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Re: [Synoptic-L] Source Theories and the HHB Concordance

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  • David Mealand
    In reply to Ron The output from Correspondence Analysis on the HHB data tallies with almost all of the correlations found by David G s method. It does, though,
    Message 1 of 17 , Dec 4, 2010
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      In reply to Ron

      The output from Correspondence Analysis
      on the HHB data tallies with almost
      all of the correlations found by David G's method.
      It does, though, place 102 still quite close to the
      202, 201, 200 group and not entirely on its own.

      The main item I note is that 202 i.e.the set of
      the same words in passages paralleled in
      Matthew and Luke is in a distinct place
      on the far right of my plot. It is not separate
      from its group, but it is the furthest out.

      At one time I thought this might be due
      to this being mainly sayings, but 201 and 102
      are also mainly sayings and not so far out.
      Also the contrast at the opposite end is with
      sets of Markan words not favoured by Matthew
      or Luke (or either), it seems not to be due to a
      narrative versus sayings contrast, as many narrative
      passages of Mark such as those in 222 are
      much closer to 202. So I don't think
      the distinct location of 202 due to genre
      in this case.

      As 202 is further out than 200 (Matthew solo)
      I am inclined, on this and other grounds,
      to think it a separate source used by
      Matthew (and by Luke).

      David M.


      ---------
      David Mealand, University of Edinburgh


      --
      The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in
      Scotland, with registration number SC005336.
    • David Mealand
      One clarification: I agree that there is a genre element in the contrast between the mainly Markan and the mainly Matt//Lk groups, but I don t think it is the
      Message 2 of 17 , Dec 4, 2010
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        One clarification:

        I agree that there is a genre element
        in the contrast between the mainly Markan
        and the mainly Matt//Lk groups, but I don't think
        it is the only thing going on there.

        David M.


        ---------
        David Mealand, University of Edinburgh


        --
        The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in
        Scotland, with registration number SC005336.
      • gentdave1
        David, My perfered interpretation of my results is that there is a saying source involved in there somewhere as well. So, on that point, we really don t
        Message 3 of 17 , Dec 4, 2010
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          David,

          My perfered interpretation of my results is that there is a saying source involved in there somewhere as well. So, on that point, we really don't differ. And that may well be what your method is highlighting for us.

          I think my analysis presents a problem only for a pure 2SH where Luke makes no use of Matthew at all.

          Dave Gentile
          Riverside, IL
        • grig035
          ... source involved in there somewhere as well. So, on that point, we really don t differ. And that may well be what your method is highlighting for us. ...
          Message 4 of 17 , Dec 23, 2010
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            --- In Synoptic@yahoogroups.com, "gentdave1" <GentDave@...> wrote:
            >
            > David,
            >
            > My perfered interpretation of my results is that there is a saying
            source involved in there somewhere as well. So, on that point, we really
            don't differ. And that may well be what your method is highlighting for
            us.
            >
            > I think my analysis presents a problem only for a pure 2SH where Luke
            makes no use of Matthew at all.
            >
            > Dave Gentile
            > Riverside, IL
            >

            As one who has been a grateful lurker here, and far too busy with the
            holidays to participate as much as I would like, and not as much a
            specialist as many others here, I want to thank those who applied
            themselves to my query during these weeks. Much appreciated.

            Ironically, as one who has generally felt comfortable with the
            mainstream theory positing a "Q" ("quelle") document for the parallel
            sayings in Matt./Luke, I've found that this discussion and Mr. Gentile's
            persuasive stats have made me revisit some of my assumptions. Strictly
            as devil's advocate (so to speak ;-)), instead of my coming at this as
            one persuaded that a "Q" document is behind the parallel tradition, can
            anyone here who is conversant with Mr. Gentile's stats use those stats
            to persuade, for the sake of argument, a hypothetical "Q" skeptic that
            however probable the occasional Luke consultation of Matt. now looks
            with these new stats, there are still remaining indications that some
            ur-document such as "Q" must still be part of the equation.

            If so, please, what are those indications and how are they still
            consistent with Mr. Gentile's findings?

            Again, thanks for the avid discussion.

            Geoffrey Riggs
          • GentDave@att.net
            ...   I think you might get some discussion on this point. Most here, or at least the more vocal people feel Luke used Matthew in some way. Beyond that -
            Message 5 of 17 , Dec 23, 2010
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              > are [there] still remaining indications that some
              > ur-document such as "Q" must still be part of the equation[?]
              >
              > If so, please, what are those indications and how are they still
              > consistent with Mr. Gentile's findings?
              >
              > Again, thanks for the avid discussion.
              >
              > Geoffrey Riggs

               
              I think you might get some discussion on this point. Most here, or at least the more vocal people feel Luke used Matthew in some way. Beyond that - there is not a lot of agreement that I've noticed.
               
              Staying only with the statistical study, there is certainly room for and even hints of a saying source in the results. The problem is that genera could also be an explanation for these results. So the conclusion is that while the study can not demonstrate the need for a saying source, it certainly leaves room for one.
               
              Leaving the study, there are other arguments to make, most of which I'll leave to other people to make if they wish. But my own argument has been from Luke's behavior. Luke follows the wording of the sayings very closely. However, the order he follows not at all. It has been noted by some that the order of "Q" material in Luke and Matthew is correlated. However, if you take out the narrative parts of the hypothetical "Q" (which I suspect have a different history than the sayings), you find that the order of the sayings in Matthew and Luke do not correlate at all. This random scatter might make an argument for an oral source, but then the closeness of the wording might argue otherwise.
               
              If Luke uses Matthew and regards Matthew as a contemporary document, and not a historical one, then I find it odd that Luke quotes Matthew so precisely, as if he were preserving the words Jesus actually spoke. On the other hand, if Luke thought Matthew was an old historical source, then I think the way he rips it apart is odd. I would expect it to be treated more like he treats Mark.
               
              If, however, Luke worked from an un-ordered Matthian-themed list of sayings which he believed to be genuinely historical, then Luke's behavior makes perfect sense. From Luke's point of view, he has words actually spoken by Jesus, and he treats then with respect. On the other hand, as it is just a list with no intrinsic order, he feels free to place them where he wills for literary advantage.
               
              So, for me at least, a saying source is still part of the solution.
               
              Dave Gentile

              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • grig035
              ... least the more vocal people feel Luke used Matthew in some way. Beyond that - there is not a lot of agreement that I ve noticed. ... and even hints of a
              Message 6 of 17 , Dec 23, 2010
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                --- In Synoptic@yahoogroups.com, GentDave@... wrote:
                >
                > > are [there] still remaining indications that some
                > > ur-document such as "Q" must still be part of the equation[?]
                > >
                > > If so, please, what are those indications and how are they still
                > > consistent with Mr. Gentile's findings?
                > >
                > > Again, thanks for the avid discussion.
                > >
                > > Geoffrey Riggs
                > >
                >
                > I think you might get some discussion on this point. Most here, or at
                least the more vocal people feel Luke used Matthew in some way. Beyond
                that - there is not a lot of agreement that I've noticed.
                >
                > Staying only with the statistical study, there is certainly room for
                and even hints of a saying source in the results. The problem is that
                genera could also be an explanation for these results. So the conclusion
                is that while the study can not demonstrate the need for a saying
                source, it certainly leaves room for one.
                >
                > Leaving the study, there are other arguments to make, most of which
                I'll leave to other people to make if they wish. But my own argument has
                been from Luke's behavior. Luke follows the wording of the sayings very
                closely. However, the order he follows not at all. It has been noted by
                some that the order of "Q" material in Luke and Matthew is correlated.
                However, if you take out the narrative parts of the hypothetical "Q"
                (which I suspect have a different history than the sayings), you find
                that the order of the sayings in Matthew and Luke do not correlate at
                all. This random scatter might make an argument for an oral source, but
                then the closeness of the wording might argue otherwise.
                >
                > If Luke uses Matthew and regards Matthew as a contemporary document,
                and not a historical one, then I find it odd that Luke quotes Matthew so
                precisely, as if he were preserving the words Jesus actually spoke. On
                the other hand, if Luke thought Matthew was an old historical source,
                then I think the way he rips it apart is odd. I would expect it to be
                treated more like he treats Mark.
                >
                > If, however, Luke worked from an un-ordered Matthian-themed list of
                sayings which he believed to be genuinely historical, then Luke's
                behavior makes perfect sense. From Luke's point of view, he has words
                actually spoken by Jesus, and he treats then with respect. On the other
                hand, as it is just a list with no intrinsic order, he feels free to
                place them where he wills for literary advantage.
                >
                > So, for me at least, a saying source is still part of the solution.
                >
                > Dave Gentile

                Thanks very much. To the board in general as well as to Mr. Gentile: If
                we view Luke's rearrangement of the order of Q material found in Matthew
                as asymptomatic of his characteristic treatment of Mark, then is it
                possible that the simple list of sayings that Luke used -- with all
                their evident statistical resonances with additional non-Q Matthew
                material -- was indeed from a source very similar to Matthew but not
                Matthew itself? In other words, could Q simply be an ur-Matthew that
                antedated our known Matthew and that only consisted of the Q passages?

                Or does that explanation simply overlook too much else that points away
                from such an explanation? Am I also, perhaps, unconsciously allowing
                myself to be swayed by the interpretation sometimes given to Papias's
                remarks that seem to imply to some that Papias only know a Matthew that
                consisted of sayings, period. Yes, I know that not all view "logia" as
                meaning sayings.

                Conversely, are there some here that see Gentile's statistics as bearing
                out entirely the supposition -- which would have been surprising to many
                a generation or so ago -- that lock, stock and barrel of the original Q
                were first set down in Matthew as we know it today after all. And thus
                Luke is working entirely from a source we can readily study today -- the
                known Gospel of Matthew.

                Personally, I still have to wonder -- if that's the case -- how come
                Luke would rearrange Matthew material so much more radically than he
                does Mark material. Or is that a hang-up I can sensibly put aside?

                Thoughts anyone?

                Thanks all,

                Geoffrey Riggs
              • David Inglis
                I spent quite a while using different selections of words: the n most frequent, those only appearing in all HHB categories, those appearing in most
                Message 7 of 17 , Dec 24, 2010
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                  I spent quite a while using different selections of words: the 'n' most
                  frequent, those only appearing in all HHB categories, those appearing in
                  most categories, those with the greatest variation in relative frequency,
                  ignoring those with little variation in relative frequency, etc., etc., etc.
                  I eventually gave up because there was too much variation in results
                  depending on which words were chosen for the analysis. Nevertheless, I would
                  say that my results generally support the Mk -> Mt -> Lk trajectory, but
                  with 'wrinkles' in other directions that depended on the words I selected.



                  From my work on Marcion I've become increasingly convinced that the form of
                  Lk that we see (at least, I can't speak for Mk or Mt) was forged over a
                  considerable period, during which the order of some passages changed (e.g.
                  Nazareth <-> Capernaum), some passages were removed, and others added. So, I
                  can see some opportunity for passages in early Lk to have been added to Mt,
                  and passages in Mk or Mt to have been added to later Lk. The problem this
                  gives anyone using the HHB (or similar) data is that although it's split up
                  into categories based on sharing or words or passages across synoptic,
                  within each category there are almost certainly words from different periods
                  of time, written by different people, that are impossible to detect. As a
                  result, different word selections may well change the directionality
                  evidence. So, for me, I still believe that this sort of directionality
                  evidence is useful, but it is more limited than I once thought. I think it
                  best to say that it's just one of many useful indicators, all of which have
                  to be taken into account to have a hope of getting the true picture.



                  David Inglis

                  Lafayette, CA, 94549, USA



                  From: Synoptic@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Synoptic@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
                  Of David Mealand
                  Sent: Saturday, December 04, 2010 1:41 AM
                  To: Synoptic@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: Re: [Synoptic-L] Re: Source Theories and the HHB Concordance

                  Yes I think it would be nice to check for homogeneity
                  but it could probably only be done on some of the larger blocks.
                  This is partly because I like the reassurance partitioning
                  provides, partly I would really like to separate material
                  of different genre, but I don't think the HHB data are amenable
                  to that. I note though that DG does quite rightly pay attention to
                  genre at the interpretative stage.

                  I have a slightly different take on the end conclusions
                  from using the 50 more frequent words (noting the
                  absence of the most frequent from HHB) and using a
                  different method to get two dimensional displays
                  of the relation between the 19 groups, but I think that
                  DG's analysis definitely deserves attention.

                  David M.

                  ---------
                  David Mealand, University of Edinburgh



                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • Tony Buglass
                  Just back from midnight communion - feeling well-frozen and well-blessed! Happy Christmas to all of you and yours, Blessings, Rev Tony Buglass Superintendent
                  Message 8 of 17 , Dec 24, 2010
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                    Just back from midnight communion - feeling well-frozen and well-blessed!

                    Happy Christmas to all of you and yours,
                    Blessings,
                    Rev Tony Buglass
                    Superintendent Minister
                    Calderdale Methodist Circuit

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Tony Buglass
                    Of course, I intended to change the subject line to Christmas Greetings - I refer you to the comment about being well frozen - the brain stopped working...
                    Message 9 of 17 , Dec 24, 2010
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                      Of course, I intended to change the subject line to "Christmas Greetings" - I refer you to the comment about being "well frozen" - the brain stopped working...

                      Blessings, all!
                      Rev Tony Buglass
                      Superintendent Minister
                      Calderdale Methodist Circuit

                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • Maluflen@aol.com
                      DAVE GENTILE: Leaving the study, there are other arguments to make, most of which I ll leave to other people to make if they wish. But my own argument has been
                      Message 10 of 17 , Dec 26, 2010
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                        DAVE GENTILE:
                        Leaving the study, there are other arguments to make, most of which
                        I'll leave to other people to make if they wish. But my own argument
                        has been from Luke's behavior. Luke follows the wording of the sayings
                        very closely. However, the order he follows not at all. It has been
                        noted by some that the order of "Q" material in Luke and Matthew is
                        correlated. However, if you take out the narrative parts of the
                        hypothetical "Q" (which I suspect have a different history than the
                        sayings), you find that the order of the sayings in Matthew and Luke do
                        not correlate at all.

                        LEONARD:
                        This last comment is an overstatement. What you do not find between
                        Matthew and Luke, in terms of the sayings of Jesus they offer, is
                        perfect alignment. On the other hand, there certainly is significant
                        correlation, as well as some non-correlation, between Matthew and Luke
                        in the sayings material as a whole. For instance, if you begin with
                        focusing on the five major discourses in Matthew, Luke generally has
                        material corresponding to these -- in parts of his Gospel that also
                        correspond generally to their sequence in Matthew (sermon on the
                        mount/plain, commissioning of the twelve, eschatological discourse,
                        etc.).

                        DAVE:
                        If Luke uses Matthew and regards Matthew as a contemporary document,
                        and not a historical one, then I find it odd that Luke quotes Matthew
                        so precisely, as if he were preserving the words Jesus actually spoke.
                        On the other hand, if Luke thought Matthew was an old historical
                        source, then I think the way he rips it apart is odd. I would expect it
                        to be treated more like he treats Mark.

                        LEONARD:
                        Responding to the first sentence above, there are any number of reasons
                        why Luke might have thought the sayings of Jesus in Matthew are worth
                        quoting precisely, to the extent that they are indeed so quoted, even
                        if the hypothesis that Luke considered Matthew a “contemporary”, and
                        “not a historical” document were sound. The hypothesis that sayings
                        believed to preserve words that Jesus actually spoke would for that
                        reason be recorded by Luke without alteration also rests on modern (not
                        to say Protestant/fundamentalistic) presuppositions that are probably
                        quite irrelevant to the behavior of the Evangelists. The
                        presuppositions in the final two sentences above are also problematic.
                        The idea that Luke could calmly asses Matthew as a contemporary
                        document that could be treated casually compared to a “historical” Mark
                        that would require more respectful treatment flies in the face of the
                        historical evidence from very soon after the composition of Luke. How
                        could Luke’s audience be expected to concur with this evaluation of
                        Matthew, and yet an ecclesiastical consensus emerges, without
                        challenge, just a few years later, to the effect that Matthew was the
                        first Gospel written? The evidence of strangely different treatment by
                        Luke of Matthew and Mark respectively is most convincingly handled by
                        the assumption that Luke did not know or use Mark, and that the
                        symmetry between Luke-Mark double tradition and Matthew-Mark double
                        tradition results from a single author, Mark, making use of the two
                        traditional gospels, one Jewish-Christian and the other
                        Gentile-Christian, for his own conciliatory, catechetical-liturgical
                        and dramatic purposes.

                        Leonard Maluf
                      • gentdave1
                        ... LEONARD: This last comment is an overstatement. What you do not find between Matthew and Luke, in terms of the sayings of Jesus they offer, is perfect
                        Message 11 of 17 , Dec 27, 2010
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                          > However, if you take out the narrative parts of the
                          > hypothetical "Q" (which I suspect have a different history than the
                          > sayings), you find that the order of the sayings in Matthew and Luke do
                          > not correlate at all.
                          >
                          >

                          LEONARD:
                          This last comment is an overstatement. What you do not find between
                          Matthew and Luke, in terms of the sayings of Jesus they offer, is
                          perfect alignment. On the other hand, there certainly is significant
                          correlation, as well as some non-correlation, between Matthew and Luke in the sayings material as a whole. For instance, if you begin with focusing on the five major discourses in Matthew, Luke generally has material corresponding to these -- in parts of his Gospel that also correspond generally to their sequence in Matthew (sermon on the mount/plain, commissioning of the twelve, eschatological discourse, etc.).

                          Dave: It was a precise statement, indicating something that is mathematically true about the ordering of the non-narrative "Q" sayings. If you simply number the sayings, the order of the sayings do not correlate significantly.

                          Of course it is still possible that what you say is also true. We could achieve a zero total correlation by taking blocks of sayings and moving them around, but still have perfect correlation within the blocks. So this is not really a test for "zero information" in common between the two sets. It might be interesting to test some of these blocks. Does the order of sayings within the blocks correlate? Another test would be to see how often pairs are in the same order, etc...

                          Let's suppose we find a relation (or without bothering to do any math, look at the sermons, for example, and note what seems to be a fair amount of common content. What would this tell us? If Luke was using Matthew then we still have him doing a fairly rigorous job of rearranging the sayings. On the other hand, if they both work from a saying source it tells us that, to some extent at least, sections of the list of sayings seemed to group together in the source. Possibly we could suppose that there was even some sort of sub-list, which constituted a sermon in the source. Although, my speculation would be that this structure is something Luke picked up after contact with Matthew. If Luke-A was re-written to Luke-B after Matthew as Bruce suggests, then my guess would be that the sermon is added to Luke at this point, and that Luke borrows some things that might previously have been elsewhere in his text and adds them here.

                          Outside of the sermons, what commonalities in ordering do you perceive?

                          LEONARD:
                          The hypothesis that sayings
                          believed to preserve words that Jesus actually spoke would for that
                          reason be recorded by Luke without alteration also rests on modern (not
                          to say Protestant/fundamen talistic) presuppositions that are probably
                          quite irrelevant to the behavior of the Evangelists.

                          Dave: I'm relying more on Luke's opening, when he tells us he wants to go back to the beginning. I think he does have respect for what he regards as historical facts. He is certainly not above inventing things to suit his literary and Theological needs, but he may feel somewhat constrained to present as history, what he (and probably much of his audience) regard as established history.

                          LEONARD:
                          How could Luke's audience be expected to concur with this evaluation of Matthew, and yet an ecclesiastical consensus emerges, without
                          challenge, just a few years later, to the effect that Matthew was the
                          first Gospel written?

                          Dave: My thesis is this:

                          A list of saying appears on the scene, say around 80 AD for example, it is in Aramaic and Greek "translation" (although it may be in large part back translation) which claims to be words spoken by Jesus as remembered by "Matthew" and written down by him at the time, in Aramaic. From this list, and from Mark, the gospel of Matthew is composed around the year 80.

                          Luke knows the gospel of Matthew is contemporary, and is convinced (incorrectly I believe) that the saying list is authentic. His behavior of quoting the sayings, while paying relatively little attention to the rest of Matthew then seems very intelligible.

                          The later ecclesiastical consensus is then explicable too. Matthew's gospel is regarded as the most authoritative, relying on both the supposed first written source, and Mark (which it "corrects"). A short hand of this gets passed down as "Matthew wrote first".

                          LEONARD:

                          The evidence of strangely different treatment by
                          Luke of Matthew and Mark respectively is most convincingly handled by
                          the assumption that Luke did not know or use Mark, and that the
                          symmetry between Luke-Mark double tradition and Matthew-Mark double
                          tradition results from a single author, Mark, making use of the two
                          traditional gospels, one Jewish-Christian and the other
                          Gentile-Christian, for his own conciliatory, catechetical- liturgical
                          and dramatic purposes.

                          Dave: The statistical study is nearly proof that this did not happen.

                          Dave Gentile
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