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2433Re: John and the Synoptics

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  • keith_yoder
    Dec 9, 2009
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      Bruce- I don't know if this is the sort of connection you wanted for
      your list of distinctive synoptic precedents in John, but I would
      suggest considering this set of echos from the Lazarus story in Luke
      16:19-31 that can be heard in John's account of Jesus resurrecting
      another Lazarus in John 11--
      1. The name LAZAROS is used nowhere else in the synoptics except Luke
      16:19-31; as an aside the sisters Mary and Martha also appear only in
      Luke 10:38-42 and John 11:1-12:8.

      2. In both accounts Lazarus "died" (APOTHANEIN in Luke 16:22, APETHANEN
      in John 4:14)

      3. Both narratives recount a prayer-conversation with heaven in which
      the initiator "lifted-up his eyes" (Luke 16:23, John 11:41) and then
      began his petition with the word "Father" (PATHR - Luke 16:24, John
      11:41).

      4. Both petitions of the "father" involve asking for Lazarus to be
      raised or sent back from the dead (explicitly in Luke 16:27-31,
      implicitly in John 11:41-43).

      5. The request is denied in Luke 16 because the people "would not
      believe" (OUD'...PEISTHHSONTAI - Luke 16:31) even someone who came back
      from the dead -- but the request is granted in John 11 with the result
      that "many of the Jews...believed in him" (EPISTEUSAN EIS AUTON).
      6. A final parallel from Luke 16 to an earlier passage in John compares
      the reaction of people to Moses to their reaction to someone "from the
      dead" (Luke 16:29-31) or to Jesus (John 5:46-47) -- if the audience does
      not believe Moses neither will they believe Lazarus/Jesus. One other
      simpler precedent is the verb "take-over" (PARALAMBANW) from Matthew
      27:26-27 to be found in John 19:16-
      Matt 27:26-27 -- but Jesus he scourged and gave-over (PAREDWKEN) to be
      crucified (hINA STAURWQH). Then the governor's soldiers took-over
      (PARALABONTES) Jesus...

      John 19:16 -- Then he gave-over (PAREDWKEN) him to them to be crucified
      (hINA STAURWQH); so they took-over (PARELABON) Jesus
      Mark 15:15-16 also has the first two of these three verbal expressions
      (PAREDWKEN and hINA STAURWQH), but the third array element "take-over"
      (from PARALAMBANW) is distinctive to Matthew. I've suggested
      elsewhere that in John 19:16 and context the author subtly leads the
      reader to infer that Jesus was crucified by "the Jews", rather than by
      the soldiers as explicitly stated in Mark and Matthew. I argued in
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/johannine_literature/message/5582
      <http://groups.yahoo.com/group/johannine_literature/message/5582> that
      the author used a rhetorical strategy here similar to what you suggest
      in your "Coy John" posting in regard to the identity of the beloved
      disciple.
      Keith Yoder



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