Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Re: [Synoptic-L] Re: Why not Mt used Lk?

Expand Messages
  • E Bruce Brooks
    To: Synoptic In Response To: Chuck Jones On: Matthew Used Luke (PS) From: Bruce I guess I should read my own stuff better. As a pendant, then, to my previous
    Message 1 of 18 , Dec 1, 2006
    • 0 Attachment
      To: Synoptic
      In Response To: Chuck Jones
      On: Matthew Used Luke (PS)
      From: Bruce

      I guess I should read my own stuff better. As a pendant, then, to my
      previous suggestions about places where a Luke > Matthew directionality
      might be explored in the literature, I will add to the Wilke 1838 theory two
      other theories, from the end of the page (at http://www.umass.edu/wsp >
      Synoptica > Synoptic Theories) where I list the 25 possible conditions of
      relationship among 3 literary texts. The three in question read as follows:

      Theory #23. B > C >> A [Wilke Hypothesis 1838: Mark first; Matthew drew from
      both]
      Theory #24. C > A >> B [Büsching Hypothesis 1766: Luke first; Mark conflated
      both]
      Theory #25. C > B >> A [Lockton Hypothesis 1922: Luke first; Matthew drew
      from both]

      I have never investigated any of these, and don't have more precise
      references, but online library catalogues can probably provide them. Best
      wishes,

      Bruce

      E Bruce Brooks
      Warring States Project
      University of Massachusetts at Amherst
    • gentile_dave@emc.com
      Bruce wrote: I would personally be glad to see a Lk Mt directionality argument, for any passage of choice. Consider this response one vote in favor of such a
      Message 2 of 18 , Dec 1, 2006
      • 0 Attachment
        Bruce wrote: I would personally be glad to see a Lk > Mt directionality
        argument, for any
        passage of choice. Consider this response one vote in favor of such a
        contribution.



        Dave: This reminds me of one more small note I should add, regarding
        the results of the study.

        All it can say is that on balance the directionality can not be Lk =>
        Mt.

        That does not preclude the idea that on occasion our received text of
        Matthew may be dependent on our received text of Luke.





        Dave Gentile

        Sr. Systems Engineer/Statistician

        B.S./M.S. Physics

        M.S. Finance (ABD Management Science)

        Riverside, IL





        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Chuck Jones
        Bruce, Thanks very much for the references below. Does anyone know of any online availability of these? Chuck Rev. Chuck Jones Atlanta, Georgia E Bruce Brooks
        Message 3 of 18 , Dec 1, 2006
        • 0 Attachment
          Bruce,

          Thanks very much for the references below. Does anyone know of any online availability of these?

          Chuck

          Rev. Chuck Jones
          Atlanta, Georgia

          E Bruce Brooks <brooks@...> wrote:
          ...The three in question read as follows:

          Theory #23. B > C >> A [Wilke Hypothesis 1838: Mark first; Matthew drew from both]
          Theory #24. C > A >> B [Büsching Hypothesis 1766: Luke first; Mark conflated both]
          Theory #25. C > B >> A [Lockton Hypothesis 1922: Luke first; Matthew drew from both]


          ---------------------------------
          Everyone is raving about the all-new Yahoo! Mail beta.

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Chuck Jones
          Bruce wrote: I would personally be glad to see a Lk Mt directionality argument, for any passage of choice. Consider this response one vote in favor of such a
          Message 4 of 18 , Dec 1, 2006
          • 0 Attachment
            Bruce wrote:

            I would personally be glad to see a Lk > Mt directionality argument, for any
            passage of choice. Consider this response one vote in favor of such a
            contribution.

            Bruce,

            If Mt used Lk, a significant structural issue would dissolve--the fact that much of the double tradition in Mt is organized into five speeches while in Lk it is scattered through the book.

            Two individual passage relationships that make much more sense if Mt used Lk are the lord's prayer and the beautitudes.

            Of course, many passage relationships can be trotted out in which it makes most sense that Lk used Mt.

            I think one of the strongest arguments for the existence of an independent source (Q) is the fact that sometimes Mt's version of a passage seems more "primitive" than Lk's and vice versa. One would expect evident dependence to flow in a single direction if there was no independent source for the double tradition.

            This is what prompted me to start this thread. The theory that Lk used Mt has many holes in it. So would the theory that Mt used Lk. I wonder why the later seems to have no current advocates. Too many holes maybe?

            Chuck

            Rev. Chuck Jones
            Atlanta, Georgia


            ---------------------------------
            Access over 1 million songs - Yahoo! Music Unlimited.

            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • E Bruce Brooks
            To: Synoptic Cc: WSW In Response To: Chuck Jones On: Mt Lk From: Bruce CHUCK: If Mt used Lk, a significant structural issue would dissolve--the fact that
            Message 5 of 18 , Dec 1, 2006
            • 0 Attachment
              To: Synoptic
              Cc: WSW
              In Response To: Chuck Jones
              On: Mt > Lk
              From: Bruce

              CHUCK: If Mt used Lk, a significant structural issue would dissolve--the
              fact that much of the double tradition in Mt is organized into five speeches
              while in Lk it is scattered through the book.

              BRUCE: Certainly two of the great overreaching empirical facts about Mt and
              Lk are that (a) in the details they share with Mk they largely have the same
              order as Mk, but (b) in details which they share only with each other, they
              typically have different order. This latter, plus the claim that (c) there
              is no constant directionality in those Mt/Lk shared units, is what gives us
              the Q hypothesis.

              I think the sovereign principle in directionality questions, articulated by
              Metzger and attributed by him to Griesbach, is that "that version is
              original which can be most readily seen as giving rise to the other." Most
              people, I believe, will find it easier to imagine that Mt has thematically
              grouped certain sayings from a less organized prior version, than that Lk
              has merely scattered them, with no other end in view. If instead Lk is
              actually following the order of a prior source, and merely keeping that
              order (whatever its own logic or lack of it), whereas Mt is changing that
              prior order into a more thematically clustered and literarily impressive
              form, then the logic of both Mt and Lk appears cogent. This too gives us Q,
              along with the additional assumption that the order of Q was that of Lk
              (otherwise the problem of order in Lk remains unsolved).

              So, yes, these are big time issues.

              CHUCK: Two individual passage relationships that make much more sense if Mt
              used Lk are the Lord's Prayer and the Beatitudes.

              BRUCE: Because, in the case of the Lord's Prayer, the Lukan version is
              shorter, right? There is more to be said on this highly visible passage. I
              again recommend the treatment by Austin Farrer, in his essay reprinted in
              the Bellinzoni volume. In terms of my old Synopsis, the Matthean version
              [6:9-15], with those parts not present in Lk [11:2-4] bracketed, and
              omitting some parts attested by less than all MS authorities, and ignoring
              small differences, would be:

              "[Our] Father, [who art in Heaven], hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come,
              [Thy will be done, on earth as it is in Heaven]. Give us this [/each] day
              our daily bread, and forgive us our debts [/sins], as we also have forgiven
              our debtors, and lead us not into temptation [but deliver us from evil].

              The Lukan version is superficially more apocalyptic, and thus arguably more
              primitive. The Matthean version might defensibly be called watered-down
              apocalyptic, and thus derivative: the Lord's Prayer not of a universe about
              to vanish, but of a steady-state universe. And thus later, after the hope of
              a soon end of the world had been in some measure given up, or at least put
              on long hold.

              Those wanting to sample a huge mass of opinion on this and on at least some
              of the Beatitudes will find useful two of the Documenta Q volumes mentioned
              earlier: (1) Q 11:2b-4 (The Lord's Prayer), Stanley D Anderson (ed), Peeters
              1996, and (2) Q 6:20-21 (The Beatitudes for the Poor, Hungry, and Mourning),
              Thomas Hieke (ed), Peeters 2001. No matter which side of the argument you
              like, and in these volumes it is dissected line by line, you will have very
              great NT names on your side. What I call a win/win situation.

              CHUCK: Of course, many passage relationships can be trotted out in which it
              makes most sense that Lk used Mt.

              BRUCE: I like neutral terminology better. The fact is that many more Mt/Lk
              doublets suggest a Mt > Lk relationship than the opposite. This casts the
              Lord's Prayer and a few other examples in an especially strong light, as
              exceptions in that almost general flow. Of course, if the general flow could
              be shown to be the total flow, if the LP and a few other high-profile items
              could be analyzed as Mt > Lk, then we would have Mk > Mt >> Lk as our
              indicated Synoptic Theory, and Q would simply vanish. Except of course for
              the unsold warehouse stock, and that is not my concern.

              CHUCK: I think one of the strongest arguments for the existence of an
              independent source (Q) is the fact that sometimes Mt's version of a passage
              seems more "primitive" than Lk's and vice versa. One would expect evident
              dependence to flow in a single direction if there was no independent source
              for the double tradition.

              BRUCE: Fully agreed. This was the view of Harnack among many others. As far
              as I understand it, this conclusion is a foundation stone of the present
              majority opinion. It was precisely a unidirectionality of flow, in the
              direction Mt > Lk, that Goulder sought to demonstrate in detail. I find that
              Goulder mixes in too many other ideas along with this task, and I observe
              that his view has been faulted largely through objections to those other
              ideas, without fully confronting his directionality analysis. That might
              suggest a revising of his directionality arguments, as such, straight.

              But we have here among us the Heir Presumptive to the Farrer-Goulder line of
              argument, and perhaps we ought at this point to pause for a word from him.

              E Bruce Brooks
              Warring States Project
              University of Massachusetts at Amherst
              http://www.umass.edu/wsp
            • E Bruce Brooks
              To: Synoptic Cc: WSW In Response To: Chuck Jones (PPS) On: Lk Mt Passages (The Refused Invitation) From: Bruce How much general interest there may be in this
              Message 6 of 18 , Dec 1, 2006
              • 0 Attachment
                To: Synoptic
                Cc: WSW
                In Response To: Chuck Jones (PPS)
                On: Lk > Mt Passages (The Refused Invitation)
                From: Bruce

                How much general interest there may be in this exchange I cannot tell, but I
                may offer one further addendum to my previous suggestions about passages in
                Mt which have been thought to be secondary to their parallels in Lk.

                McNeile (1915) xxvii, in confidently dating Matthew to after the Roman
                destruction of the Temple in the year 70, relied on Mt 22:1-10 as a post-70
                rewriting of Lk 14:16-24, or its source. Benjamin Bacon, Studies in Matthew
                (1930) 64, explains why McNeile drew this inference. He places the two
                passages side by side (a thing not practicable in E-mail), and italicizes
                the parts in the Mt version that depart from the Lk version. It should be
                said by way of context that this segment is immediately preceded in Mt by a
                parable which Mt, Mk, and Lk all contain: the Parable of the Wicked Tenants.
                The burden of that parable is that the owner of the vineyard, when he comes,
                will kill the wicket tenants and give the vineyard to others entirely. This
                already looks like a symbol of the rejection of the Jewish nation, but in
                all versions it is explicitly explained as having been told "against the
                Pharisees," that is, it means a power displacement within Judaism, not a
                rejection of Judaism in favor of another nation entirely.

                But in the Matthean version, there follows (after the quote from Psa 118,
                "the stone which the builders rejected"), this comment, as spoken by Jesus,
                which is without parallel in Mk or Lk: "Therefore I tell you, the Kingdom of
                God will be taken away from you and given to a nation producing the fruits
                of it" [Mt 21:43]. It would seem to me that this extra and uniquely Matthean
                note DOES envision the turning away of God from Israel as such.

                Now we move on to the next Matthean item. Mark here drops out, and we have
                the parable of the Refused Invitation (some call it the Marriage Feast, but
                that only describes the Matthean version). The Lukan version is at a non-cor
                responding place in Lk. I put in CAPS the material in Mt which differs from
                that in Lk, and otherwise copy Bacon p65f:

                AND JESUS ANSWERED AND SPAKE TO THEM AGAIN IN PARABLES, saying, THE KINGDOM
                OF HEAVEN IS LIKENED UNTO a certain KING WHO made a MARRIAGE supper FOR HIS
                SON. And he sent forth his servants to invite the gueses to the WEDDING, and
                they would not come. AGAIN HE SENT OTHER SERVANTS, SAYING, TELL THE GUESTS,
                LO, I HAVE PREPARED MY BANQUET, MY OXEN AND MY FATLINGS ARE SLAUGHTERED AND
                ALL THINGS ARE READY: COME TO THE WEDDING. But they paid no heed and went
                away, one to his field, another to his merchandise - AND THE REST LAID HOLD
                ON HIS SERVANTS AND MALTREATED AND KILLED THEM. BUT THE KING WAS ANGRY AND
                SENT HIS ARMIES AND DESTROYED THOSE MURDERERS AND BURNED THEIR CITY. - Then
                he saith to his servants, THE WEDDING IS READY, BUT THE INVITED GUESTS WERE
                NOT WORTHY. Go forth they to the partings of the roads and invite all that
                ye find to the WEDDING. So those servants went forth into the highways, and
                gathered all that they found, BOTH BAD AND GOOD, and the WEDDING was
                supplied with guests.

                The "both bad and good" part is to prepare for the unique passage Mt 22:11f,
                where the wedding guest without a wedding garment is bound and "cast into
                the outer darkness; there man will weep and gnash their teeth." One feels
                that the pose of allegory has been here abandoned, and that we have
                dissolved into the Final Judgement itself.

                In terms of basic concinnity, it seems to me obvious that the points of
                difference with the Lk version make a hash of the Matthean version. One
                minute we have a ruler angry with his neighbors, and the next minute that
                ruler has become a distance enemy, who sends his armies to burn their city,
                the teller of the tale evidently forgetting that by the previous narrative
                it is his own city too. The absentee owner of the preceding vineyard has
                evidently impressed itself here on aMk, to the exclusion of aMk's sense of
                where his story has been going. Not to mention that the servants of the king
                are no sooner killed by the unwilling guests than he has a second supply to
                do his further bidding; a gaucherie which was not committed by any version
                of the preceding parable (where successive servants are sent, and finally
                the landlord's own son). The narrative scale is not consistent, and the
                rationality of the dramatis personae also leaves something to be desired.
                Then the Lk version, to which none of these objections apply, would seem to
                be nearer to the original, with the Mt version some sort of variation on it.

                McNeile's point, expanded by Bacon, is that the burning of the city seems
                decisively to refer to the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple in the Jewish
                Revolt of 70. I am prepared to concede that point.

                COMMENT

                It would seem to follow, though Bacon did not pause to note this, that if
                the Matthean changes were what made this 70 reference unmistakable, then
                they were NOT unmistakable in the Lk version (or its original), which might
                defensibly be dated to BEFORE the year 70. But there are pretty clear
                indications of the end of Jerusalem in the parallel Lk material, and
                especially in what precedes that material (in Q, what *directly* precedes
                that material) in Lk.

                P45, Alexandrinus, and a few other manuscripts lack Mt 22:1-14, but due to
                damage rather than omission. There is then no warrant for supposing that Mt
                22:1-14 was added after the closing of the text of Mt, and for scenarios, we
                seem to be limited to events occurring during the formation periods of the
                respective Gospels.

                Sequence. In Lk, the Refused Invitation parable does not follow the Wicked
                Tenants parable, but instead comes after a "parable" in which instructions
                are given for guests at formal banquets: not to take the highest place, lest
                you be displaced by a later arriving and more honorable guest. Also, when
                you give a feast, invite the poor, and you will be blessed since they cannot
                repay you. This is not a parable in the usual sense of "parable." Then
                follows the Refused Invitation piece, as though in answer to a remark by a
                guest at a banquet where Jesus was also present (this is spelled out in Lk
                14:1). Are these preceding comments also present in Q? Not at any rate in
                the Critical Edition of Q, where the numbers are given, but then crossed
                out. The preceding thing in that version of Q is Lk 13:34-35, including the
                remark to Jerusalem, "Look, your house is forsaken!" To that warning, as
                noted above, Lk 14:16f as the next Q piece would be thematically relevant,
                IF we take it also in the sense of the rejection of Israel. This is
                countenanced, albeit less dramatically than in Mt, by the concluding line in
                Lk (not paralleled in Mt): "For I tell you, None of those men who were
                invited shall taste my banquet. The rejection of Israel is not necessarily
                the same as the destruction of Jerusalem, though it is possible to imagine
                the difference being bridged by sufficiently skillful argument.

                The Q scenario apparently is that a previous text contained the simple
                (Lukan) form of this story, and that separately (a) Matthew elaborated it
                into a variant of the Wicked Tenants story, and placed it by association
                after that story, and (b) Luke retained it more or less as it was, keeping
                it after the warning to Jerusalem but interpolating a context which makes a
                story about banquet guests apposite. This is a little awkward, though it
                might perhaps be improved by further reconsideration about what one thinks
                was originally contained in Q. The trouble, from a Q point of view, is that
                the more we do this, the more Q and Lk tend to converge.

                There are thus at least modest difficulties in any direction, and I leave it
                at that stage, noting that it is easier to imagine the Matthean version
                having been altered from a Lukan original than vice versa.

                Anyone have a comment?

                Bruce

                E Bruce Brooks
                Warring States Project
                University of Massachusetts at Amherst
              • Ron Price
                ... Bruce, This focus on the transition seems to me to be unduly narrow, and therefore flawed. It fails to ask about the likelihood or otherwise that the
                Message 7 of 18 , Dec 2, 2006
                • 0 Attachment
                  Bruce Brooks wrote:

                  > I think the sovereign principle in directionality questions, articulated by
                  > Metzger and attributed by him to Griesbach, is that "that version is
                  > original which can be most readily seen as giving rise to the other."

                  Bruce,

                  This focus on the transition seems to me to be unduly narrow, and therefore
                  flawed. It fails to ask about the likelihood or otherwise that the earlier
                  text could have been composed as postulated (see below).

                  > Most
                  > people, I believe, will find it easier to imagine that Mt has thematically
                  > grouped certain sayings from a less organized prior version, than that Lk
                  > has merely scattered them, with no other end in view. If instead Lk is
                  > actually following the order of a prior source, and merely keeping that
                  > order (whatever its own logic or lack of it), whereas Mt is changing that
                  > prior order into a more thematically clustered and literarily impressive
                  > form, then the logic of both Mt and Lk appears cogent.

                  This is what I find nonsensical. If it is difficult to understand the lack
                  of order of sayings in Luke, how much more difficult to understand the lack
                  of order in those same sayings in the much smaller early sayings source.
                  Would anyone have created such a mess? Luke, on the other hand, does have a
                  structure, and there are indications for at least some sayings why they were
                  moved. For instance the saying about asking (11:9-13) is deliberately placed
                  after two passages concerning prayer, and the salt saying (14:34-35) might
                  have been deliberately placed next to a brief scene which mentions eating
                  (15:1-2). Similarly Luke placed the saying about the greatest (22:24-27,
                  with its Lukan addition "But I am among you as one who serves") within the
                  passion story in order to present Jesus as the Servant who suffers (c.f. Is
                  53). Note that Luke's narrative context provides lots of opportunities for
                  non-sequential selection of suitable sayings, and contrast this with a
                  (nearly?) pure sayings source where there is little or no such context. The
                  idea that Luke retained almost all of the sayings source in its original
                  order is, to my mind, incredible.

                  > This too gives us Q,
                  > along with the additional assumption that the order of Q was that of Lk
                  > (otherwise the problem of order in Lk remains unsolved).

                  There you go again (though I realize you're following what many others have
                  written). How on earth is a perceived problematic order solved by blaming it
                  on an earlier source? Is it a case of 'Out of sight, out of mind'?

                  Ron Price

                  Derbyshire, UK

                  Web site: http://homepage.virgin.net/ron.price/index.htm
                • E Bruce Brooks
                  To: Synoptic Cc: Al Cohen; WSW In Response To: Ron Price On: Methodology Points in re Q From: Bruce I had said, BRUCE: I think the sovereign principle in
                  Message 8 of 18 , Dec 2, 2006
                  • 0 Attachment
                    To: Synoptic
                    Cc: Al Cohen; WSW
                    In Response To: Ron Price
                    On: Methodology Points in re Q
                    From: Bruce

                    I had said,

                    BRUCE: I think the sovereign principle in directionality questions,
                    articulated by Metzger and attributed by him (perhaps a bit too generously)
                    to Griesbach, is that "that version is original which can be most readily
                    seen as giving rise to the other."

                    RON: This focus on the transition seems to me to be unduly narrow, and
                    therefore flawed.

                    BRUCE: For fine points of variant wording in manuscripts, as well as for
                    large points of relationship between whole texts, I think it is the best we
                    have. Narrower precepts, such as Griesbach's own "lectio brevior" dictum,
                    simply don't cover the ground which philology actually encounters, as
                    Sanders was at pains to show, at both the word and the text level, in his
                    Tendency of the Synoptic Tradition (1969). And as Housman had long before
                    remarked, in terms more caustic than I would care to use in the present
                    environment, but those who feel themselves up to that challenge may consult
                    him direct (http://www.umass.edu/wsp > Philology > Housman).

                    RON: . . . It fails to ask about the likelihood or otherwise that the
                    earlier text could have been composed as postulated (see below).

                    BRUCE: Not at all. It opens judgement to all the evidence, not merely to the
                    wordcount of some fraction of the evidence. As for "below," see below.

                    I had next said:

                    BRUCE: Most people, I believe, will find it easier to imagine that Mt has
                    thematically grouped certain sayings from a less organized prior version,
                    than that Lk has merely scattered them, with no other end in view. If
                    instead Lk is actually following the order of a prior source, and merely
                    keeping that order (whatever its own logic or lack of it), whereas Mt is
                    changing that prior order into a more thematically clustered and literarily
                    impressive form, then the logic of both Mt and Lk appears cogent.

                    RON: This is what I find nonsensical. If it is difficult to understand the
                    lack of order of sayings in Luke, how much more difficult to understand the
                    lack of order in those same sayings in the much smaller early sayings
                    source. Would anyone have created such a mess?

                    BRUCE: That is very easy to understand, and I think that it is part of the
                    appeal of Q, allegedly a "sayings Gospel," that it offers such an
                    understanding. It is a question of genre. Luke, if we take note of its
                    manifest form, and/or the intention expressed in the ostensible
                    self-introduction, is trying to put together a coherent narrative account; a
                    history. If his material appears unordered by that criterion, that is, if it
                    doesn't make narrative sense, then there is a problem between the seeming
                    intention of Luke and the text that Luke has actually produced. On the other
                    hand, Q is supposed to be a "sayings Gospel," for which one model is Thomas.
                    Thomas tells no very visible story. It simply gives you wisdom vignettes one
                    after the other, though sometimes with keyword or other associational links.
                    It has never been perceived as a fault in Thomas that it does NOT tell a
                    story, because storytelling is not the formal intent of that kind of text.
                    No reasonable and genre-conscious person could possibly object.

                    [I have mentioned before that this "sayings collection" genre, though rare
                    or even conjectural in the Mediterranean world, is very common in the
                    contemporary and slightly earlier classical Chinese world, and that
                    experience gained with these EXTANT early Chinese wisdom collection might be
                    useful to the NT field. I mention it again, but only in parentheses. Does
                    this mean that all seminarians should learn classical Chinese? No. But they
                    might manage to lunch occasionally with someone who has a foot on that shore
                    of our common lake].

                    The "Sermon on the Mount" literature is there in its reverential depth and
                    enthusiastic breadth to attest that the Matthean arrangement of the "Q"
                    wisdom material is supremely convincing and thus successful. The same
                    material is more dispersed in Luke, and most readers seem to have found Luke
                    inferior to Matthew in this respect. Thus arises a difficulty for the theory
                    that Luke used Matthew: Why (people perpetually ask) would Luke break up the
                    Sermon on the Mount, of all things, and that in a way which achieves a
                    notably less successful result? A terrible situation, surely. But if Luke is
                    NOT using Matthew, but is INSTEAD respecting the order of a wisdom or
                    Sayings source for this material, just as he respects the order of the
                    narrative material he has taken from Matthew, then (1) any defects in order
                    of Luke's wisdom material, as compared to Matthew, are to be attributed to
                    the "wisdom" order, which will be at most an associational order, in Luke's
                    source, and Luke is not to be faulted for his faithfulness to his source.
                    His seeming defect as an author accordingly vanishes. This is a conclusion
                    which is likely to be applauded by fans of Luke, and everybody is in some
                    degree a fan of Luke.

                    RON: Luke, on the other hand, does have a structure, and there are
                    indications for at least some sayings why they were
                    moved. For instance the saying about asking (11:9-13) is deliberately placed
                    after two passages concerning prayer, and the salt saying (14:34-35) might
                    have been deliberately placed next to a brief scene which mentions eating
                    (15:1-2). Similarly Luke placed the saying about the greatest (22:24-27,
                    with its Lukan addition "But I am among you as one who serves") within the
                    passion story in order to present Jesus as the Servant who suffers (c.f. Is
                    53).

                    BRUCE: This is precisely what I mean by "associational" ordering, as
                    distinct from the historical ordering which Luke otherwise purports to
                    exhibit. Luke as it stands, especially as read by someone who knows Matthew,
                    seems to hover between two genres: narrative (things in historical order),
                    and wisdom (things in associational clusters). If instead the author of Luke
                    is merely alternating between two sources of different genre, and doing his
                    best to intercalate the one into the other, then all is well. No?

                    [I should add that Ron's suggestions of how Luke might rationally be derived
                    from Matthew, without the hypothesis of a separate source Q, may well be
                    helpful contributions toward the World Without Q which some at least on this
                    list have in mind as the right answer to the question. I don't evaluate
                    those possibilities here, but I am aware of their potential].

                    RON: Note that Luke's narrative context provides lots of opportunities for
                    non-sequential selection of suitable sayings, and contrast this with a
                    (nearly?) pure sayings source where there is little or no such context. The
                    idea that Luke retained almost all of the sayings source in its original
                    order is, to my mind, incredible.

                    BRUCE: Well, go argue that one with the Q establishment. I do so myself, and
                    I would take up some details on this list, except that the last time I
                    offered to do so, no particular interest seemed to exist. Far be it from me
                    to bore a large concentration of learned persons, least of all at this
                    season of the year.

                    Noting, in any case, the attractions of this model for framers or acceptors
                    of Q, I had added:

                    BRUCE: This too gives us Q, along with the additional assumption that the
                    order of Q was that of Lk (otherwise the problem of order in Lk remains
                    unsolved).

                    RON: There you go again (though I realize you're following what many others
                    have written).

                    BRUCE: I am indeed; I am in part trying to inhabit the mind of Q acceptors,
                    and see what is going on in there. I think that the whole enterprise rests
                    on feet of something or other, but that does not mean that there is nothing
                    that an approach de novo cannot use, or usefully provide for in other ways.

                    RON: How on earth is a perceived problematic order solved by blaming it on
                    an earlier source? Is it a case of 'Out of sight, out of mind'?

                    BRUCE: Tsk. Already answered, but once again: There is no question of
                    "blame," merely a question of trying to find what makes sense of the data in
                    front of our noses. If the wisdom material in Lk is even in part
                    associational, then to that extent it constitutes a departure from Lk's
                    otherwise historical texture. That is one alternative, and it is not very
                    flattering to Luke. But If the wisdom material in Lk is associational, not
                    because Lk has changed his structural principle in midstream (and back
                    again, over and over, like some bipolar idiot), but merely because he has
                    changed his source, with a view to completeness, telling the WHOLE story of
                    Jesus as best he can with the sources available to him, then our view of Lk
                    as a historian is altered for the better, and our view of Lk's sanity
                    (faulted already by Streeter and by others since) becomes more benign. I
                    suspect that people like this, and I also suspect that their liking it is
                    one of the ongoing attractions of the Q idea.

                    I like it myself, but I am not prepared to stop there. The editors of the
                    Critical Edition of Q have not only given a table of contents of Q as they
                    see it, but also a list of Q in Matthean order. In those lists, or in the
                    somewhat simpler but largely equivalent table given by Raymond Brown in his
                    Introduction, one can see that some sayings or other units which are
                    consecutive in Matthew have been, so to speak, broken up and rearranged in
                    Q. To their credit, the Documenta Q people consider scholarly opinions, not
                    only about the wording of the units they discuss, but also about their
                    sequential order. If we take the Matthean and not the Lukan sequence of the
                    Q material as more likely to be original (just a thought experiment), then
                    we find a whole different picture in front of us; one which, like the other,
                    makes sense of the material, but DIFFERENT sense of DIFFERENT PARTS of the
                    material. Probably, somewhere in the gigantic Q literature, someone has
                    investigated the possible implications and consequences of this. Can anyone
                    here present point to such an investigation, or summarize its findings?

                    E Bruce Brooks
                    Warring States Project
                    University of Massachusetts at Amherst
                    http://www.umass.edu/wsp
                  • Ron Price
                    ... Bruce, I don t see how you come to this conclusion. The focus is solely on the process of giving rise to , i.e. on how the author of the later text might
                    Message 9 of 18 , Dec 3, 2006
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Bruce Brooks wrote:

                      > I think the sovereign principle in directionality questions,
                      > articulated by Metzger and attributed by him (perhaps a bit too generously)
                      > to Griesbach, is that "that version is original which can be most readily
                      > seen as giving rise to the other."
                      > ...
                      > [This principle] opens judgement to all the evidence

                      Bruce,

                      I don't see how you come to this conclusion. The focus is solely on the
                      process of "giving rise to", i.e. on how the author of the later text might
                      have edited the earlier text. There is no mention of assessing the
                      plausibility of the behaviour of the author in producing the earlier text.
                      This is why I say the principle is too narrow.

                      >> If it is difficult to understand the
                      >> lack of order of sayings in Luke, how much more difficult to understand the
                      >> lack of order in those same sayings in the much smaller early sayings
                      >> source. Would anyone have created such a mess?

                      > It is a question of genre.
                      > ..... Q is supposed to be a "sayings Gospel," for which one model is Thomas.
                      > Thomas tells no very visible story.

                      The clue is in your words "supposed to be". Q is a mess by comparison with
                      GTh because (a) it contains some narratives (b) the distribution of these
                      narratives is peculiarly skewed (c) it contains some words attributed to
                      John the Baptist. It is indeed a question of genre, and if one looks at the
                      contents of Q in an investigative rather than a defensive manner, it will be
                      seen that Q doesn't fit any known genre, despite Kloppenborg's strenuous
                      attempts to prove otherwise. Q is an oddity. No person in their right mind
                      could have produced such an inconsistent mess. When will the NT world wake
                      up to this?

                      > ..... But if Luke is
                      > NOT using Matthew, but is INSTEAD respecting the order of a wisdom or
                      > Sayings source for this material, just as he respects the order of the
                      > narrative material he has taken from Matthew,

                      Presumably you mean Mark.
                      You're not making sufficient allowance for the difference between narrative
                      and sayings. The order of the former was often constrained by the logic of
                      the overall story. Matthew and Luke were both free to make many changes to
                      the order of the sayings without thereby showing any disrespect.

                      > ..... any defects in order of Luke's wisdom material, as compared to
                      > Matthew, are to be attributed to the "wisdom" order,

                      Or it could be that the subtlety of Luke's editorial endeavours is beyond
                      the comprehension of modern commentators. Why are they so sure of
                      themselves? Luke's skill has been vastly underestimated.

                      > which will be at most an associational order,

                      If you mean 'the wisdom material will only be ordered by word associations
                      between adjacent sayings', then I don't agree. In my reconstruction of the
                      sayings source there are 46 other links (including seven in a recent
                      discovery of one-to-one links between the blessings and the woes), plus a
                      clear division into four sections, two of which are each clearly divided
                      into two equal halves.

                      > ..... Luke is not to be faulted for his faithfulness to his source.

                      This is a widely held scholarly assumption. However it is untrue. For
                      instance, scholars arguably only reject Lk 10:5b and 10:23 because they make
                      this very assumption.

                      > ..... everybody is in some degree a fan of Luke.

                      Yes. But why? It's in part because he rejected sayings such as Mt 6:7; 7:6;
                      10:5b and 10:23, and in two other cases replaced "Gentiles" by a euphemism
                      to avoid a slur. Basically Luke is attractive to Gentiles because he tends
                      to remove the evidence of authentic pro-Jewish attitudes (which we should
                      naturally expect from the original disciples), to play down apocalyptic
                      fervour (unpalatable to most Christians from Luke's time onwards), and to
                      introduce nice little stories like the Good Samaritan which praises a
                      non-Jew.

                      > Luke as it stands, especially as read by someone who knows Matthew,
                      > seems to hover between two genres: narrative (things in historical order),
                      > and wisdom (things in associational clusters). If instead the author of Luke
                      > is merely alternating between two sources of different genre, and doing his
                      > best to intercalate the one into the other, then all is well. No?

                      He was indeed doing his best at intercalation. Unfortunately NT scholarship
                      on the whole seriously underestimates the freedom which Luke exercised in
                      reordering his sayings source and in creating new parables.

                      > ..... I am in part trying to inhabit the mind of Q acceptors,
                      > and see what is going on in there. I think that the whole enterprise rests
                      > on feet of something or other, but that does not mean that there is nothing
                      > that an approach de novo cannot use, or usefully provide for in other ways.

                      This is exactly what I've done (my new approach salvaging the majority of
                      Q), and what Farrer supporters have conspicuously avoided doing.

                      > If the wisdom material in Lk is even in part
                      > associational, then to that extent it constitutes a departure from Lk's
                      > otherwise historical texture. That is one alternative, and it is not very
                      > flattering to Luke. But If the wisdom material in Lk is associational, not
                      > because Lk has changed his structural principle in midstream (and back
                      > again, over and over, like some bipolar idiot),

                      Again I think you underestimate Luke's flexibility. He was extremely skilled
                      in several aspects of literature. He could even imitate the style of others,
                      whether Hebraic, Septuagintal or formal. There's no reason why he shouldn't
                      have made use of association, and I referred to least one example (the theme
                      of prayer in Lk 11:2-4; 5-8; 9-13). In any case Luke's "historical texture"
                      was somewhat stretched in the artificial 'journey to Jerusalem'.

                      > If we take the Matthean and not the Lukan sequence of the
                      > Q material as more likely to be original (just a thought experiment), then
                      > we find a whole different picture in front of us; one which, like the other,
                      > makes sense of the material, but DIFFERENT sense of DIFFERENT PARTS of the
                      > material. Probably, somewhere in the gigantic Q literature, someone has
                      > investigated the possible implications and consequences of this. Can anyone
                      > here present point to such an investigation, or summarize its findings?

                      My Web site contains the detailed results of an investigation which adopts
                      this as well as other revolutionary approaches. The resulting proposed order
                      of the original sayings in relation to their positions in the synoptics can
                      best be seen on the following page:

                      http://homepage.virgin.net/ron.price/syno_sQsQ.html

                      Ron Price

                      Derbyshire, UK

                      Web site: http://homepage.virgin.net/ron.price/index.htm
                    • Ron Price
                      ... Chuck, That s a fair question. Firstly compared to the nearest documents: the synoptic gospels, all of which have a definite structure and a story line
                      Message 10 of 18 , Dec 4, 2006
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Chuck Jones wrote:

                        > Q is a mess compared to what?

                        Chuck,

                        That's a fair question.

                        Firstly compared to the nearest documents: the synoptic gospels, all of
                        which have a definite structure and a story line which develops logically
                        from a dramatically sensible start to a dramatically sensible end.

                        Secondly compared to what are perhaps the theologically closest collections
                        of sayings/poetry: the psalms, the proverbs and GTh. All three of these
                        appear to exhibit a remarkable uniformity of style. I would expect any
                        sayings collection produced by the earliest followers of Jesus to have had
                        at least this degree of stylistic uniformity.

                        > It seems to me that a natural trajectory of gathering and retaining memories
                        > from the career of Jesus would be something like (1) the community told,
                        > retold and created stories about the sayings and deeds of Jesus, (2) they
                        > began to write the stories down, (3) the stories were gathered into
                        > collections, (4) at some point those collections were arranged thematically,
                        > and then (4), evidently with Mark, they were arranged into a career/life-of
                        > narrative framework.
                        >
                        > If Mt and Lk drew from a document produced at stage (3), is it fair to call
                        > that document a mess?

                        I'm not happy with your trajectory, for it seems to me to demand a leisurely
                        timescale which would not fit into the time available. Don't forget that
                        Paul had met Peter, and Mark was probably written less than ten years after
                        Paul's death. Another problem is that the death and destruction associated
                        with the Jewish rebellion would have cut across any chain of oral tradition.
                        Finally another barrier becomes apparent when we take together the fact that
                        Paul showed relatively little interest in the sayings of Jesus, and the fact
                        that Pauline Christianity rapidly became the norm. It seems to me that the
                        only way a large number of Jesus' sayings could have been reliably
                        transmitted to posterity is if the twelve committed them to writing before
                        ca. 60 CE whilst Jerusalem was at peace (which indeed is just what I am
                        proposing). Furthermore I would expect them to put in the requisite
                        expertise and effort to make a good job of it right from the start, once
                        they had decided that Jesus' return was not quite so imminent as to make the
                        job pointless.

                        Ron Price

                        Derbyshire, UK

                        Web site: http://homepage.virgin.net/ron.price/index.htm
                      • Chuck Jones
                        Ron, My reconstruction implies no particular elapsed time. In fact a compressed time frame would make it more likely that Mt and Lk would have a stage 3
                        Message 11 of 18 , Dec 5, 2006
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Ron,

                          My reconstruction implies no particular elapsed time. In fact a compressed time frame would make it more likely that Mt and Lk would have a stage 3 document (collected sayings that had not been placed into any thematic order) at their disposal.

                          Chuck

                          Rev. Chuck Jones
                          Atlanta, Georgia

                          Chuck Jones wrote:

                          > It seems to me that a natural trajectory of gathering and retaining memories
                          > from the career of Jesus would be something like (1) the community told,
                          > retold and created stories about the sayings and deeds of Jesus, (2) they
                          > began to write the stories down, (3) the stories were gathered into
                          > collections, (4) at some point those collections were arranged thematically,
                          > and then (4), evidently with Mark, they were arranged into a career/life-of
                          > narrative framework.
                          >
                          > If Mt and Lk drew from a document produced at stage (3), is it fair to call
                          > that document a mess?

                          Bruce replied:
                          I'm not happy with your trajectory, for it seems to me to demand a leisurely
                          timescale which would not fit into the time available. Don't forget that
                          Paul had met Peter, and Mark was probably written less than ten years after
                          Paul's death. Another problem is that the death and destruction associated
                          with the Jewish rebellion would have cut across any chain of oral tradition.
                          Finally another barrier becomes apparent when we take together the fact that
                          Paul showed relatively little interest in the sayings of Jesus, and the fact
                          that Pauline Christianity rapidly became the norm. It seems to me that the
                          only way a large number of Jesus' sayings could have been reliably
                          transmitted to posterity is if the twelve committed them to writing before
                          ca. 60 CE whilst Jerusalem was at peace (which indeed is just what I am
                          proposing). Furthermore I would expect them to put in the requisite
                          expertise and effort to make a good job of it right from the start, once
                          they had decided that Jesus' return was not quite so imminent as to make the
                          job pointless.



                          .







                          ---------------------------------
                          Access over 1 million songs - Yahoo! Music Unlimited.

                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.