Tertullian's commentary could (in my opinion) be at least 50% shorter, and
would have more impact as a result. As it stands, anyone reading Adv Marcion
has to wade through text that rambles all over the place. Of course, it
could be that I simply don't appreciate Tertullian's brilliant arguments.
However, for specifics where Epiphanius appears to depend on Tertullian, I
would use Luke 4:27 (And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Eliseus
the prophet; and none of them was cleansed, saving Naaman the Syrian) as an
example. Regarding Marcion's version of Luke 17:11-19, Epiphanius states
that: "Marcion excised a great deal and wrote, "He sent them away, saying,
Show yourselves unto the priests;" and yet he made a substitution and said,
"Many lepers were in the days of Elisha the prophet, and none was cleansed,
saving Naaman the Syrian."
In contrast, Tertullian specifically states that this text: (many lepers .
Naaman the Syrian) was included in a previous chapter, not that it was
inserted into chapter 17. If (as Tertullian states), 4:27 was not inserted,
then anyone reading Marcion's text directly would have no reason to even
refer to 4:27 (because it would be unremarkable). So, if Epiphanius referred
to it, then it follows that he read or saw 'special' to do with 4:27:
1. Tertullian was wrong, and 4:27 WAS inserted into chapter 17; or
2. Epiphanius read Tertullian (or something else based on Tertullian)
and was misled into thinking that 4:27 was inserted into chapter 17; or
3. Tertullian and Epiphanius had different versions of Marcion's
gospel, with 4:27 in chapter 17 only in Epiphanius' copy.
Of the three possibilities, I would have to go with Tertullian being correct
and Epiphanius being wrong (or misled).
Lafayette, CA, 94549
From: Synoptic@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Synoptic@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
Of Peter M. Head
Sent: Tuesday, August 11, 2009 2:42 AM
Subject: Re: [Synoptic-L] Is Epiphanius a credible witness to the text of
I think it is rather strange to say that Tertullian is long-winded in
comparison with Epiphanius. That has never been my impression. The
actual problem is that Tertullian responds to Marcion in a running
commentary style (in Latin), whereas Epiphanius gives substantial
block quotes (78, in Greek) with comments after each. So Epiphanius
is more obviously quoting from a document, so I would certainly start
with the assumption that Epiphanius is quoting from something he
thought was Marcion's text (albeit obviously a Marcionite text from
two hundred years later). The difference in genre (and content)
precludes the idea that Epiphanius is only dependent on Tertullian -
so I wouldn't attribute differences (not sure which ones you are
thinking of here?) to Epiphanius misinterpreting Tertullian (I'm not
even sure off hand whether Epiphanius read Tertullian, remember that
loads of other works, now lost, were written against Marcion). I
would say that Epiphanius is a very credible witness to a later copy
of the Marcionite Gospel.
At 02:13 10/08/2009, you wrote:
>Marcion wrote his gospel around 140 AD, and our two major sources for his
>text are Tertullian: 'Against Marcion' (207-208 AD), and Epiphanius:
>'Panarion, section 42' (c. 375 AD). Purely given the elapsed time periods,
>we should expect that Tertullian (65-70 years after Marcion) would be a
>better witness than Epiphanius (around 235 years after Marcion). However,
>because Tertullian is very long-winded and Epiphanius is short and to the
>point, it seems that most commentators rely more on Epiphanius than
>Tertullian when determining Marcion's text.
>Now, Tertullian and Epiphanius do not always agree, and some of the places
>where they disagree look like Epiphanius is misinterpreting Tertullian. So,
>how much trust should we put in Epiphanius? Should we treat Tertullian as
>the primary source and Epiphanius only secondary, or can we treat
>and Tertullian as equals? Do we even know whether Epiphanius read Marcion's
>gospel rather than Tertullian's comments on Marcion?
>Lafayette, CA, 94549
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Peter M. Head, PhD
Sir Kirby Laing Senior Lecturer in New Testament
36 Selwyn Gardens
Cambridge CB3 9BA
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