684Jan 1953 to Dec 1960 The Eisenhower Years, 2nd edition part 12
- Jul 9, 2013
A follow-up study conducted of Cameron's patients after they left the mental hospital/institute, found that 75 percent were worse off after treatment than before they were admitted. Of his patients who held down a full-time job before hospitalization, more than half were no long able to so and many suffered from a host of physical and psychological ailments.
( The Shock Doctrine by Naomi Kline, p. 47)
On April 20, 1950, the CIA put all its efforts into one project under the codeword "Bluebird." This top secret program was a "behavior-modification" program jointly undertaken with the Pentagon. Bluebird was a direct continuation of Nazi programs which had been conducted at Dachau concentration camp. The CIA continued with the use of human guinea pigs at the Pentagon's chemical warfare base in Edgewood, Maryland. Several Nazi scientists were used under Operation Paperclip which was set up to bring several Nazi scientists into the United States military.
The first operations under Bluebird were conducted in Japan three months after the new operation was launched. Twenty-five North Korean war prisoners were given depressants and stimulants, then injected with barbiturates, hypnotized, and finally interrogated. In addition to the experiments which were conducted on North Koreans, CIA officials also tested other subjects while in Japan. They administered intensive polygraph testing as well as experimenting with the stimulant Benzedrine on four subjects. Two of these four people were also given a second stimulant, picro-toxin. Furthermore, the CIA tried to induce amnesia.
Bluebird also included experiments in electro-shock therapy and psycho-surgery. By the end of 1950, Morse Allen replaced Edwards as the head of Bluebird. He received a $100,000 CIA grant to conduct his experiments. Electro-shock was used to induce a state of amnesia. A psychiatrist reported that the electro-shock treatments could produce amnesia for varying lengths of time and that valuable information could be obtained from the subjects when they came out of the sleep. At a Richmond, Virginia hospital, an "electro-sleep" machine was used on various patients. It put people to sleep without shock or convulsions. Shortly after these experiments, the Office of Scientific Intelligence recommended that the psychiatrist be given $100,000 in research funds.
In 1952, the Office of Scientific Intelligence proposed giving another $100,000 to another doctor. The funds were used to conduct "neurosurgical techniques" and more specifically to conduct lobotomies. Following the brain surgery, subjects were interrogated. Bluebird was expanded to include outside consultants to test other techniques. These included the effects of ultrasonics, vibrations, concussions, high and low pressure, various gases in air-tight chambers, caffeine, fatigue radiation, heat and cold, and changing light.
In 1952, 42-year old Harold Blauer was on the verge of a mental collapse. He admitted himself into New York's Bellevue Hospital for clinical depression. He was subsequently transferred to the Psychiatric Institute which was administered by Columbia University physicians. The Psychiatric Institute had received a secret contract to work with mentally ill patients from the Army Chemical Corps, so none of the patients knew of the chemical tests which the institute implemented. In addition the institute was not required to obtain consent forms from their patients. The goal of the Army Chemical Corps was to gather information for the utilization of psycho-chemical agents against belligerent countries and their agents. The Psychiatric Institute was provided with Mescaline for their experiments, and their doctors were given security clearances by the Army.
To learn more about the torture experiments of Col Pash and Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, read Journey Into Madness: The True Story of Secret CIA Mind Control and Medical Abuse by Gordon Thomas (Bantam Books, New York, 1989.
Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, was a former Nazi doctor who was recruited after World War II and ran the CIA's MK-ULTRA operated out of the CIA's Technical Services Division. The CIA's secret experiments with LSD was originally dubbed MK-Naomi, and then the code-name was changed to MK-ULTRA in April 1953. "MK" was the code for "Technical Services" and "Naomi" referred to the agency secret project to develop poisons. One of the people killed was Frank Olson (a CIA germ warfare biologist whose specialty was anthrax), while they were working on Subproject-68, also known as MK-ULTRA.
Major/ Dr. Frank Olson worked at the Army's Biological Warfare Laboratory, Ft. Detrick. He spent the majority of his work on germ warfare and was in charge of the operation that sprayed germs onto San Francisco, where a few people died. The US continued the germ warfare research that the Japanese and Nazis had worked on from WWII to allegedly the 1960s.
Frank Olsen told a friend that he had learned about George Shaw Wheeler and that Wheeler directed the activities of the US Army's De-Nazification Branch in the American zone of West Germany. Wheeler defected April 1950 to the Czechoslovak Communist government. Wheeler held a press conference to explain that the central motive for his crossing over was his indignation over what he termed a "typical gangster plot" by American authorities in their "brutal and unlawful" treatment of Czeclosavak citizens and others. Wheeler said he was "ashamed" of the activities of the Army's Counter-Intelligence Corps, the CIA, and of those American journalists who looked the other way and acted to cover up illegal acts committed by Americans.
Frank journeyed to Florida in special military aircraft traveling from covert sites located in Utah and Texas, and from Carroll Island, Md., and Plum Island, N.Y. Frank, whose specialty at Camp Detrick following the war was the airborne delivery of lethal diseases and other substances, also made trips to England where he would visit Porton Down, formally called the Chemical and Microbiological Defense Experimental Establishment. Here British scientists were conducting a series of covert experiments with LSD and various nerve gases. About 1,000 military personnel, men and women, throughout the years 1952 and 1953 were used as guinea pigs in these tests.
Years later, The London Times revealed that 25 people might have died as a result of the experiments. One of the fatalities was RAF airman Ronald Maddison. On May 6, 1953, after having a minute amount of sarin dripped onto his arm, Maddison turned blue and began foaming at the mouth. After about 20 minutes, he experienced violent convulsions and died. Port-of-entry stamps on Frank Olson's passport reveal that he may have been present for some of these experiments.
Camp Detrick's biological warfare (SO) Division's experimental activities also branched out into more esoteric directions. Again, Florida, as well as five other Southern states and Haiti, Costa Rica, Panama, and Cuba, were visited by Olsen in the pursuit of these highly classified activities. Over a span of four years, Olson traveled to all of these places and also central Africa and Morocco. In 1950, the CIA with the assistance of the SO Division launched a global quest to locate, collect, and catalog samples of every natural and organically grown plant with lethal or hallucinogenic properties. Quickly the search was expanded to include animal poisons of all kinds. In 1951, after the CIA entered into a formal agreement with Detrick's SO Division, Dr. Friedrich Hoffman was placed in charge of the quest. Hoffmann, a highly trained chemist, was a former Nazi scientist who in 1949 was secreted from Germany into the United States to initially work with the SO Division on the development of nerve gases, tabun, and sarin. At the time, Olson was chief of SO's Planning, Training and Intelligence Section, a position that brought him into direct contact with Dr. Hoffman.
Eventually in the mid-1960s, Dr. Hoffmann's efforts evolved into the CIA-created and controlled Amazon Natural Drug Co. As it was commonly called, ANDCO was operated by Joseph Caldwell King, the CIA's former Western hemisphere chief who had been a major participant in the agency's early assassination programs. King was familiar and fond of life south of the border having been stationed in Argentina from 1941 to 1945 and in Guatemala from 1952 to 1953. Assisting King with ANDCO business was Garland Williams, the former head of the Federal Narcotics Bureau's New York branch.
Former CIA employees who were close to King and Williams say that ANDCO "shipped hundreds of crates filled with hallucinogenic plants back to the CIA and Fort Detrick." Revealing motives behind some of the shipments,
Authors Gerald Colby and Charlotte Dennett wrote in 1995 that Detrick scientists "fed simians (monkeys) food that was laced with dust from pulverized Amazonian magic plants to see if they could be induced to kill one another."
The murder of Maj. Frank Olsen, Nov. 1953
Chief of the Ft. Detrick's biological warfare (SO) Division: Col. Vincent Ruwet
In 1951, CIA entered into a formal agreement with SO Division
Chief of Planning, Training and Intelligence Section, SO: Major/ Dr. Frank Olson, USA
He was allegedly murdered by CIA on Nov. 1953 in New York City after falling out of a hotel window.
At the time of Frank Olson's death, George H. White operated a CIA-funded safe house that was used for surreptitious LSD and other drug experiments. He was a former OSS counter-intelligence officer during World War II with at least two controversial wartime assassinations under his own belt and his former boss was Garland Williams. Williams was the former head of the Federal Narcotics Bureau's New York branch and a former officer with the Army's Counter Intelligence Corps, Special Strategic Intelligence Division who, according to confidential correspondence, was "deeply involved in the interrogation of Korean POWs.
Dr. Harold A. Abramson, a highly noted allergist who during World War II had worked with Frank Olson. Dr. Abramson had been the "psychiatrist" that Olson was taken to see in New York after the CIA suspected Olsen might disclose the unethical activities of the CIA.
As soon after Olsen was murder the on-duty CIA security officer Bernard Doran received an earlier call at about 4 a.m. from Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, chief of the CIA's Chemical Branch. Gottlieb told Doran that there had been "an incident in a hotel in New York City involving a death" that required "immediate priority attention." Gottlieb explained that CIA employee Robert V. Lashbrook, assistant chief of the Chemical Branch, had been in the room when the incident occurred and was now awaiting further instructions.
After speaking with Gottlieb, Doran immediately telephoned his superior, Sheffield Edwards, CIA director of Security, and informed him "an Agency employee assigned to an eyes-only project at Camp Detrick, Frederick, Md., had dived through a window at the Statler Hotel in New York City." Detectives from the 14th Precinct were investigating.
Edwards ordered Doran to summon Dr. Gottlieb and his superior, Dr. Willis Gibbons, chief of the CIA's Technical Services Section, to meet him as soon as possible with a group of sensor CIA Directors. Once everyone was there and Edwards had been thoroughly briefed on the incident, he instructed Dr. Gottlieb to tell Lashbrook to vacate the hotel room in which the incident had occurred and "to take another room at the Hotel (the room he had shared with Olsen) and await a later phone call from us." Said Edwards, "Tell him to talk to nobody until we get someone there with him."
Edwards then dispatched two special security agents from the CIA and the Department of Defense "to assist [Lashbrook] and follow any future dealings or interviews with the police." Next, Edwards telephoned Robert H. Cunningham, the CIA's Cover Branch chief of its Special Security Division. Cunningham was to begin immediately setting up employment backstopping for Lashbrook so that any further law-enforcement investigations, or other inquiries, would not uncover Lashbrook's connections to the CIA. (Backstopping is the process by which the CIA creates a viable, fully documented employment alias for an employee.)
Forensic evidence conflicted with the official version of events; when Olson's body was exhumed in1994 and Olson's cranial injuries indicated he had been knocked unconscious before he exited the window. CIA officer John McNulty was sharing the hotel room and present at the time Olson allegedly jumped out a window to his death.
In February 1954, prior to the death of Olson, a secret agreement between the CIA and the US Department of Justice put in place an agreement whereby the violation of "criminal statutes" by CIA personnel would not result in Department of Justice prosecutions, if "highly classified and complex covert operations" were threatened with exposure.
Paul F. Gaynor was a former Army Brigadier General, who had extensive experience in wartime interrogations. He said, "All individuals can be broken under mental and physical assaults and by such techniques as denying sleep, exhaustion, persuasion, starvation, pain, humiliation, and sickness." .
Experiments were done regarding interrogation techniques using hypnosis, drugs, total isolation and detecting when someone is lying. and torture using methods based Nazi experiments
"The problem exists of ascertaining whether effective and practical techniques exist, or could be developed, which could be utilized to render an individual subservient to an imposed will or control, thereby posing a potential threat to National Security."
Black Psychiatry refers to psychiatric methods used by trained and licensed physicians on subjects. These methods may not be in the best interest of the subject's mental well-being and health." The same official remarked, "There was no shortage of or problems recruiting psychologists in the 1950s and 1960s who would willfully, and sometimes enthusiastically, practice 'Black Psychiatry.'
Project Artichoke Operational Overseas
Beginning in January 1954, following a series of experimental field assignments, the CIA began to systematically dispatch special assignment Artichoke Teams from the U.S. to locations throughout Europe, Japan, Southeast Asia, and the Philippines. Team assignments were given by special "EYES ONLY" cables with each assigned a tracking number. By 1961 Artichoke Teams were ordered to do as many as 257 specific assignments - "enhanced interrogations."
"These two subjects [foreign agents] are disposal problems, one because of his lack of ability to carry out a mission and the other because he cannot get along with the chief agent of the project. Both have extensive information concerning (other) assets and thus are security risks wherever they are disposed of. Anything that can be done in the Artichoke field to lessen the security risk will be helpful since the men must be disposed of even at maximum security risk. The urgency of consideration of this case is due to the fact that one of the men is already somewhat stir crazy and has tried to escape twice."
Gaynor was notorious among CIA officials for having his staff maintain a systematic file on every homosexual, and suspected homosexual, among the ranks of Federal employees, as well as those who worked and served on Washington's Capitol Hill. Gaynor's secret listing eventually grew to include the names of employees and elected officials at State government levels, and the siblings and relatives of those on Capitol Hill.
In 1954, U.S. Senator Lester C. Hunt (D-WY) killed himself in his senate office after he was threatened by Republicans, using information provided by Gaynor's staff, to publicly expose his son's homosexuality.
David Atlee Phillips joined the CIA as a part-time agent in 1950 in Chile, where he owned and edited The South Pacific Mail, an English-language newspaper that circulated throughout South America and several islands in the Pacific.
CIA officer Robert "Bob" T. Crowley stated that the CIA used PR firms like the Hill and Knowlton's (H&K) "to put out press releases and make media contacts to further its positions. ...H&K employees at the small Washington office and elsewhere distributed this material through CIA assets working in the US news media." "Hill and Knowlton's overseas offices were perfect cover for the ever-expanding CIA. Unlike other cover jobs, being a public relations specialist did not require technical training for CIA officers." News organizations ordered their employees to cooperate with the CIA, including the San Diego-based Copley News Service.
Among the executives who lent their cooperation to the CIA were William Paley of the Columbia Broadcasting System, Henry Luce of Time Inc., Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the New York Times, Barry Bingham Sr. of the Louisville Courier-Journal and James Copley of the Copley News Service. Other organizations which cooperated with the CIA include the American Broadcasting Company, the National Broadcasting Company, the Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, Newsweek magazine, the Mutual Broadcasting System, The Miami Herald, and the old Saturday Evening Post and New York Herald-Tribune. By far the most valuable of these associations, according to CIA officials, have been with The New York Times, CBS, and Time Inc.
William Colby exclaimed at one point to the Church committee's investigators. "Let's go to the managements. They were witting" In all, about twenty-five news organizations (including those listed at the beginning of this article) provided cover for the Agency... http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=8574
Another major use for its money was a campaign to bankroll alternatives in Western Europe to Soviet-influenced newspapers and books. Attempting to influence the attitudes of students and intellectuals, the CIA sponsored literary magazines in Germany ( Der Monat ) and Britain ( Encounter), promoted abstract expressionism in art as a radical alternative to the Soviet Union's socialist realism, and secretly funded the publication and distribution of over two and a half million books and periodicals. Weiner treats these activities rather cursorily. He should have consulted Frances Stonor Saunders' indispensable The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters.
In 1958 the book, Masters of Deceit was published. It was supposedly written by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, and it became a massive bestseller. In truth, the book has been written by four for five Bureau agents assigned to the job and is finally polished up by Fern Stukenbroeker, an agent with a Ph. D. who works in Crime Records. FBI agents all over the country are required to promote the book and to place "reviews" -- written in advance at the Bureau -- with friendly newspapers. A controlling interest in Henry Holt, the publisher, is owned by Clint Murchison. Murchison virtually instructs the company to buy the book and expresses his desire that Hoover be given an especially favorable contract.
On February 9, 1958 J. Edgar Hoover announces that he intends to give all of his royalties from his book, to the FBI Recreational Association. No one thinks to ask Hoover what this association is. In reality, it is a slush fund established for Hoover, Clyde Tolson and key FBI aides. It is also a money laundering operation so Hoover will not have to pay taxes on his book royalties. When the television series "The FBI" premieres in 1965 and runs for nine years, Hoover receives a $500 payment for each episode. Every cent goes into the FBI Recreational Association.
Copyrighted April 29, 2013