## 1726RE: sonogram values

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• Sep 7, 2013

Thank you Wolf! That all makes sense.

I would very much like to incorporate Spectrum Lab into my research project. Part of the project is writing a paper about it, that will then be read by academic staff in the Electronic Music Unit at the University of Adelaide.

May I please have your permission to write about Spectrum Lab and how I've used it in my project? I think it will be of interest to my supervisors and peers that software intended for amateur radio use can also be employed in music-related projects. I'd also like to highlight how much can be done with free software, so anyone with a computer should be able to replicate my results.

Thank you again for all your help,

Thorsten

--- In spectrumlabusers@yahoogroups.com, <dl4yhf@...> wrote:

Hello Thorsten,

you wrote:

So, am I right in saying that each of the 16384 columns in the exported text file is a frequency bin of 1.346Hz width, and column dB1 is a range of amplitudes (over time) starting at 1.346Hz, column dB2 is a range of amplitudes starting at 2.692Hz, and so on…  (with column dB0 starting at 0Hz).

If I’m right, this may be the closest I can get to producing a range of amplitudes for individual frequencies, which I can then divide by the amount of amplitudes to get an average. It seems to make sense to me.

The interpretation is almost perfect... maybe with an error (offset) of a half FFT bin width. Quite academic if you don't really need this degree of frequency resolution, but here is the reason:

The 'first bin' has 'DC' (0 Hz) in the *center*. In fact, if the FFT input was complex, the 'DC' bin would cover frequencies from -half_bin_width to +half_bin_width. Here, since the FFT input (in the time domain) is real, negative frequencies fold back into positive frequencies, but the border between the 'first' and 'second' bin is still at +half_bin_width.

If the exported FFT file shall contain a header line, the coloums titled "BW_Hz" contains the width of each frequency bin in Hertz, and the column titled "F1_Hz" contains the *center* frequency of the first bin, also in Hertz. If the FFT input is real (not complex), this column contains zero in each line, because that's the *center* frequency of that bin - not the *start* frequency.

All the best,
Wolf .

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