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A case for pMark

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  • lmbarre@gmail.com
    A Case for pMark LM Barr¨¦, PhD Literary criticism, or more specifically, composition criticism, is a valid and necessary method of historical exegesis.
    Message 1 of 44 , Dec 31, 2012
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      A Case for pMark
      LM Barré, PhD
      Literary criticism, or more specifically, composition criticism, is a valid
      and necessary method of historical exegesis. There is no doubt that ancient
      literature in general, and biblical literature more specifically, are often
      not unified compositions. To the contrary, both Old and Testament literature
      exhibits many examples where redactional modifications have been made to
      many texts, on the level of textual variants up to redactional conflations
      and expansions, be they major, as in the composition of the Pentateuch, or
      minor, as in the generation of certain textual variants. Such redactional
      manipulation is in evidence for example in the Josephus text that mentions
      the Christ in his Antiquities where it is probable that certain
      interpolations were introduced.
      For an overview of composition criticism of the Passion Narrative that
      recognizes Markan expansions in the Gospel see:
      http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/passion-young.html
      If your email client can read .rtf, a bold font is used to highlight those
      words which indicate the original, narrative flow of pMark. An italic font
      are used to indicate a Markan expansion. Otherwise, alleged expansions are
      enclosed in brackets.
      The two Markan motifs of "immediately" and "amazement" are underlined. I
      have not here included the many pericopae that instance these motifs. Mark
      used the adverb, euthus no less than 42 out 59 times in the entire New
      Testament. Similarly the motif of amazement of Jesus is also inordinately
      repeated in Mark, a theme that comes to climax in the episode of the empty
      tomb. A major feature of Markan style is the use of repetition, seen also in
      the thrice repeated prediction of Jesus' suffering, death and resurrection
      and in the twice repeated feeding of the multitudes. So also Peter's three
      denials and the repeated falling asleep of the disciples in Gethsemane.
      The translation used is that of the NASB because of its literal rendering of
      the Greek, using a translation approach of formal correspondence rather than
      dynamic equivalence. A major feature of Markan style is the use of
      repetition.
      Markan expansions of pMark
      1) The insertion of the story of John the Baptizer's death:
      6:7 And He summoned the twelve and began to send them out in pairs, and gave
      them authority over the unclean spirits ; 8 and He instructed them that they
      should take nothing for their journey, except a mere staff -no bread, no bag
      no money in their belt - 9 but to wear sandals ; and He added, "Do not put
      on two tunics." 10 And He said to them, "Wherever you enter a house, stay
      there until you leave town. 11 "Any place that does not receive you or
      listen to you, as you go out from there, shake the dust off the soles of
      your feet for a testimony against them." 12 They went out and preached that
      men should repent. 13 And they were casting out many demons and were
      anointing with oil many sick people and healing them.
      [14 And King Herod heard of it, for His name had become well known ; and
      people were saying, "John the Baptist has risen from the dead, and that is
      why these miraculous powers are at work in Him." 15 But others were saying,
      He is Elijah." And others were saying, "He is a prophet, like one of the
      prophets of old." 16 But when Herod heard of it, he kept saying, "John, whom
      I beheaded, has risen !" 17 For Herod himself had sent and had John arrested
      and bound in prison on account of Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip,
      because he had married her. 18 For John had been saying to Herod, "It is not
      lawful for you to have your brother's wife." 19 Herodias had a grudge
      against him and wanted to put him to death and could not do so; 20 for Herod
      was afraid of John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and he
      kept him safe. And when he heard him, he was very perplexed ; but he used to
      enjoy listening to him. 21 A strategic day came when Herod on his birthday
      gave a banquet for his lords and military commanders and the leading men of
      Galilee ; 22 and when the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced,
      she pleased Herod and his dinner guests ; and the king said to the girl,
      Ask me for whatever you want and I will give it to you." 23 And he swore to
      her, "Whatever you ask of me, I will give it to you; up to half of my
      kingdom." 24 And she went out and said to her mother, "What shall I ask for?
      And she said, "The head of John the Baptist." 25 Immediately she came in a
      hurry to the king and asked, saying, "I want you to give me at once the head
      of John the Baptist on a platter." 26 And although the king was very sorry,
      yet because of his oaths and because of his dinner guests, he was unwilling
      to refuse her. 27 Immediately the king sent an executioner and commanded him
      to bring back his head. And he went and had him beheaded in the prison, 28
      and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the girl ; and the girl
      gave it to her mother. 29 When his disciples heard about this, they came and
      took away his body and laid it in a tomb.]
      6:30 The apostles gathered together with Jesus ; and they reported to Him
      all that they had done [exorcisms and healings] and taught [preaching].
      2) Jesus' family comes to get him because he seems unbalanced:
      3:20 And He came home, and the crowd gathered again, to such an extent that
      they could not even eat a meal. 21 When His own people heard of this, they
      went out to take custody of Him; for they were saying, "He has lost His
      senses."
      [The scribes who came down from Jerusalem were saying, "He is possessed by
      Beelzebul," and "He casts out the demons by the ruler of the demons." 23 And
      He called them to Himself and began speaking to them in parables, "How can
      Satan cast out Satan ? 24 "If a kingdom is divided against itself, that
      kingdom cannot stand. 25 "If a house is divided against itself, that house
      will not be able to stand. 26 "If Satan has risen up against himself and is
      divided, he cannot stand, but he is finished ! 27 "But no one can enter the
      strong man's house and plunder his property unless he first binds the strong
      man, and then he will plunder his house. 28 "Truly I say to you, all sins
      shall be forgiven the sons of men, and whatever blasphemies they utter ; 29
      but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is
      guilty of an eternal sin "- 30 because they were saying, "He has an unclean
      spirit."]
      31 Then His mother and His brothers arrived, and standing outside they sent
      word to Him and called Him. 32 A crowd was sitting around Him, and they said
      to Him, "Behold, Your mother and Your brothers are outside looking for You."
      33 Answering them, He said, "Who are My mother and My brothers ?" 34 Looking
      about at those who were sitting around Him, He said, "Behold My mother and
      My brothers ! 35 "For whoever does the will of God, he is My brother and
      sister and mother."
      3) Jesus' assertion about an unknown exorcist:
      9:33 They came to Capernaum ; and when He was in the house, He began to
      question them, "What were you discussing on the way ?" 34 But they kept
      silent, for on the way they had discussed with one another which of them was
      the greatest. 35 Sitting down, He called the twelve and said to them, "If
      anyone wants to be first, he shall be last of all and servant of all." 36
      Taking a child, He set him before them, and taking him in His arms, He said
      to them, 37 "Whoever receives one child like this in My name receives Me;
      and whoever receives Me does not receive Me, but Him who sent Me."
      [38 John said to Him, "Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in Your
      name, and we tried to prevent him because he was not following us." 39 But
      Jesus said, "Do not hinder him, for there is no one who will perform a
      miracle in My name, and be able soon afterward to speak evil of Me. 40 "For
      he who is not against us is for us. 41 "For whoever gives you a cup of water
      to drink because of your name as followers of Christ, truly I say to you, he
      will not lose his reward.]
      42 "Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe to stumble, it would
      be better for him if, with a heavy millstone hung around his neck, he had
      been cast into the sea."
      4) Not Fasting
      2:18 John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting ; and they came and
      said to Him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees
      fast, but your disciples do not fast ?" 19 And Jesus said to them,
      ["While the bridegroom is with them, the attendants of the bridegroom cannot
      fast, can they? So long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot
      fast. 20 "But the days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them
      and then they will fast in that day.]
      21 "No one sews a patch of unshrunk cloth on an old garment ; otherwise the
      patch pulls away from it, the new from the old, and a worse tear results. 22
      "No one puts new wine into old wineskins ; otherwise the wine will burst the
      skins, and the wine is lost and the skins as well; but one puts new wine
      into fresh wineskins."
      The Passion Narrative
       
      Death Plot and Anointing
      14:1 Now the Passover and Unleavened Bread were two days away ; and the
      chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to seize Him by stealth and
      kill Him; 2 for they were saying, "Not during the festival, otherwise there
      might be a riot of the people."
      [14:3 While He was in Bethany at the home of Simon the leper, and reclining
      at the table, there came a woman with an alabaster vial of very costly
      perfume of pure nard ; and she broke the vial and poured it over His head. 4
      But some were indignantly remarking to one another, "Why has this perfume
      been wasted ? 5 "For this perfume might have been sold for over three
      hundred denarii, and the money given to the poor." And they were scolding
      her. 6 But Jesus said, "Let her alone ; why do you bother her? She has done
      a good deed to Me. 7 "For you always have the poor with you, and whenever
      you wish you can do good to them; but you do not always have Me. 8 "She has
      done what she could ; she has anointed My body beforehand for the burial. 9
      Truly I say to you, wherever the gospel is preached in the whole world, what
      this woman has done will also be spoken of in memory of her." ]
      10 Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the twelve, went off to the chief
      priests in order to betray Him to them. 11 They were glad when they heard
      this, and promised to give him money. And he began seeking how to betray Him
      at an opportune time.
      [12 On the first day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb was being
      sacrificed, His disciples said to Him, "Where do You want us to go and
      prepare for You to eat the Passover ?" 13 And He sent two of His disciples
      and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man will meet you carrying a
      pitcher of water ; follow him; 14 and wherever he enters, say to the owner
      of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is My guest room in which I may eat
      the Passover with My disciples ?"' 15 "And he himself will show you a large
      upper room furnished and ready ; prepare for us there." 16 The disciples
      went out and came to the city, and found it just as He had told them; and
      they prepared the Passover. 17 When it was evening He came with the twelve.
      18 As they were reclining at the table and eating, Jesus said, "Truly I say
      to you that one of you will betray Me-one who is eating with Me." 19 They
      began to be grieved and to say to Him one by one, "Surely not I?" 20 And He
      said to them, "It is one of the twelve, one who dips with Me in the bowl. 21
      "For the Son of Man is to go just as it is written of Him; but woe to that
      man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed ! It would have been good for that
      man if he had not been born." 
      22 While they were eating, He took some bread, and after a blessing He broke
      it, and gave it to them, and said, "Take it; this is My body." 23 And when
      He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, and they all drank
      from it. 24 And He said to them, "This is My blood of the covenant, which is
      poured out for many. 25 "Truly I say to you, I will never again drink of the
      fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God."
      26 After singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. 27 And Jesus
      said to them, "You will all fall away, because it is written, 'I WILL STRIKE
      DOWN THE SHEPHERD, AND THE SHEEP SHALL BE SCATTERED.' 28 "But after I have
      been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee." 29 But Peter said to Him,
      Even though all may fall away, yet I will not." 30 And Jesus said to him,
      Truly I say to you, that this very night, before a rooster crows twice, you
      yourself will deny Me three times." 31 But Peter kept saying insistently,
      Even if I have to die with You, I will not deny You!" And they all were
      saying the same thing also.
      32 They came to a place named Gethsemane ; and He said to His disciples,
      Sit here until I have prayed." 33 And He took with Him Peter and James and
      John, and began to be very distressed and troubled. 34 And He said to them,
      My soul is deeply grieved to the point of death ; remain here and keep watch
      " 35 And He went a little beyond them, and fell to the ground and began to
      pray that if it were possible, the hour might pass Him by. 36 And He was
      saying, "Abba ! Father ! All things are possible for You; remove this cup
      from Me; yet not what I will, but what You will." 37 And He came and found
      them sleeping, and said to Peter, "Simon, are you asleep ? Could you not
      keep watch for one hour ? 38 "Keep watching and praying that you may not
      come into temptation ; the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." 39
      Again He went away and prayed, saying the same words. 40 And again He came
      and found them sleeping, for their eyes were very heavy ; and they did not
      know what to answer Him. 41 And He came the third time, and said to them,
      Are you still sleeping and resting ? It is enough ; the hour has come ;
      behold, the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42 "Get
      up, let us be going ; behold, the one who betrays Me is at hand !" 
      43 Immediately while He was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came
      up accompanied by a crowd with swords and clubs, who were from the chief
      priests and the scribes and the elders. 44 Now he who was betraying Him had
      given them a signal, saying, "Whomever I kiss, He is the one; seize Him and
      lead Him away under guard." 45 After coming, Judas immediately went to Him,
      saying, "Rabbi !" and kissed Him. 46 They laid hands on Him and seized Him.
      47 But one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the slave of the
      high priest and cut off his ear. 48 And Jesus said to them, "Have you come
      out with swords and clubs to arrest Me, as you would against a robber ? 49
      Every day I was with you in the temple teaching, and you did not seize Me;
      but this has taken place to fulfill the Scriptures." 50 And they all left
      Him and fled. 51 A young man was following Him, wearing nothing but a linen
      sheet over his naked body; and they seized him. 52 But he pulled free of the
      linen sheet and escaped naked.] 
      53 They led Jesus away to the high priest ; and all the chief priests and
      the elders and the scribes gathered together.
      [54 Peter had followed Him at a distance, right into the courtyard of the
      high priest ; and he was sitting with the officers and warming himself at
      the fire. ]
      55 Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain
      testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, and they were not finding any.
      56 For many were giving false testimony against Him, but their testimony was
      not consistent. 57 Some stood up and began to give false testimony against
      Him, saying, 58 "We heard Him say, 'I will destroy this temple made with
      hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.' " 59 Not
      even in this respect was their testimony consistent. 60 The high priest
      stood up and came forward and questioned Jesus, saying, "Do You not answer ?
      What is it that these men are testifying against You?" 61 But He kept silent
      and did not answer. Again the high priest was questioning Him, and saying to
      Him, "Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?" 62 And Jesus said, "I
      am ; and you shall see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER,
      and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN." 63 Tearing his clothes, the high
      priest said, "What further need do we have of witnesses ? 64 "You have heard
      the blasphemy ; how does it seem to you?" And they all condemned Him to be
      deserving of death. 65 Some began to spit at Him, and to blindfold Him, and
      to beat Him with their fists, and to say to Him, "Prophesy!"
      And the officers received Him with slaps in the face.
      [66 As Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant-girls of the
      high priest came, 67 and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him and
      said, "You also were with Jesus the Nazarene." 68 But he denied it, saying,
      I neither know nor understand what you are talking about." And he went out
      onto the porch. and a rooster crowed. The servant-girl saw him, and began
      once more to say to the bystanders, "This is one of them!" 70 But again he
      denied it. And after a little while the bystanders were again saying to
      Peter, "Surely you are one of them, for you are a Galilean too." 71 But he
      began to curse and swear, "I do not know this man you are talking about!" 72
      Immediately a rooster crowed a second time. And Peter remembered how Jesus
      had made the remark to him, "Before a rooster crows twice, you will deny Me
      three times." And he began to weep.
      1 Early in the morning the chief priests with the elders and scribes and the
      whole Council, immediately held a consultation ; and binding Jesus, they led
      Him away and delivered Him to Pilate. 2 Pilate questioned Him, "Are You the
      King of the Jews ?" And He answered him, "It is as you say." 3 The chief
      priests began to accuse Him harshly. 4 Then Pilate questioned Him again,
      saying, "Do You not answer? See how many charges they bring against You!" 5
      But Jesus made no further answer. So Pilate was amazed. 
       6 Now at the feast he used to release for them any one prisoner whom they
      requested. 7 The man named Barabbas had been imprisoned with the
      insurrectionists who had committed murder in the insurrection. 8 The crowd
      went up and began asking him to do as he had been accustomed to do for them.
      9 Pilate answered them, saying, "Do you want me to release for you the King
      of the Jews ?" 10 For he was aware that the chief priests had handed Him
      over because of envy. 11 But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to ask
      him to release Barabbas for them instead. 12 Answering again, Pilate said to
      them, "Then what shall I do with Him whom you call the King of the Jews ?"
      13 They shouted back, "Crucify Him!" 14 But Pilate said to them, "Why, what
      evil has He done ?" But they shouted all the more, "Crucify Him!" 15 Wishing
      to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them, and after having
      Jesus scourged, he handed Him over to be crucified.] 
      16 The soldiers took Him away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium ),
      and they called together the whole Roman cohort. 17 They dressed Him up in
      purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; 18 and
      they began to acclaim Him, "Hail, King of the Jews !" 19 They kept beating
      His head with a reed, and spitting on Him, and kneeling and bowing before
      Him. 20 After they had mocked Him, they took the purple robe off Him and put
      His own garments on Him. And they led Him out to crucify Him.
      [21 They pressed into service a passer-by coming from the country, Simon of
      Cyrene (the father of Alexander and Rufus), to bear His cross. 
      22 Then they brought Him to the place Golgotha, which is translated, Place
      of a Skull. 23 They tried to give Him wine mixed with myrrh ; but He did not
      take it. 24 And they crucified Him, and divided up His garments among
      themselves, casting lots for them to decide what each man should take. ] 
      25 It was the third hour when they crucified Him. 26 The inscription of the
      charge against Him read, "THE KING OF THE JEWS." 27 They crucified two
      robbers with Him, one on His right and one on His left.
      [28 And the Scripture was fulfilled which says, "And He was numbered with
      transgressors."]
      29 Those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging their heads, and
      saying, "Ha! You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three
      days, 30 save Yourself, and come down from the cross!"
      31 In the same way, the chief priests also, along with the scribes, were
      mocking Him among themselves and saying, "He delivered others ; He cannot
      deliver Himself. 32 Let this Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from
      the cross, so that we may see and believe!" Those who were crucified with
      Him were also insulting Him.
      33 When the sixth hour came, darkness fell over the whole land until the
      ninth hour. ]
      15: 34 At the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "ELOI, ELOI,
      LAMA SABACHTHANI ?" which is translated, "MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU
      FORSAKEN ME?" 35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they began saying,
      Behold, He is calling for Elijah." 36 Someone ran and filled a sponge with
      sour wine, put it on a reed, and gave Him a drink, saying, "Let us see
      whether Elijah will come to take Him down." 37 And Jesus uttered a loud cry,
      and breathed His last.
      [38 And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.]
      39 When the centurion, who was standing right in front of Him, saw the way
      He breathed His last, he said, "Truly this man was a son of god!"
      ***
      Original Passion Narrative
      [Bold font indicates the original flow of the narrative]
      14:1 Now the Passover and Unleavened Bread were two days away ; and the
      chief priests and the scribes were seeking how to seize Him by stealth and
      kill Him; 2 for they were saying, "Not during the festival, otherwise there
      might be a riot of the people." 10 Then Judas Iscariot, who was one of the
      twelve, went off to the chief priests in order to betray Him to them. 11
      They were glad when they heard this, and promised to give him money. And he
      began seeking how to betray Him at an opportune time.
      [PN arrest epidode replaced by Markan version] 
      53 They led Jesus away to the high priest ; and all the chief priests and
      the elders and the scribes gathered together.
      55 Now the chief priests and the whole Council kept trying to obtain
      testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, and they were not finding any.
      56 For many were giving false testimony against Him, but their testimony was
      not consistent. The high priest stood up and came forward and questioned
      Jesus, saying, "Will you not answer, against what is it that these men are
      testifying against You?" 61 But He kept silent and did not answer. Again the
      high priest was questioning Him, and saying to Him, "Are You the Christ, the
      Son of the Blessed One?" 62 And Jesus said, "I am ; and you shall see THE
      SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF
      HEAVEN." 63 Tearing his clothes, the high priest said, "What further need do
      we have of witnesses ? 64 "You have heard the blasphemy ; how does it seem
      to you?" And they all condemned Him to be deserving of death. 65 Some began
      to spit at Him, and to blindfold Him, and to beat Him with their fists, and
      to say to Him, "Prophesy!" And the officers received Him with slaps in the
      face. 
      16 The soldiers took Him away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium ),
      and they called together the whole Roman cohort. 17 They dressed Him up in
      purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; 18 and
      they began to acclaim Him, "Hail, King of the Jews !" 19 They kept beating
      His head with a reed, and spitting on Him, and kneeling and bowing before
      Him. 20 After they had mocked Him, they took the purple robe off Him and put
      His own garments on Him. And they led Him out to crucify Him.  
      25 It was the third hour when they crucified Him. 26 The inscription of the
      charge against Him read, "THE KING OF THE JEWS." 27 They crucified two
      robbers with Him, one on His right and one on His left. 34 At the ninth hour
      Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "ELOI, ELOI, LAMA SABACHTHANI ?" which is
      translated, "MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU FORSAKEN ME?" 35 When some of the
      bystanders heard it, they began saying, "Behold, He is calling for Elijah."
      36 Someone ran and filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on a reed, and
      gave Him a drink, saying, "Let us see whether Elijah will come to take Him
      down." 37 And Jesus uttered a loud cry, and breathed His last. 39 When the
      centurion, who was standing right in front of Him, saw the way He breathed
      His last, he said, "Truly this man was a son of god!"
       
       
       
       

      LM Barré

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • E Bruce Brooks
      To: Synoptic In Response To: L M Barré On: pMark From: Bruce LMB: I have to say that I think you err not to conclude that we have in euthus and marker of the
      Message 44 of 44 , Jan 7, 2013
      • 0 Attachment
        To: Synoptic
        In Response To: L M Barré
        On: pMark
        From: Bruce

        LMB: I have to say that I think you err not to conclude that we have in
        euthus and marker of the Markan redaction.

        EBB: Euthus is characteristic of Mark, but whether of redaction (editing of
        prior material) or composition (authorial material) I think we cannot say.
        There is also the question, not separately examined, of whether euthus is
        equally typical of the later material in Mark. The answer according to my
        own investigation is: not as much so. But there are also themes and modes in
        what I take to be original mark where euthus (immediacy in narrative) would
        not apply in any case, and if late Mark is turning to those questions (eg,
        how soon will the Second Coming be), then the style change is simply an
        artifact of the topic change. The continuing authorship or proprietorship of
        the single author (call him Mark or whatever) is not precluded.

        LMB: . So also is the much repeated "amazement" motif, which I take as
        another indicator of Markan redaction.

        EBB: Again, I sort of agree, and have used that test myself, following Dwyer
        1996 (though I think it is possible to refine his data set). But again,
        there are types of material in Mark that do not invite that motif. It would
        take more precision to make "amazement" an indicator of Markan vs
        post-Markan material.

        LMB: but also with typical repetition (another Markan stylistic marker), the
        thrice predicted passion, death and resurrection.

        EBB: I agree with Yarbro Collins that the triplets (and I would add,
        including the Passion Predictions) are late in Mark. I would not call them
        non-Markan, but they are a device of style which occurred to the late Mark,
        and were not present in the relatively straightforward early Mark.

        LMB: Let me here add that I think that the ending of Mark is indeed lost and
        that the current ending in 16:8 is not deliberate. The reason why it is
        noted that the women said nothing, is to prepare for the Great Astonishment,
        that Jesus was alive. This would be all the more shocking because they were
        unaware of the empty tomb "information" due to the women's silence.

        EBB: I agree that 16:8 was not meant to be the end of Mark, and that our
        text is artificially abbreviated. Matthew's supplied ending owes details to
        other texts, and does not come from his seeing a more complete version of
        Mark (there was none in his time), but is a good normal guess at what the
        ending might have contained, at least on the circumstantial level.

        LMB: In the logic of the story of Mark's redaction, the predicted appearance
        in Galilee is not particularly freighted. Where else would they go but home?
        Where more appropriate for Jesus to meet up with them?

        EBB: I think weight must be given to the pair of interpolations I mentioned
        earlier: 14:28 and 16:7. These predict that the disciples will see Jesus in
        Galilee. What if the story had continued without those predictions?
        Evidently in the way that the insertions predict: they would see Jesus in
        Galilee. What then do the predictions add? Simply this: Jesus's
        foreknowledge of that event. Without that element, Jesus's appearance would
        have been a surprise, not only to the disciples, but to Jesus himself. The
        prediction puts him back in control, has him fully anticipating, and thus
        fully accepting, the end of his life and its sequel.

        Bruce

        E Bruce Brooks
        Warring States Project
        University of Massachusetts at Amherst
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