The CIA helped set up Mandela ’s arrest in August of 1962.
The CIA helped set up Mandela’s arrest in August of 1962.
In the early 1940s, Mandela had already contact with communists and went to meetings although he did not join the party because as a Christian and opposed their atheism. He also saw the South African struggle as based primarily on race rather than class.
History of Nelson Mandela: http://digitaljournal.com/article/353312
"Staying with a cousin in George Goch Township, Mandela was introduced to the realtor and ANC activist Walter Sisulu, who secured him a job as an articled clerk at law firm Witkin, Sidelsky and Edelman. The company was run by a liberal Jew, Lazar Sidelsky, who was sympathetic to the ANC's cause. At the firm, Mandela befriended Gaur Redebe, a Xhosa member of the ANC and Communist Party, as well as Nat Bregman, a Jewish communist who became his first white friend. Attending communist talks and parties, Mandela was impressed that Europeans, Africans, Indians and Color-eds were mixing as equals. However, he stated later that he did not join the Party because its atheism conflicted with his Christian faith, and because he saw the South African struggle as being racially based rather than class warfare."
Three South African newspapers, and the London Press, ran stories that claim a CIA officer Donald Rickard stationed at the US Embassy in Durban had tipped off the South African Special Branch that Mandela would be disguised as a chauffeur in a car headed for Durban. Rickard obtained this information through an informant in the African National Congress (ANC).
At a farewell party for Donald Rickard in South Africa, at the home of the notorious CIA mercenary, Colonel "Mad Mike" Hoare, Richard stated in the hearing of some of those present that he had been due to meet Mandela on the fateful night, but tipped off the police instead.
(Source: The Guardian (London), August 15, 1986; The Times (London), August 4, 1986)
Mandela ended up serving 28 years in prison where he suffered tuberculosis from the damp jail cell and other health problems. By the time Mandela was released in February of 1990, his stature had changed dramatically and then President George Bush Sr. telephoned Mandela to say that Americans rejoiced at his release.
Author William Blum points out that this was the same George Bush who once was head of the CIA and who was second in power during an administration that worked closely with South African Intelligence service to provide information about the African National Congress. The African National Congress was seen by the US as part of the "International Communist Conspiracy".
Bush’s press secretary, Marlin Fitzwater, was asked in the days before the June 25 meeting with Bush whether the president would apologize to Mandela for the U.S. role in his arrest.
Fitzwater was angry and caught off guard. He said, “I just don’t like it when people question our motives on blacks or on Mandela because of an incident that happened 20 years ago in another administration.”
The US Congress was also an enthusiastic cheerleader for this vile partnership with the planet’s most disgustingly racist regime.
The House of Representatives only voted to call for Nelson Mandela’s release from prison in 1986. A mass worldwide anti-apartheid movement had completely isolated South Africa. Dick Cheney voted against the House resolution in 1986, pointing out that the U.S. government was still retaining the ANC on the official U.S. “terrorist list.”
In the 1970s and 1980s, South African special operations units fighting against guerrillas in Namibia and Angola. The South African Defense Force, Special Force’s Delta 40 unit [composed largely of Rhodesians], employ unconventional counterinsurgency tactics, including the use of chemical and biological agents.
Rhodesian bio-war program targeted black Zimbabwean rebels with anthrax during the 1970s.
The South African Project Coast had operation that included experiments on applying anthrax to the gummed flaps of envelopes sent through the mail.
Background about the use of biological weapons in Southern Africa civil wars
From early 1973 on the recently-formed Rhodesian Selous Scouts adopt and adapt British counterinsurgency techniques used in Kenya and Malaya by experimenting with new types of weapons, including chemical and biological weapons. They seek to develop poisons to impregnate toxins into blue jeans used by guerrillas as well as poison pens to assassinate guerrilla leaders, and make efforts to contaminate rivers and water supplies with chemical and biological agents.
(The Rollback of South Africa's Biological Warfare Program by Stephen Burgess and Helen Purkitt, USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies, 2001, pp. 8-9)
In 1978, Dr. Paul Epstein, an American physician practicing in Mozambique for the Ministry of Health, with support from the [Quaker] American Friends Service Committee, treats large numbers of Zimbabweans from Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) training camps for a bleeding disorder. At first a viral hemorrhagic fever is suspected, but a fat biopsy sent for toxin analysis reveals the presence of warfarin. This suggests that warfarin poisoning is another type of CBW used in Rhodesia. Among the toxins mentioned in the Dr. Basson indictment was brodifacum, a type of "superwarfarin.
From 1975 to 1980 The Rhodesian CIO and Selous Scouts use Bacillus anthracis, Vibrio cholerae, and thallium-contaminated foodstuffs, as well as organophosphate-impregnated clothing according to former Rhodesian army contractors.
From 1975 to September 1, 1978 the Selous Scouts set up a secret laboratory at the André Rabie barracks, to which three medical doctors from the regular Rhodesian Army are seconded. Large consignments of the denim clothing favored by guerrillas are purchased from middlemen and soaked in "steel vats containing a solution of odourless and colourless poisons" [probably organophosphates]. Several prisoners are forcibly brought to the Mount Darwin Fort and apparently used as "human guinea pigs" to test the effects of the poison. The contaminated clothes are then supplied to guerrillas with the help of Reverend Arthur Kanodareki, a paid CIO agent, and somewhere between 67 and "many hundreds" of guerrillas then die after absorbing the poison through their skin. The program is terminated after the Special Branch commander learns of the deaths of innocent rural villagers to whom some the poisoned clothes had been sold by unscrupulous local agents, agents who had been recruited by the Scouts and the Special Branch and had been paid a Z1000 dollar bonus for each confirmed "guerrilla" death. Symptoms of intoxication are that after seven days, the victims develop a fever and start to bleed from the nose and mouth. [Note: these symptoms are not consistent with most toxic organophosphate compounds, but could be due to warfarin. Fever is also sometimes present in thallium poisoning.]
Mid-1970s The Rhodesian Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO) asks doctors and chemists from the University of Rhodesia to identify and test a range of chemical and biological agents that can be used as a "fear factor" in the war against nationalist guerrillas. Anatomy [Department] professor Dr. Robert Symington, head of the clinical program, recruits several colleagues and students to carry out the research. SADF Forensic Department experts and intelligence personnel have access to the most secret Rhodesian camps and likely play some part in the development of CBW agents, which include organophosphate poisons, thallium, warfarin [an anticoagulant rodenticide], unspecified bacteriological agents, and anthrax. Symington later moves to South Africa and reportedly collaborates in the development of a top secret South African CBW program (codenamed "Red Mountain") prior to his death. [Note: this codename is not mentioned in any other source. Also, Brickhill was an ANC activist who was targeted for assassination and was severely injured in a bombing attempt.] — Jeremy Brickhill, "Zimbabwe's Poisoned Legacy: Secret War in Southern Africa," Covert Action Quarterly 43 (Winter 1992-93), pp, 7-10.
Now here is an interesting twist.
Steven J. Hatfill was the FBI’s first suspect for the 9/11 anthrax letter murders. Attorney General John Ashcroft called Hatfill a "person of interest" in the investigation surrounding the 2001 anthrax mailings.
In the late 1990s, Steven J. Hatfill worked at Fort Detrick as a US Army employee and later as a contractor for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), a company with a number of CIA and Pentagon classified contracts. After the FBI stopped investigation Dr. Hatfill as a suspect, he later sued the government for ruining his reputation, a case which the government settled for $5.8 million.
However, Hatfill had links to the germ warfare operations of Rhodesia and South Africa and these nations were also involved in biowarfare research of anthrax.
Hatfill claims he served in the Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard from 1975 to 1981 at the same time he claimed to have been in the Rhodesian military. In an article in The American Prospect, writer Laura Rosen postulates that Hatfill may have been a CIA fake defector, working for both the Rhodesian Selous Scouts and the US Army Institute for Military Assistance in Fort Bragg. In fact, Hatfill bragged to his colleagues about being a double agent.
Hatfill graduated from the University of Zimbabwe Medical School in 1983. In July 2002, South Africa's Daily News reported that in 1987 or early 1988, Hatfill trained elite Aquila Brigade soldiers of a notorious neo-Nazi, paramilitary group. Hatfill's resume claims he served in the South African Defense Forces after leaving Rhodesia.
After the FBI was investigating Hatfill, Pat Clawson became his spokesman. According to The Baltimore Sun, Pat Clawson is a close associate of Oliver North of the Iran/Contra operations of the mid-1980s. Coming to Hatfill's defense was National Review writer Joel Mowbray, a right-wing defender of the Likud government of Ariel Sharon and Bush administration policies in Iraq. Mowbray uncharacteristically criticized Ashcroft for leaks to the press about the investigation of Hatfill.
Dr. Larry S. Ford, 46, had degrees in biochemistry and medicine working as a gynecologist. Ford was also an infectious disease researcher and started a company called Biofem Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in Irvine, California headquarters.
Mid-1980s Dr. Ford had worked for the US government makes several trips to South Africa. In some cases he accompanies his Mormon friend, Dr. Jerry D. Nilsson, MD, an avowed white supremacist who had previously fought with the SAS during the Rhodesian civil war. Nilsson was a 71-year-old general surgeon, had at one time shared an office together at UCLA and had co-authored several gynecological papers. Nilsson had been involved in many projects, some controversial, that had included Ford. Dr. Jerry Nilsson had been involved in gold mining.
Nilsson’s ex-girlfriend said Ford on more than once boasted of wiping out an entire Angolan village during the civil war. Nilsson boasted of working as a special forces surgeon in white minority in Rhodesia now Zimbabwe. She also claimed he had stashed chemicals and germs with Ford.
Ford’s research assistant Valerie Kesler at BioFem told the New York Times in early November 2002 that she had seen Ford carrying a vial on the airplane to South Africa. She stated that the vial was later handed over to a South African official. She claimed that the vial Ford carried contained deadly bacteria that could have endangered everyone on the plane. She had met Ford as an undergraduate and she had been his mistress for 18 years. Fords lawyer, Bryan Card said that the doctor had at one time worked for the US government on a chemical weapons project. Ford’s wife stated that while her husband was a student that he had connection with the CIA. Between 1987 and February 2000 Ford had made at least three trips to South Africa.
According to a South African newspaper, the Sunday Independent, Ford had given weapons training seminars to scientists working with the South African Defense Force (SADF) on Project Coast. The training consisted of instruction on how to use bacteria called clostridium to contaminate tea bags, porno magazines and doilies with the goal of poisoning African National Congress members. In June 2000, Salon.com claimed investigators found evidence connecting Ford with the South African Defense Force and Project Coast. The L.A. Times wrote on March 20, 2000, that Fords involvement extended well beyond the weapons. The article stated that Ford had also worked under Basson to create sensory irritants for the military to use. The developments were said to have taken place at a company known as Delta G Scientific lab. Sources told the Associated Press in early November 2000 that the company was actually a front for Project Coast.
Dr. Ford allegedly killed himself on March 3, 2000. His friends and colleagues stated that Ford claimed to have worked for the CIA. They had heard Fords description of some of his missions with the CIA on more than one occasion that he had told colleagues that he had also worked with the US biological warfare program.
Investigators received information that Ford had buried anthrax in a gold mine. Nine months following Fords death on November 3, 2002, the New York Times reported that police found the doctors business card and directions for making chemical and biological weapons, including anthrax, in a gold mine in Nevada.
Peter Fitzpatrick and Tom Byron learned that Ford had attended a 1986 meeting in South Africa with Niels Knobel, the surgeon general of the South African Defense Force (SADF). Knobel also served as the administrative overseer to a secret weapons project and he had introduced Ford to Dr. Wouter Basson the head of South African’s secret biological warfare program codenamed, Project Coast. The FBI informants reported that Knobel received toxins from Ford and Nilsson.
Project Coast was a program used deadly germs to the killed black Africans in southern Africa. A lot of their research had to do with ways to assassinate people and live no evidence making it look like due to natural causes.
Daan Goosen, the managing director of Roodeplaat Research Laboratories (RRL) between 1983 and 1986, told Tom Mangold of the BBC that Project Coast supported a project to develop a contraceptive that would have been applied clandestinely to blacks. At one time was Basson was Goosen's boss. Goosen reported that the project had developed a vaccine for males and females and that the researchers were still searching for a means by which it could be delivered to make black Africans sterile without making them aware.
Don Mayes, a retired CIA officer, acted as a go-between between Daan Goosen and the CIA and FBI. Goosen was trying to sell the CIA and FBI a genetically engineered pathogen made from an ordinary intestinal bacteria with those that result in lethal gas gangrene. Some samples of the pathogen were actually shipped to the United States via the CIA in a toothpaste tube. The tube was delivered to the FBI's Key West office by Robert Zlockie, another retired CIA officer. The CIA and FBI eventually declined Goosen's offer to sell them his deadly bugs as well as his offer to work in the United States on biowarfare defense research. Prior to the breakdown in negotiations between Goosen and the CIA and FBI, the Pentagon set up a meeting between Goosen and Bioport, the Michigan-based firm that provides anthrax vaccines to the military.
(The Washington Post, April 20, 2003)
On March 24, 1999, Dr. Wouter Basson, the head of South African’s secret biological warfare program, Project Coast, was indicted in Pretoria Regional Court on 64 charges, including 16 of murder, 11 of conspiracy to murder, 6 relating to the illegal possession and trade in drugs, and 24 of theft and fraud. Prosecutors discovered that he was involved with an interntional biowarfare smuggling network. — The CBW Conventions Bulletin, No. 44 (June 1999), p. 34.
In April 2002, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and/or a South African court cleared Dr. Basson of charges, including attempted murder of anti-apartheid activists. Earlier, Basson was cleared of 15 charges, including murder and attempted murder. In other words, he got away with murder. The May 2000 issue of Cockburn claimed that Dr. Basson had been enlisting medical researchers worldwide to assist in the development of weapons.
Los Angeles Magazine July 2001 or
Angola: Death Squads
Angola, 1988. Amnesty International reported that UNITA, backed by the U.S., engaged in extra-judicial executions of high-ranking political rivals and ill-treatment of prisoners. Washington Post, 3/14/1989, A20