Re: [Synoptic-L] Re: Temptations
- I think the best treatment is Ray Pritz, "Nazarene Jewish Christianity"
1988, 1992 Magnes Press. The Gospel of the Hebrews/Ebionites/Nazarenes are
rescensions of the same early Aramaic Gospel.
The title of this gospel was the "Gospel of the Hebrews" and was referred
to as Gospel of the Nazarenes in the 9th century by Haimo of Auxerre who
misread Jerome's Isaiah Commentary where he speaks of the "Gospel of the
Hebrews as read by the Nazarenes." The Gospel of the Hebrews was an Aramaic
gospel used by the Nazarenes/Ebionites and was claimed by them to have been
written by the real disciple Matthew. None of the canonical gospels appear
to be by
eye-witnesses or even authors from Palestine. The "Gospel of the Hebrews"
was, therefore, "more original" but was a work by the Jewish followers of
Jesus and not non-Jewish Christians, hence was ill-regarded by the gentile
Christians. There are only about 8 quotations from the Gospel of the
Hebrews, translated by Jerome, Clement and Epiphanius.
The ORIGINAL Nazarenes/Ebionites taught that Jesus was born in the usual
"adopted" by God on his baptism and that the "virgin Birth" was an invention
of pagan-influenced Christians. This is supported by a quote from the
Gospel of the Nazarenes/Hebrews itself quoted by Epiphanius Pan 30 13,7-8.
It is the only quote with a parallel in the Synoptics.
"After the people had been baptised Jesus also came and was baptised by
John. And when he ascended from the water the heavens opened and he saw the
Holy Spirit in the form of a dove descending and coming to him. And a voice
from heaven said: Thou art my beloved son, in thee I am well pleased. THIS
DAY I HAVE GENERATED THEE."
It was at this time that the GH states, "The whole fount of the Holy Spirit
shall descend upon him.." It further states, "And it came to pass when the
Lord was come up out of the water, the whole fount of the Holy Spirit
descended upon Him and rested on Him and said to Him, 'My Son, in all the
prophets was I waiting for thee that thou should come and I might rest in
thee. For thou art my rest; thou art my first-begotten Son that reignest
forever." (Jerome, in Is 11, 2)
Also in Jerome's in Is 40.9 he quotes. The Lord says, "A moment ago my
mother, the Holy Spirit, took me up." In Hebrew and Aramaic, the "Holy
Spirit" (Ruha Qodesha) is feminine.
Jerome also states, "For since the apostles believed Him to be spirit,
according to the Gospel which is of the Hebrews and is read by the
Nazarenes, a demon without a body, he said to them." (Jerome, in Is, prol
Jerome also goes on in adv. Pelagius 3, 2, "In the Gospel according to the
Hebrews, which is indeed in the Chaldaean and Syrian speech (Aramaic) but is
written in Hebrew letters, whiich the Nazarenes use to this day...the story
tells us: Behold, the mother of the Lord and his brethren said unto him:
John the Baptist baptizeth unto the remission of sins; let us go and be
baptized of him. But he said unto them: Wherein have I sinned, that I
should go and be baptized of him? Unlike peradventure this very thing that
I have said is (a sin of) ignorance.
And in the same book: If thy brother (said he) have sinned by a word and
made thee amends, seven times in a day receive thou him. Simon his
disciple said unto him: Seven times in a day? The Lord answered and said
unto him: Yea, I say unto thee, seventy times seven times, For in the
prophets also, after they were annointed by the Holy Spirit, the word of sin
I think Pritz book is a "must read" for anyone interested in"pre-Christian
----- Original Message -----
From: "E Bruce Brooks" <brooks@...>
To: "Synoptic" <firstname.lastname@example.org>; "Jack Kilmon"
Sent: Friday, June 13, 2008 10:23 PM
Subject: Re: [Synoptic-L] Re: Temptations
> I have trouble in distinguishing the various Gospels of the Hebrews,
> Ebionites, etc. Do you have a preferred reference for the whole matter?
> E Bruce Brooks
> Warring States Project
> University of Massachusetts at Amherst