Re: [Synoptic-L] A case for pMark
- Thanks for the assistance. Try now:
Date: 1/6/2013 6:02:57 AM
Subject: Re: [Synoptic-L] A case for pMark
Just trying to help, here. I'm hoping Bruce can read my forward-on better
Sent: Sunday, January 6, 2013 11:39 AM
Subject: RE: [Synoptic-L] A case for pMark
Here you go, Bruce.
Here are now ten examples as requested. I have marked verbal
correspondences with an two asterisks across the alleged insertions. I have
also juxtaposed then connecting words with [related words]-->[related words]
I hope I have been sufficiently clear to show the narrative continuity
across the alleged expansions. Also, notice the Markan use of the euthus
(marked with ++) in the alleged expansions and the specifically mature
Christian concepts within some of the expansions: "followers of Christ
(9:41); the bridegroom taken away (2:20); "whenever the Gospel is preached
(14:9). Finally, I have included my pre-Markan PN to illustrate the
continuity of the story when the alleged expansions are removed. It is
Markan expansions of pMark
1) The insertion of the story of John the Baptizer's death:
6:7 And He summoned the twelve and began to send them out in pairs, and gave
them authority over the unclean spirits ; 8 and He instructed them that they
should take nothing for their journey, except a mere staff -no bread, no bag
no money in their belt - 9 but to wear sandals ; and He added, "Do not put
on two tunics." 10 And He said to them, "Wherever you enter a house, stay
there until you leave town. 11 "Any place that does not receive you or
listen to you, as you go out from there, shake the dust off the soles of
your feet for a testimony against them." 12 They went out and preached that
men should repent. 13 **And they were casting out many demons and were
anointing with oil many sick people and healing them.**
14 And King Herod heard of it, for His name had become well known ; and
people were saying, "John the Baptist has risen from the dead, and that is
why these miraculous powers are at work in Him." 15 But others were saying,
He is Elijah." And others were saying, "He is a prophet, like one of the
prophets of old." 16 But when Herod heard of it, he kept saying, "John, whom
I beheaded, has risen !" 17 For Herod himself had sent and had John arrested
and bound in prison on account of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip,
because he had married her. 18 For John had been saying to Herod, "It is not
lawful for you to have your brother's wife." 19 Herodias had a grudge
against him and wanted to put him to death and could not do so; 20 for Herod
was afraid of John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and he
kept him safe. And when he heard him, he was very perplexed ; but he used to
enjoy listening to him. 21 A strategic day came when Herod on his birthday
gave a banquet for his lords and military commanders and the leading men of
Galilee ; 22 and when the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced,
she pleased Herod and his dinner guests ; and the king said to the girl,
Ask me for whatever you want and I will give it to you." 23 And he swore to
her, "Whatever you ask of me, I will give it to you; up to half of my
kingdom." 24 And she went out and said to her mother, "What shall I ask for?
And she said, "The head of John the Baptist." 25 ++Immediately++ she came
in a hurry to the king and asked, saying, "I want you to give me at once the
head of John the Baptist on a platter." 26 And although the king was very
sorry, yet because of his oaths and because of his dinner guests, he was
unwilling to refuse her. 27 ++Immediately++ the king sent an executioner and
commanded him to bring back his head. And he went and had him beheaded in
the prison, 28 and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the girl ;
and the girl gave it to her mother. 29 When his disciples heard about this,
they came and took away his body and laid it in a tomb.
6:30 **The apostles gathered together with Jesus ; and they reported to Him
all that they had done and taught.**
6:13 **And they were casting out many demons and were anointing with oil
many sick people and healing them.**-->6:30 **The apostles gathered together
with Jesus ; and they reported to Him all that they had done and taught.**
2) Jesus' family comes to get him because he seems unbalanced:
3:20 And He came home, and the crowd gathered again, to such an extent that
they could not even eat a meal. 21 When His own people heard of this, **they
went out to take custody of Him;** for they were saying, "He has lost His
3:22 The scribes who came down from Jerusalem were saying, "He is possessed
by Beelzebul," and "He casts out the demons by the ruler of the demons." 23
And He called them to Himself and began speaking to them in parables, "How
can Satan cast out Satan ? 24 "If a kingdom is divided against itself, that
kingdom cannot stand. 25 "If a house is divided against itself, that house
will not be able to stand. 26 "If Satan has risen up against himself and is
divided, he cannot stand, but he is finished ! 27 "But no one can enter the
strong man's house and plunder his property unless he first binds the strong
man, and then he will plunder his house. 28 "Truly I say to you, all sins
shall be forgiven the sons of men, and whatever blasphemies they utter ; 29
but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is
guilty of an eternal sin "- 30 because they were saying, "He has an unclean
3:31 **Then His mother and His brothers arrived,** and standing outside they
sent word to Him and called Him. 32 A crowd was sitting around Him, and they
said to Him, "Behold, Your mother and Your brothers are outside looking for
You." 33 Answering them, He said, "Who are My mother and My brothers ?" 34
Looking about at those who were sitting around Him, He said, "Behold My
mother and My brothers ! 35 "For whoever does the will of God, he is My
brother and sister and mother."
3: 21**they went out to take custody of Him;** -->3:31 **Then His mother and
His brothers arrived,**
3) Jesus' assertion about an unknown exorcist:
9:33 They came to Capernaum ; and when He was in the house, He began to
question them, "What were you discussing on the way ?" 34 But they kept
silent, for on the way they had discussed with one another which of them was
the greatest. 35 Sitting down, He called the twelve and said to them, "If
anyone wants to be first, he shall be last of all and servant of all." 36
Taking a child, He set him before them, and taking him in His arms, He said
to them, 37 "Whoever receives **one child like this** in My name receives Me
and whoever receives Me does not receive Me, but Him who sent Me."
9:38 John said to Him, "Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in Your
name, and we tried to prevent him because he was not following us." 39 But
Jesus said, "Do not hinder him, for there is no one who will perform a
miracle in My name, and be able soon afterward to speak evil of Me. 40 "For
he who is not against us is for us. 41 "For whoever gives you a cup of water
to drink because of your name as followers of Christ, truly I say to you, he
will not lose his reward.
9:42 "Whoever causes **one of these little ones** who believe to stumble, it
would be better for him if, with a heavy millstone hung around his neck, he
had been cast into the sea.
9:37 **one child like this** -->9:42 **one of these little ones**
4) Not Fasting
2:18 John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting ; and they came and
said to Him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees
fast, but **your disciples do not fast?**" 19 And Jesus said to them,
"While the bridegroom is with them, the attendants of the bridegroom cannot
fast, can they? So long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot
fast. 20 "But the days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them
and then they will fast in that day.
2:21 "No one sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment ; otherwise
the patch pulls away from it, the new from the old, and a worse tear results
22 "No one puts new wine into old wineskins ; otherwise the wine will burst
the skins, and the wine is lost and the skins as well; **but one puts new
wine into fresh wineskins."**
2:18 **your disciples do not fast?**"--> 2:22 **but one puts new wine into
The Passion Narrative
5) Death Plot and Anointing
14:1 Now the Passover and Unleavened Bread were two days away ; and **the
chief priests** and the scribes were seeking how to seize Him by stealth and
kill Him; 2 for they were saying, **"Not during the festival,** otherwise
there might be a riot of the people."
14:3 While He was in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper, and reclining
at the table, there came a woman with an alabaster vial of very costly
perfume of pure nard ; and she broke the vial and poured it over His head. 4
But some were indignantly remarking to one another, "Why has this perfume
been wasted ? 5 "For this perfume might have been sold for over three
hundred denarii, and the money given to the poor." And they were scolding
her. 6 But Jesus said, "Let her alone ; why do you bother her? She has done
a good deed to Me. 7 "For you always have the poor with you, and whenever
you wish you can do good to them; but you do not always have Me. 8 "She has
done what she could ; she has anointed My body beforehand for the burial. 9
Truly I say to you, wherever the gospel is preached in the whole world, what
this woman has done will also be spoken of in memory of her."
14:10 Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the twelve, went off to **the
chief priests** in order to betray Him to them. 11 They were glad when they
heard this, and promised to give him money. And he began seeking how to
betray Him **at an opportune time.**
14:1**the chief priests**-->14:10 **the chief priests**
14:2 **"Not during the festival,** -->14:10**at an opportune time.**
The Last Passover
14:12 On the first day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb was being
sacrificed, His disciples said to Him, "Where do You want us to go and
prepare for You to eat the Passover ?" 13 And He sent two of His disciples
and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man will meet you carrying a
pitcher of water ; follow him; 14 and wherever he enters, say to the owner
of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is My guest room in which I may eat
the Passover with My disciples ?"' 15 "And he himself will show you a large
upper room furnished and ready ; prepare for us there." 16 The disciples
went out and came to the city, and found it just as He had told them; and
they prepared the Passover. 17 When it was evening He came with the twelve.
18 As they were reclining at the table and eating, Jesus said, "Truly I say
to you that one of you will betray Me-one who is eating with Me." 19 They
began to be grieved and to say to Him one by one, "Surely not I?" 20 And He
said to them, "It is one of the twelve, one who dips with Me in the bowl. 21
"For the Son of Man is to go just as it is written of Him; but woe to that
man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed ! It would have been good for that
man if he had not been born."
The Lord's Supper
22 While they were eating, He took some bread, and after a blessing He broke
it, and gave it to them, and said, "Take it; this is My body." 23 And when
He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, and they all drank
from it. 24 And He said to them, "This is My blood of the covenant, which is
poured out for many. 25 "Truly I say to you, I will never again drink of the
fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God."
26 After singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 27 And Jesus
said to them, "You will all fall away, because it is written, 'I WILL STRIKE
DOWN THE SHEPHERD, AND THE SHEEP SHALL BE SCATTERED.' 28 "But after I have
been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee." 29 But Peter said to Him,
Even though all may fall away, yet I will not." 30 And Jesus said to him,
Truly I say to you, that this very night, before a rooster crows twice, you
yourself will deny Me three times." 31 But Peter kept saying insistently,
Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!" And they all were
saying the same thing also.
Jesus in Gethsemane
32 They came to a place named Gethsemane ; and He said to His disciples,
Sit here until I have prayed." 33 And He took with Him Peter and James and
John, and began to be very distressed and troubled. 34 And He said to them,
My soul is deeply grieved to the point of death ; remain here and keep watch
" 35 And He went a little beyond them, and fell to the ground and began to
pray that if it were possible, the hour might pass Him by. 36 And He was
saying, "Abba ! Father ! All things are possible for You; remove this cup
from Me; yet not what I will, but what You will." 37 And He came and found
them sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you asleep ? Could you not
keep watch for one hour ? 38 "Keep watching and praying that you may not
come into temptation ; the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." 39
Again He went away and prayed, saying the same words. 40 And again He came
and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy ; and they did not
know what to answer Him. 41 And He came the third time, and said to them,
Are you still sleeping and resting ? It is enough ; the hour has come ;
behold, the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42 "Get
up, let us be going ; behold, the one who betrays Me is at hand !"
Betrayal and Arrest
14:43 ++Immediately++ while He was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve,
came up accompanied by a crowd with swords and clubs, who were from the
chief priests and the scribes and the elders. 44 Now he who was betraying
Him had given them a signal, saying, "Whomever I kiss, He is the one; seize
Him and lead Him away under guard." 45 After coming, Judas ++immediately++
went to Him, saying, "Rabbi !" and kissed Him. 46 They laid hands on Him and
seized Him. 47 But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the
slave of the high priest and cut off his ear. 48 And Jesus said to them,
Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest Me, as you would against a
robber ? 49 "Every day I was with you in the temple teaching, and you did
not seize Me; but this has taken place to fulfill the Scriptures." 50 And
they all left Him and fled. 51 A young man was following Him, wearing
nothing but a linen sheet over his naked body; and they seized him. 52 But
he pulled free of the linen sheet and escaped naked.
6) Jesus before His Accusers
[pMarkan arrest episode replaced by Markan version]
14:53 They led Jesus away to the high priest ; and all the **chief priests
and the elders and the scribes gathered together.**
14:54 Peter had followed Him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the
high priest ; and he was sitting with the officers and warming himself at
the fire. [Insertion anticipating Peter's denials].
14:55 **Now the chief priests and the whole Council** kept trying to obtain
testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, and they were not finding any.
56 For many were giving false testimony against Him, but their testimony was
14:53 **chief priests and the elders and the scribes gathered together
**-->14:55 **Now the chief priests and the whole Council**
[The charge of destroying the temple seems to be an insertion also. Note
the double mention of the inconsistency as though the redactor is imitating
his source. The topic comes up latter in subsequent Markan addition in
15:29 within the context of an insertion.]
57 Some stood up and began to give false testimony against Him, saying, 58
We heard Him say, 'I will destroy this temple made with hands, and in three
days I will build another made without hands.' " 59 Not even in this respect
was their testimony consistent.
60 The high priest stood up and came forward and questioned Jesus, saying,
Do You not answer ? What is it that these men are testifying against You?"
61 But He kept silent and did not answer. Again the high priest was
questioning Him, and saying to Him, "Are You the Christ, the Son of the
Blessed One?" 62 And Jesus said, "I am ; and you shall see THE SON OF MAN
SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN."
63 Tearing his clothes, the high priest said, "What further need do we have
of witnesses ? 64 "You have heard the blasphemy ; how does it seem to you?"
And they all condemned Him to be deserving of death. 65 Some began to spit
at Him, and to blindfold Him, and to beat Him with their fists, and to say
to Him, "Prophesy!"
**chief priests and the elders and the scribes gathered together.**-->55
**Now the chief priests and the whole Council**
7) The Roman officers receive Jesus and take him away
**And the officers received Him** with slaps in the face.
14:66 As Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant-girls of the
high priest came, 67 and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him and
said, "You also were with Jesus the Nazarene." 68 But he denied it, saying,
I neither know nor understand what you are talking about." And he went out
onto the porch. and a rooster crowed. The servant-girl saw him, and began
once more to say to the bystanders, "This is one of them!" 70 But again he
denied it. And after a little while the bystanders were again saying to
Peter, "Surely you are one of them, for you are a Galilean too." 71 But he
began to curse and swear, "I do not know this man you are talking about!" 72
++Immediately++ a rooster crowed a second time. And Peter remembered how
Jesus had made the remark to him, "Before a rooster crows twice, you will
deny Me three times." And he began to weep.
15:1 Early in the morning the chief priests with the elders and scribes and
the whole Council, ++immediately++ held a consultation ; and binding Jesus,
they led Him away and delivered Him to Pilate. 2 Pilate questioned Him, "Are
You the King of the Jews ?" And He answered him, "It is as you say." 3 The
chief priests began to accuse Him harshly. 4 Then Pilate questioned Him
again, saying, "Do You not answer? See how many charges they bring against
You!" 5 But Jesus made no further answer. So Pilate was amazed.
15:6 Now at the feast he used to release for them any one prisoner whom they
requested. 7 The man named Barabbas had been imprisoned with the
insurrectionists who had committed murder in the insurrection. 8 The crowd
went up and began asking him to do as he had been accustomed to do for them.
9 Pilate answered them, saying, "Do you want me to release for you the King
of the Jews ?" 10 For he was aware that the chief priests had handed Him
over because of envy. 11 But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to ask
him to release Barabbas for them instead. 12 Answering again, Pilate said to
them, "Then what shall I do with Him whom you call the King of the Jews ?"
13 They shouted back, "Crucify Him!" 14 But Pilate said to them, "Why, what
evil has He done ?" But they shouted all the more, "Crucify Him!" 15 Wishing
to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having
Jesus scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified.
Jesus Is Mocked
15:16 **The soldiers took Him away** into the palace (that is, the
Praetorium ), and they called together the whole Roman cohort. 17 They
dressed Him up in purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it
on Him; 18 and they began to acclaim Him, "Hail, King of the Jews !" 19 They
kept beating His head with a reed, and spitting on Him, and kneeling and
bowing before Him. 20 After they had mocked Him, they took the purple robe
off Him and put His own garments on Him. **And they led Him out to crucify
**And the officers received Him****-->16 **The soldiers took Him away**
15:21 They pressed into service a passer-by coming from the country, Simon
of Cyrene (the father of Alexander and Rufus ), to bear His cross.
15:22 Then they brought Him to the place Golgotha, which is translated,
Place of a Skull. 23 They tried to give Him wine mixed with myrrh ; but He
did not take it. 24 And they crucified Him, and divided up His garments
among themselves, casting lots for them to decide what each man should take.
8) Jesus is crucified
15:25 **It was the third hour** when **they crucified Him.** 26 The
inscription of the charge against Him read, "THE KING OF THE JEWS." 27 They
crucified two robbers with Him, one on His right and one on His left.
**And they led Him out to crucify Him.**-->when **they crucified Him.**
15:28 And the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "And He was numbered with
15:29 Those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging their heads, and
saying, "Ha! You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three
days, 30 save Yourself, and come down from the cross!"
15:31 In the same way, the chief priests also, along with the scribes, were
mocking Him among themselves and saying, "He delivered others ; He cannot
deliver Himself. 32 Let this Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from
the cross, so that we may see and believe!" Those who were crucified with
Him were also insulting Him.
15:33 When the sixth hour came, darkness fell over the whole land until the
15:34 **At the ninth hour** Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "ELOI, ELOI,
LAMA SABACHTHANI ?" which is translated, "MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU
FORSAKEN ME?" 35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they began saying,
Behold, He is calling for Elijah." 36 Someone ran and filled a sponge with
sour wine, put it on a reed, and gave Him a drink, saying, "Let us see
whether Elijah will come to take Him down." 37 And Jesus uttered a loud cry,
and **breathed His last.**
9) The hours
**It was the third hour**-->34 **At the ninth hour**
15:38 And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.
15:39 When the centurion, who was standing right in front of Him, saw the
way **He breathed His last,** he said, "Truly this man was a son of a god!"
10) The Last Breath
**breathed His last.** -->**saw the way He breathed His last,**
The pre-Markan Passion Narrative
14:1 Now the Passover and Unleavened Bread were two days away ; and the
chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to seize Him by stealth and
kill Him; 2 for they were saying, "Not during the festival, otherwise there
might be a riot of the people." 10 Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the
twelve, went off to the chief priests in order to betray Him to them. 11
They were glad when they heard this, and promised to give him money. And he
began seeking how to betray Him at an opportune time.
[PN arrest episode replaced by Markan version]
53 They led Jesus away to the high priest ; and all the chief priests and
the elders and the scribes gathered together.
55 Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain
testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, and they were not finding any.
56 For many were giving false testimony against Him, but their testimony was
not consistent. The high priest stood up and came forward and questioned
Jesus, saying, "Will you not answer, against what is it that these men are
testifying against You?" 61 But He kept silent and did not answer. Again the
high priest was questioning Him, and saying to Him, "Are You the Christ, the
Son of the Blessed One?" 62 And Jesus said, "I am ; and you shall see THE
SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF
HEAVEN." 63 Tearing his clothes, the high priest said, "What further need do
we have of witnesses ? 64 "You have heard the blasphemy ; how does it seem
to you?" And they all condemned Him to be deserving of death. 65 Some began
to spit at Him, and to blindfold Him, and to beat Him with their fists, and
to say to Him, "Prophesy!" And the officers received Him with slaps in the
16 The soldiers took Him away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium), and
they called together the whole Roman cohort. 17 They dressed Him up in
purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; 18 and
they began to acclaim Him, "Hail, King of the Jews !" 19 They kept beating
His head with a reed, and spitting on Him, and kneeling and bowing before
Him. 20 After they had mocked Him, they took the purple robe off Him and put
His own garments on Him. And they led Him out to crucify Him.
25 It was the third hour when they crucified Him. 26 The inscription of the
charge against Him read, "THE KING OF THE JEWS." 27 They crucified two
robbers with Him, one on His right and one on His left. 34 At the ninth hour
Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "ELOI, ELOI, LAMA SABACHTHANI ?" which is
translated, "MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU FORSAKEN ME?" 35 When some of the
bystanders heard it, they began saying, "Behold, He is calling for Elijah."
36 Someone ran and filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on a reed, and
gave Him a drink, saying, "Let us see whether Elijah will come to take Him
down." 37 And Jesus uttered a loud cry, and breathed His last. 39 When the
centurion, who was standing right in front of Him, saw the way He breathed
His last, he said, "Truly this man was a son of a god!"
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
- To: Synoptic
In Response To: L M Barré
LMB: I have to say that I think you err not to conclude that we have in
euthus and marker of the Markan redaction.
EBB: Euthus is characteristic of Mark, but whether of redaction (editing of
prior material) or composition (authorial material) I think we cannot say.
There is also the question, not separately examined, of whether euthus is
equally typical of the later material in Mark. The answer according to my
own investigation is: not as much so. But there are also themes and modes in
what I take to be original mark where euthus (immediacy in narrative) would
not apply in any case, and if late Mark is turning to those questions (eg,
how soon will the Second Coming be), then the style change is simply an
artifact of the topic change. The continuing authorship or proprietorship of
the single author (call him Mark or whatever) is not precluded.
LMB: . So also is the much repeated "amazement" motif, which I take as
another indicator of Markan redaction.
EBB: Again, I sort of agree, and have used that test myself, following Dwyer
1996 (though I think it is possible to refine his data set). But again,
there are types of material in Mark that do not invite that motif. It would
take more precision to make "amazement" an indicator of Markan vs
LMB: but also with typical repetition (another Markan stylistic marker), the
thrice predicted passion, death and resurrection.
EBB: I agree with Yarbro Collins that the triplets (and I would add,
including the Passion Predictions) are late in Mark. I would not call them
non-Markan, but they are a device of style which occurred to the late Mark,
and were not present in the relatively straightforward early Mark.
LMB: Let me here add that I think that the ending of Mark is indeed lost and
that the current ending in 16:8 is not deliberate. The reason why it is
noted that the women said nothing, is to prepare for the Great Astonishment,
that Jesus was alive. This would be all the more shocking because they were
unaware of the empty tomb "information" due to the women's silence.
EBB: I agree that 16:8 was not meant to be the end of Mark, and that our
text is artificially abbreviated. Matthew's supplied ending owes details to
other texts, and does not come from his seeing a more complete version of
Mark (there was none in his time), but is a good normal guess at what the
ending might have contained, at least on the circumstantial level.
LMB: In the logic of the story of Mark's redaction, the predicted appearance
in Galilee is not particularly freighted. Where else would they go but home?
Where more appropriate for Jesus to meet up with them?
EBB: I think weight must be given to the pair of interpolations I mentioned
earlier: 14:28 and 16:7. These predict that the disciples will see Jesus in
Galilee. What if the story had continued without those predictions?
Evidently in the way that the insertions predict: they would see Jesus in
Galilee. What then do the predictions add? Simply this: Jesus's
foreknowledge of that event. Without that element, Jesus's appearance would
have been a surprise, not only to the disciples, but to Jesus himself. The
prediction puts him back in control, has him fully anticipating, and thus
fully accepting, the end of his life and its sequel.
E Bruce Brooks
Warring States Project
University of Massachusetts at Amherst