this pattern as signatures of all three Synoptic
          Authors, in every single case without any exception,
          not one.




          .





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        • Stephen C. Carlson
          ... Thanks for that. Along with William R. Farmer, he was one of the 20th century s most influential proponents of the Griesbach or, as he put it,
          Message 4 of 17 , Dec 5, 2006
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            At 11:12 AM 12/5/2006 +0000, P.M. Head wrote:
            >Readers may be interested to read the obituary for Dom Bernard Orchard, who
            >died on November 28th (peacefully in his sleept in the early hours of the
            >morning). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,60-2486692,00.html Dom
            >Bernard Orchard May 3, 1910 - November 28, 2006

            Thanks for that. Along with William R. Farmer, he was one of the 20th
            century's most influential proponents of the Griesbach or, as he put it,
            "Two-Gospel" hypothesis. May he rest in peace.

            Stephen Carlson

            --
            Stephen C. Carlson mailto:scarlson@...
            Weblog: http://www.hypotyposeis.org/weblog/
            Author of: The Gospel Hoax, http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1932792481
          • John Lupia
            I see you agree with me about misapplications of Textual Criticism (TC) criteria to that of Source Criticism (SC), first voiced by me four years ago next
            Message 5 of 17 , Dec 5, 2006
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              I see you agree with me about misapplications of
              Textual Criticism (TC) criteria to that of Source
              Criticism (SC), first voiced by me four years ago next
              month.

              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/synoptic-l/message/8946

              However, this is not necessarily the case here with
              this example drawn from Metzger, Text of the NT,
              Chapter VIII, 207 >Choose the reading which best
              explains the origin of the others. <

              Metzger never gives an example that explains what is
              meant by this principle. What follows is a so-called
              example based on variant editions of Bunyon, Pilgrims
              Progress, but it completely fails to demonstrate the
              principle and instead shows that a good bibliographer
              finding a first edition can compare it to the later
              ones to see which words of the texts were altered
              later on. The principle Metzger gives is nowhere to be
              found in Chapter VIII.

              He gives as a second criteria on the same page : The
              reconstruction of the history of a variant reading is
              prerequisite to forming a judgment about it. (judgment
              is misspelled in the text). Again, the example is like
              the first. This time it involves a variant in a
              Dictionary. Two principles that show the same sort of
              example, i. e., one a bibliographer could solve. What
              is really happening is VALUE JUDGMENTS. Metzger
              assumes the variant in Bunyon is due to an editor
              removing what is offensive or embarrassing, and the
              second example about the Dictionary entry was a
              scribal reading error. If we follow the implied value
              judgment approach to reading Metzger the first
              principle >Choose the reading which best explains the
              origin of the others. < involves those Gospel passages
              where later editors removed what was then considered
              offensive or embarrassing. This not only explains the
              variant MSS history of an individual Gospel but
              explains why four Gospels evolved. So what on the
              surface appears to be an innocent principle of TC
              criteria potentially could be used to explain the
              Synoptic Problem.

              Following the Gospel of Mark we find the so-called
              Criterion of embarrassment about the apostles, Peter,
              and so on. The later editors (Matthew and Luke)
              removed what was then considered offensive or
              embarrassing in their new Gospel versions. This has
              been a Markan priority argument, and the fundamental
              principle is found in Metzger cited above from page
              207!

              I also plainly see you agree with me that Metzger
              never satisfactorily broached the subject of
              directionality regarding the order of Gospel
              production. As a text critic (TC) he does consider it
              in evaluating internal evidence so we cannot say he
              NEVER spoke about it. (cf. Textual Commentary on the
              Greek NT, 14).

              That the construction of Mk 1:2 is less embarrassing
              than Mt 27:9 (cf. Text of the NT, 199) perhaps, might
              reflect his preference or bias toward Markan priority.
              (Ironically, this example is a good piece of evidence
              to show that Matthew is not written after Mark but
              prior to.)

              This possible Markan priority bias may have surfaced
              again when discussing assimilation of wording among
              parallels in later variant editions of MSS he shows
              how the wording of Matthew conforms to that of Mark.
              (cf. Text of the NT, 193).

              To come as close as one can get to the original text
              certainly involves considerations about the order of
              Gospel production that impact TC evaluations of
              variant readings. Even a point of view about
              ecclesiology and theology enters into the evaluation
              of texts to arrive at the original text. The TC can
              never be sterile from assumptions and presuppositions
              about the HJ the time lag between the death of the HJ
              and first written records, and so on. Source critical
              considerations have direct impact on how a TC
              evaluates MSS.

              Cheers,

              John




              --- "Jeffrey B. Gibson" <jgibson000@...>
              wrote:

              >
              >
              > John Lupia wrote:
              >
              > > Seasons Greetings to All:
              > >
              > > The discussion about directionality or the order
              > of
              > > Gospel production is unsatisfactorily broached by
              > > Metzger.
              > >
              >
              > Er .. how nice of you to tell us that Metzger was
              > wrong about something he never spoke
              > on.
              >
              > The principle of his that you speak of him broaching
              > unsatisfactorily is one that he
              > only ever thought applied or was relevant to the
              > text critical matter of deciding which
              > of variant readings in the MSS tradition of a
              > particular text is original..
              >
              > To say that he was intent to give a rule on how one
              > best goes about solving source
              > critical questions or the question of the
              > relationships between the Gospels is not only
              > to fundamentally misunderstand what Metzger was on
              > about, but to misrepresent him as
              > well.
              >
              > JG
              >
              > --
              > Jeffrey B. Gibson, D.Phil. (Oxon)
              > 1500 W. Pratt Blvd.
              > Chicago, Illinois
              > e-mail jgibson000@...
              >
              >
              >


              John N. Lupia, III
              Beachwood, New Jersey 08722 USA; Beirut, Lebanon
              Fax: (732) 349-3910
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Roman-Catholic-News/
              God Bless America



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            • Jeffrey B. Gibson
              ... Well, if you claimed that this was a misapplication, and that Metzger himself was not advocating or engaging in such a misapplication, why then did you
              Message 6 of 17 , Dec 5, 2006
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                John Lupia wrote:

                > I see you agree with me about misapplications of
                > Textual Criticism (TC) criteria to that of Source
                > Criticism (SC), first voiced by me four years ago next
                > month.

                Well, if you claimed that this was a misapplication, and that Metzger himself was not
                advocating or engaging in such a misapplication, why then did you claim otherwise, as
                you certainly seem to have done, when you asserted that "The discussion about
                directionality or the order of Gospel production is unsatisfactorily broached by
                Metzger"?


                > I also plainly see you agree with me that Metzger
                > never satisfactorily broached the subject of
                > directionality regarding the order of Gospel
                > production.

                I agree with you that he didn't broach the subject. But I do **not** agree that he
                never "satisfactorily broached" the subject, since it was not his intent to do so one
                way or the other. Why are you chastising him for unsatisfactorily doing something that
                he never did, that was beyond the purview of what he was doing, and was never something
                he ever intended to do?

                > As a text critic (TC) he does consider it
                > in evaluating internal evidence so we cannot say he
                > NEVER spoke about it. (cf. Textual Commentary on the
                > Greek NT, 14).
                >

                Here is p. 14 from Metzger's Textual Commentary (2nd ed.). I an unable to detect where
                on this page Metzger does what you say he does. Perhaps, you'd be so kind as to use
                those fine eyes of yours that are so adept at spotting (alleged) spelling mistakes, and
                point out to me what my aging eyes do not see.


                GAMHSH) in order to make the construction parallel to the preceding
                participial clause (hO APOLUWN). The omission of the words KAI ... MOICATAI (D
                ita, b, d, k Greek and Latin mssacc. to Augustine) may be due to pedantic
                scribes who regarded them as superfluous, reasoning that if “everyone who
                divorces his wife, except on the ground of unchastity, makes her an adulteress
                [when she remarries],” then it would go without saying that “whoever marries a
                divorced woman [also] commits adultery.”

                5.44 (bis) {A}
                Later witnesses enrich the text by incorporating clauses from the parallel
                account in Lk 6.27–28. If the clauses were originally present in Matthew’s
                account of the Sermon on the Mount, their omission in early representatives of
                the Alexandrian (? B), Western (itk Irenaeuslat Cyprian), Eastern (syrc, s),
                and Egyptian (copsa, bo) witnesses would be entirely unaccountable. The
                divergence of readings among the added clauses likewise speaks against their
                originality.

                5.47 {B}
                In later witnesses, followed by the Textus Receptus, the reading TELWNAI
                appears to have been substituted for EQNIKOI in order to bring the statement
                into closer parallelism with the preceding sentence. The Armenian version
                conflates the reading with the Lukan form of the saying (Lk 6.32–34).

                6.4 The Textus Receptus, following D E M S W Xvid Delta Pi Sigma phi 28 565
                1241 al, introduces AUTOS (“himself”) before APODWSEI, and other ...


                JG
                --
                Jeffrey B. Gibson, D.Phil. (Oxon)
                1500 W. Pratt Blvd.
                Chicago, Illinois
                e-mail jgibson000@...



                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • John Lupia
                ... Jeffrey: I owe you an apology for taxing your aging eyes. It was my scribal error of accepting a text as trustworthy that led to this mistake and my sloth
                Message 7 of 17 , Dec 6, 2006
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                  --- "Jeffrey B. Gibson" <jgibson000@...>
                  wrote:

                  > > As a text critic (TC) he does consider it
                  > > in evaluating internal evidence so we cannot say
                  > he
                  > > NEVER spoke about it. (cf. Textual Commentary on
                  > the
                  > > Greek NT, 14).
                  > >
                  >
                  > Here is p. 14 from Metzger's Textual Commentary (2nd
                  > ed.). I an unable to detect where
                  > on this page Metzger does what you say he does.
                  > Perhaps, you'd be so kind as to use
                  > those fine eyes of yours that are so adept at
                  > spotting (alleged) spelling mistakes, and
                  > point out to me what my aging eyes do not see.
                  >


                  Jeffrey:

                  I owe you an apology for taxing your aging eyes. It
                  was my scribal error of accepting a text as
                  trustworthy that led to this mistake and my sloth in
                  not checking the source myself to verify it. I found
                  the wrong citation in my notes drawn from a discussion
                  years ago on another list by one of the moderators of
                  this list who enjoys TC. Anyway, the error is mine and
                  it should have read page xxviii (in the Corrected
                  edition, 1975) in the discussion on II. Internal
                  Evidence (Criteria) 2 (b) The priority of the Gospel
                  according to Mark. However, I did say it was Metger's
                  criteria for evaluating Internal Evidence, which
                  should have led to the discovery of my misquoting the
                  page number.

                  So, as we can all see, it is abundantly and amply
                  clear that Metzger and the Committee of TC voters on
                  the text were indeed influenced by Markan priority,
                  take Markan priority as FACT, allow it to shape, color
                  and form their thinking when they evaluate texts to
                  make their determinations and final decisions
                  regarding the textual traditions and choose which
                  among them (in their way of thinking) comes closest to
                  the original.

                  Cheers,


                  John

                  John N. Lupia, III
                  Beachwood, New Jersey 08722 USA; Beirut, Lebanon
                  Fax: (732) 349-3910
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Roman-Catholic-News/
                  God Bless America



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                • Chuck Jones
                  John, I was kidding. I m glad you weighed in. Is there a book or other resource you could recommend to me to learn more about arguments for Lukan priority?
                  Message 8 of 17 , Dec 6, 2006
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                    John,

                    I was kidding. I'm glad you weighed in. Is there a book or other resource you could recommend to me to learn more about arguments for Lukan priority?

                    Thanks,

                    Chuck

                    Rev. Chuck Jones
                    Atlanta, Georgia

                    John Lupia <jlupia2@...> wrote:

                    --- Chuck Jones wrote:

                    > Hey John,
                    >
                    > Are you arguing for the priority of Luke?


                    Yes.



                    And you
                    > didn't mention it when I first asked the question in
                    > the thread named Why not Mt used Lk? You tease.....


                    Teasing is not my motive, but rather, lack of time.

                    Best regards,

                    John



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                  • Stephen C. Carlson
                    ... Gordon Fee wrote a couple of articles applying text critical methods to source criticism: Gordon D. Fee, Modern Text Criticism and the Synoptic Problem
                    Message 9 of 17 , Dec 6, 2006
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                      At 11:42 AM 12/5/2006 +0000, Ron Price wrote:
                      >As far as I know, Text Critics rarely do more than speculate about the broad
                      >characteristics of any non-extant text supposed to lie behind two divergent
                      >extant texts. This is in marked contrast to some Source Critic proponents of
                      >Q. Can we learn something from this? The comparison of Source Critical
                      >methodology with Text Critical methodology sounds like a good subject for a
                      >thesis.

                      Gordon Fee wrote a couple of articles applying text critical methods
                      to source criticism:

                      Gordon D. Fee, "Modern Text Criticism and the Synoptic Problem" in
                      Orchard & Longstaff, eds., J.J. GRIESBACH: Synoptic and Text-Critical
                      Studies 1776-1976 (SNTSMS 34; Cambridge: 1978), 154-169.

                      Gordon D. Fee, "A Text-Critical Look at the Synoptic Problem," NovT 22
                      (1980): 12-28.

                      Gordon D. Fee, "Modern Textual Criticism and Synoptic Problem" in
                      Epp & Fee, eds., STUDIES IN THE THEORY AND METHOD OF NEW TESTAMENT
                      TEXTUAL CRITICISM (SD 45; Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1993), 174-182.

                      Stephen Carlson
                      --
                      Stephen C. Carlson mailto:scarlson@...
                      Weblog: http://www.hypotyposeis.org/weblog/
                      Author of: The Gospel Hoax, http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1932792481
                    • John Lupia
                      Hi Chuck: You can take a look at the following articles and book: Richard H. Anderson, Theophilus: A Proposal, Evangelical Quarterly, 69:3, (1997), 195-215.
                      Message 10 of 17 , Dec 6, 2006
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                        Hi Chuck:

                        You can take a look at the following articles and
                        book:

                        Richard H. Anderson, "Theophilus: A Proposal,"
                        Evangelical Quarterly, 69:3, (1997), 195-215.

                        Robert L. Lindsey, "A New Approach to the Synoptic
                        Gospels," MISHKAN, No. 17-18 (1992-1993) : 87-106.

                        William Lockton, The Resurrection and Other Gospel
                        Narratives; and, The Narratives of the Virgin Birth:
                        Two essays / by W. Lockton. (London : Longmans, Green,
                        and Co., 1924).


                        Best regards,
                        John


                        --- Chuck Jones <chuckjonez@...> wrote:

                        > John,
                        >
                        > I was kidding. I'm glad you weighed in. Is there
                        > a book or other resource you could recommend to me
                        > to learn more about arguments for Lukan priority?
                        >
                        > Thanks,
                        >
                        > Chuck
                        >
                        > Rev. Chuck Jones
                        > Atlanta, Georgia
                        >
                        > John Lupia <jlupia2@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > --- Chuck Jones wrote:
                        >
                        > > Hey John,
                        > >
                        > > Are you arguing for the priority of Luke?
                        >
                        >
                        > Yes.
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > And you
                        > > didn't mention it when I first asked the question
                        > in
                        > > the thread named Why not Mt used Lk? You
                        > tease.....
                        >
                        >
                        > Teasing is not my motive, but rather, lack of time.
                        >
                        > Best regards,
                        >
                        > John
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > ---------------------------------
                        > Check out the all-new Yahoo! Mail beta - Fire up a
                        > more powerful email and get things done faster.
                        >
                        > [Non-text portions of this message have been
                        > removed]
                        >
                        >




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                      • E Bruce Brooks
                        To: Synoptic Cc: WSW In Response To: John Lupia On: Directionality Criteria (Metzger et al) From: Bruce John had earlier noted that in Bruce Metzger s Textual
                        Message 11 of 17 , Dec 8, 2006
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                          To: Synoptic
                          Cc: WSW
                          In Response To: John Lupia
                          On: Directionality Criteria (Metzger et al)
                          From: Bruce

                          John had earlier noted that in Bruce Metzger's Textual Commentary on the
                          Greek New Testament (1971 page xxvii, and 1994 page 14*, not to be confused
                          with plain page 14), it is explicitly stated that among the Intrinsic
                          Probabilities which make up section B of "internal evidence" we find "The
                          priority of the Gospel according to Mark." I agree with John that this is
                          improper. More specifically, it is a mixing of levels. It is the job of text
                          criticism (as I see it) to eliminate from the text any later corruptions,
                          but ONLY later corruptions, so that the texts (refined as the respective
                          archetypes) are then available to be examined for signs of internal growth
                          and mutual influence in the second stage of the process. It is at the
                          outcome of this second stage, not during it (or a like impropriety has taken
                          place) that we may, if so the evidence suggests, speak of the Priority of
                          Mark.

                          So technically, yes. But in practice, the practice of the UBS Committee, how
                          often is this criterion actually invoked? I haven't searched systematically,
                          but I don't recall seeing an example in the individual commentaries which I
                          have accessed for other reasons. Can anyone provide an example? I note also
                          that J K Elliot's sometimes harsh criticisms of the editorial procedures
                          revealed in this Commentary did not seem to include (as methodologically
                          they might have) an objection to this particular criterion.

                          John provides his own example of possible abuse as follows:

                          "That the construction of Mk 1:2 is less embarrassing than Mt 27:9 (cf. Text
                          of the NT, 199) perhaps, might
                          reflect his preference or bias toward Markan priority. (Ironically, this
                          example is a good piece of evidence
                          to show that Matthew is not written after Mark but prior to)."

                          The issue here is wrong attributions of OT quotations in NT, which seem to
                          be cleaned up and corrected in later copies of both Mk and Mt. Ironically or
                          no, there is no directionality indicator here as between Mk and Mt, only the
                          fact that in what look like the earliest versions of the texts of BOTH those
                          Gospels, the writers were somewhat lax about their sources, and that their
                          later readers were inclined to change their text to what a learned and
                          leisurely person, with a concordance or coming off a lifetime of study,
                          would have written. This is a tendency that applies, at least as Metzger
                          seems here to be applying it, to Mk, to Mt, and in principle to anything
                          else in sight.

                          As for the directionality principle that wrong attributions tend to be
                          corrected over time into right attributions, and that the quotations
                          themselves tend to get made more accurate (and in some cases, that what look
                          like memories of the Hebrew text tend to get normalized to the Septuagint
                          translation of the Hebrew text), I don't see anything wrong with it. No
                          doubt it is conceivable that an ignorant scribe, seeing a properly
                          attributed Zechariah quote in the text before him, might have said, Oh no,
                          that sounds more like Jeremiah, and changed it accordingly in his copy. Or
                          changed it to Isaiah, easily the most prominent, and in NT the most quoted,
                          of the prophets. But surely the weight of probability, if we are assessing
                          probability, lies in the other direction. No?

                          Bruce

                          E Bruce Brooks
                          Warring States Project
                          University of Massachusetts at Amherst
                          http://www.umass.edu/wsp
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