RE: [Synoptic-L] Luke's 'Great Addition'
- To: Synoptic
On: Mk in Lk 9:51-18:14
In Response To: David I
David I: How has it escaped my notice that of the 350 verses of Lk from vv.
9:51 to 18:14, only (at a generous count) 24 have any parallel in Mk?
Bruce: The details have not escaped the eye of Huck-Throckmorton, and the
relations can be seen on page xxiii and following of their widely available
(if not perfect) Synopsis. Eliminating a few which are not listed directly
opposite a Lukan entry (that is, by an UNgenerous count), I get 20. Same
As to the solution, for the past decade or so I have been suggesting, on
this list, at SBL, and elsewhere, that the term "Luke" is ill-defined, and
that in particular it is not valid to build a scenario for Luke on the
assumption that this Gospel was written all at one time, out of a single and
consistently realized authorial intention. On the evidence (repeatedly
mentioned in earlier notes and not here repeated), we must posit at least
two stages, which I call Luke A and B. (There is a third, Luke C, but for
present purposes it will suffice to distinguish only the first two).
In B, and only in B, Luke is affected by a number of new ideas, some of them
coming from contact with Matthew, and some from other considerations. My
list, annotated in that way, would be as follows. Echoes of what is usually
called Luke's Great Omission (Mk 6:47b-8:11a) are preceded by an Asterisk;
these are known not from Mark but are derived secondarily from Matthew (see
the passage cited). Notice the frequency of relocated passages in this list.
These, in their original (Markan) position, belonged to Luke A, but the
relocation, and any rewriting done at that time, belong to Luke B. There are
also several places in which Luke, like Matthew before him, has re-used
Mark-derived material appearing elsewhere in Luke (a prime example is the
Sending of the Seventy, part of Luke B, which cannibalizes the Sending of
the Twelve, already present in Luke A). Here is the first half of that list:
10:1-16. Sending Seventy. New idea (Gentile Mission). B
10:17-20. Return of Seventy. Ditto. B
10:25-28. Lawyer's Question. Relocated in Luke. B
11:14-23. Beelzebul Accusation. Relocated in Luke. B
*11:29-32. Sign for This Generation (Mk 8:11-12, but here < Mt 12:38-42). B
11:33-36. Concerning Light (Mk 4:21, but here < Mt 5:15, 6:22-23). B
11:37-12:1. Against Pharisees. < Mt 23:4-36. B
12:2-12. Exhortation to Confession. < Mt 10:19f, 26f. B
12:35-46. Watchfulness. Probably original in Luke A, > Mt
12:49-56. Interpreting the Present. Probably original in Luke A, > Mt
And so on. In general, there seem to be three sources of Luke B material:
(a) Matthew, (b) reuse of previous Markan material, and (c) doublet based on
previous Markan material. I see no second access to the original (Luke A)
Markan Vorlage. The relocations in Luke B then resolve into two classes:
those which do not give rise to doublets in Luke, and those which do.
I should add that already in Luke A there are relocations of Markan
material; these are done to straighten out the tortuous narrative line in
Mark, or to remove inconsistencies resulting from the layered structure of
Mark. They are a tidying operation, in the interest of proper sequence
(taxis). Luke A's carefully considered relocations do not result in
narrative inconcinnities; Luke B's often do. Matthew, be it noted, also
tampers with the taxis of Mark, though in different ways, resulting from his
own quite different agenda.
E Bruce Brooks
Warring States Project
University of Massachusetts at Amherst