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Re: Mexican Impression

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  • David Rickman
    Actually John, I do think so. I ve been using a picture of a French Napoleonic hussar for years in my slide and PowerPoint presentations to explain the origins
    Message 1 of 33 , Aug 16, 2007
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      Actually John, I do think so. I've been using a picture of a French
      Napoleonic hussar for years in my slide and PowerPoint presentations
      to explain the origins of calzoneras. The garment (though not the
      name) comes from the German "scharawaden" which, via the
      French "charivari" came to be known by the British
      as "sherryvallies." I believe they must have arrived in Mexico via
      Spanish troops some time in the the Napoleonic era, though I have
      yet to find an example of their use by Spanish troops in the New
      World. Many examples of these coveralls actually used the same ball
      and chain buttons as the later calzoneras.

      The history of calzoneras is a bit more complicated, though. In the
      18th century, there are some examples of breeches that button all
      the way from the knee to the hip (Thomas Jefferson owned a pair). As
      early as the 17th century, European breeches could have the outside
      seam decorated with a line of buttons - so there may have been other
      influences.

      Best wishes,
      David
      --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, john navarro <jlnjake@...> wrote:
      >
      > David,
      > Thanks, Do you think the calzoneras were an adaption
      > of the Hussar coveralls that unbuttoned all the way up
      > both sides? or are my time periods off?
      > John
      > --- David Rickman <drickman@...> wrote:
      >
      > > Hello John,
      > > You might try Googling the book (David Rickman,
      > > Sutters Fort Costume
      > > Manual). If all else fails, I understand that they
      > > still sell it at
      > > Sutters Fort gift shop (and will mail it to you) and
      > > perhaps at Old
      > > Town San Diego - I'm not sure about this last,
      > > though they use it
      > > there.
      > >
      > > Yes, the breeches I mentioned are in this book, in a
      > > black and white
      > > line drawing I did. I've worked extensively with
      > > these, just one of
      > > two pairs that I know of that survived to the
      > > present. They belonged
      > > to one of the Sepulveda family and are said by
      > > tradition to have
      > > been his wedding breeches - which might explain
      > > their survival. They
      > > are made of black silk satin with red piping, silver
      > > hand-made
      > > buttons, and lined with printed cotton. They were
      > > definitely
      > > civilian, but in cut they are very much what was
      > > worn by soldiers in
      > > California into the 1820s and early 1830s. Perhaps
      > > the open seam to
      > > the hip might be a bit too civilian for a strictly
      > > military
      > > application, and of course the fabric and buttons,
      > > but the cut
      > > probably came into California with Portola and Anza.
      > > It was
      > > California's isolation that turned these into folk
      > > costume.
      > >
      > > There is a painting done in about 1850 of three
      > > young Californio
      > > vaqueros subduing a cow. Two of the men wear leather
      > > calzoneras
      > > while the third wears dark blue woolen breeches
      > > (calzones). If you
      > > have ever walked about in calzoneras, you will see
      > > why some people
      > > think that vaqueros favored breeches over the
      > > open-sided trousers
      > > while working. However, real Californio vaqueros
      > > could do 90% of
      > > their work from the saddle anyway and leave the rest
      > > to the peons.
      > >
      > > Best wishes,
      > > David
      > >
      > > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, john navarro
      > > <jlnjake@> wrote:
      > > >
      > > > David,
      > > > Where would one get a copy of your Sutter's Fort
      > > > costume manual? and are there pictures of the
      > > breeches
      > > > with the triangle flap fly and the dog ear
      > > pockets?
      > > > And are the 1820 L.A. breeches Civilian or
      > > military?
      > > >
      > > > THANKS, John Navarro
      > > >
      > > > --- David Rickman <drickman@> wrote:
      > > >
      > > > > Hello Bruno,
      > > > > Your link just took me to a page that said that
      > > my
      > > > > Yahoo connection
      > > > > had timed out.
      > > > >
      > > > > While I think those of us who don't usually sew
      > > > > would be better off
      > > > > finding a tailor, such as Custom Vestments, I
      > > did
      > > > > find one button-
      > > > > fly breeches pattern,"French Soldiers' Small
      > > > > Clothes, c. 1750" at
      > > > > Wm. Booth, Draper: http://wmboothdraper.com/. I
      > > > > don't know anything
      > > > > about the pattern, but it could be a start. J.P.
      > > > > Ryan, also carried
      > > > > by this vendor, has a small-fall that is very
      > > good
      > > > > looking - she
      > > > > really understands the cut.
      > > > >
      > > > > I suggest that however someone goes about
      > > obtaining
      > > > > breeches for a
      > > > > Mexican-era impression, he follow the style I
      > > have
      > > > > in my Sutter's
      > > > > Fort Costume Manual. Notice that there is no
      > > > > knee-band, but the
      > > > > little tongue of fabric that hangs down to guard
      > > the
      > > > > stockings from
      > > > > the knee buckles is still present. Also, the
      > > legs of
      > > > > the breeches
      > > > > are open from the waistband to mid-thigh, where
      > > > > there is a
      > > > > functioning button, and then open from there
      > > > > downward. The buttons
      > > > > at the bottom of the leg do not function
      > > (ornamental
      > > > > buttonholes
      > > > > only), so the breeches were meant to always hang
      > > > > open. My drawing is
      > > > > based on an actual pair of breeches from the
      > > 1820s,
      > > > > Los Angeles.
      > > > >
      > > > > David
      > > > >
      > > > > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, Bruno Willinski
      > > > > <lordjim92704@>
      > > > > wrote:
      > > > > >
      > > > > > David,
      > > > > >
      > > > > > Is this what you are talking about?
      > > > > >
      > > > > > http://us.f564.mail.yahoo.com/ym/ShowLetter?
      > > > >
      > > >
      > >
      >
      MsgId=8828_4733357_247448_2959_6866_0_75866_22047_292340872&Idx=3&YY=
      > > > >
      > > >
      > >
      >
      6960&y5beta=yes&y5beta=yes&inc=25&order=down&sort=date&pos=0&view=a&h
      > > > > ead=b&box=Inbox
      > > > > >
      > > > > > David Rickman <drickman@> wrote:
      > > > > > Hola!
      > > > > > I wanted to stay out of this discussion
      > > because it
      > > > > is one that I
      > > > > > have been having now for decades. Here is the
      > > long
      > > > > and the short
      > > > > of
      > > > > > it (literally): no one makes accurate
      > > calzoneras
      > > > > (button-sided
      > > > > > trousers) for the Mexican Era. No one. The
      > > biggest
      > > > > problem is
      > > > > > buttons - silver ball buttons on chains. Also,
      > > the
      > > > > calzoneras need
      > > > > > to be patterned on men's trousers of the era -
      > > not
      > > > > the 1880s the
      > > > > way
      > > > > > the old Horsefly calzoneras were. They need
      > > many
      > > > > other details to
      > > > > > make them accurate, not the least of which is
      > > that
      > > > > they must be
      > > > > > fully lined with printed fabric.
      > > > > >
      > > > > > What I recommend to you is to have some
      > > breeches
      > > > > made on the
      > > > > pattern
      > > > > > of the 1760s (button-fly, not narrow fall).
      > > Have
      > > > > them custom made
      > > > > > out of good quality blue, black, or brown (the
      > > > > most common colors)
      > > > > > wool. Line them with replica period pattern
      > > cotton
      > > > > and get good
      > > > > > quality all-metal buttons with shanks. Wear
      > > these
      > > > > with white
      > > > > cotton
      > > > > > drawers that reach below your knees and you
      > > will
      > > > > be accurate up to
      > > > > > Gold Rush Era - especially if you are over 40
      > > > > years of age.
      > > > > > Calzoneras came in in 1834, but some men in
      > > > > California kept
      > > > > wearing
      > > > > > breeches until the 1850s, especially if they
      > > were
      > > > > older. One of
      > > > > > these days someone will make accurate
      > > calzoneras
      > > > > "off-the-rack"
      > > > > but
      > >
      > === message truncated ===
      >
    • leroymartinez1@cox.net
      My ancestor was born in Spain on my paternal side. I am 13 generations removed from him. Guess I must be a cholo 13 times over. At least others have made
      Message 33 of 33 , Sep 3, 2007
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        My ancestor was born in Spain on my paternal side. I am 13 generations removed from him. Guess I must be a cholo 13 times over. At least others have made similar remarks. I am sure many settlers in the new america were gentlemen.

        In disgust, Leroy
        ---- Robert A Stevens <bobybaby@...> wrote:
        > Lance through my heart.
        > Thank you, David, for revisiting California's own little black legend of the "cholo infantry".
        > The descriptions you site originated with the 2nd & 3rd generation Californios who opposed these newcomers on a lot of different levels, their own mulatto, mestizo and indio antecedents having apparently turned pure Castillian during the intervening 50 years.
        > Somehow I suspect the truth is not quite so dire.
        > But, history has a way of paying people back. A major historical pageant in southern California a few years ago revived the prison scrapings myth, but applied it to the soldados with Portola and Serra.
        > I do wholly agree with you about using third person. I love La Purisima, but their reverence for 1st person has become it's own purity myth.
        > I believe a competent third person presentation will beat out a bad first person interpretation every time. Because, in the end, it's all about telling a story.
        > Bob
        >
        >
        >
        > David Rickman <drickman@...> wrote:
        > Hello Bruce,
        > This is, of course, one of the problems with 1st person living
        > history - finding a persona which is representative of the period
        > but fits your own profile. In your case, the problem is that all the
        > decent troops in California (after the Catalans departed) were
        > cavalry. California was a horse society, with visitors noting that
        > the men would hardly cross the street without getting onto a horse.
        > There were infantry units sent to California in the 19th century,
        > including after the Bouchard Invasion of 1818. Most, or even all of
        > these (they are not my specialty) were "cholo" units - the emptying
        > of prisons and scrapings of the streets of Mexico, composed mostly
        > of mulatto, mestizo, Indio and other non-whites. Most of
        > these "soldiers" arrived nearly naked - so you will be alright
        > there. My advice, as always, is to go with a third-person impression
        > since your costume cannot be absolutely perfect just yet. My other
        > piece of advice is, as always, do not attempt unscripted 1st person
        > at early Californian sites unless you can meet some pretty stringent
        > qualifications.
        >
        > As a matter of fact, I was just at La Purisima State Historic Park
        > in California, where I spoke to the volunteer and professional
        > interpreters about just these problems. Briefly, La Purisima
        > interprets a Franciscan Mission in 1822, where there were only about
        > 8 Spanish/Mexicans (the change of government was that year) and more
        > than 1000 Native Californian neophytes. Almost all of these roles
        > are taken by white (there is one African American) volunteers, most
        > of whom are senior citizens. Since they are not appropriate for
        > their roles because of ethnicity, age, skills, knowledge, physique,
        > world view, costumes and language, I suggested that they stick to
        > 3rd person interpretation, including demonstrations of skills and
        > dramatic storytelling - this really works well in sites I've
        > visited, including old Philadelphia. You get the personal
        > involvement of 1st person, without all they leaps of imagination it
        > requires.
        >
        > Best wishes,
        > David
        >
        > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, Bruno Willinski <lordjim92704@...>
        > wrote:
        > >
        > > Hi David,
        > >
        > > I am doing Californio soldado of the Mexican War. I have all
        > the Osprey books on the subject, incl the new one on Santa Ana's
        > army. I'm not too found of doing a lancero because I never really
        > like the concept of mtd impression w/o a horse. I am really trying
        > to find more about any Californio infantry units. I know the whole
        > vaquero/landero things is cool, bitching, romantic, and such but not
        > w/o a horse.
        > >
        > > This will be for a new living history program at the Pico
        > Mansion.
        > >
        > > So, yes, I will wait to see what I can come up with. I was
        > actually planning to wear a wool poncho over the shirt.
        > >
        > > Thanx for the good advice
        > >
        > > Bruce
        > >
        > > David Rickman <drickman@...> wrote:
        > > Hello Bruce,
        > > I'm a little confused. I didn't know you were doing a Mexican-era
        > > _soldier_. I assumed you were doing a civilian. So, what years of
        > > Mexican rule are you doing? The breeches only work up to about
        > 1834
        > > because, unlike civilians, soldiers had less of an option for what
        > > they wore. The earliest regulations for Mexican uniforms for
        > > California that I can find date to 1838, though they probably
        > > confirmed much of what was worn there already. The earliest
        > > description of a California soldier of the Mexican Era comes from
        > > the Beechey expedition in the mid-1820s:
        > >
        > > Beechey, Frederick W.
        > > 1941 An Account of a Visit to California 1826-'27 (San Francisco,
        > > The Grabhorn Press)
        > >
        > > 21.-22. [Soldados' arms and armor, 1826]. "The [22.] troops
        > carried
        > > with them their armour and shields, as a defence against the
        > arrows
        > > of the Indians: the armour consisted of a helmet and jerkin made
        > of
        > > stout skins, quite impenetrable to an arrow, and the shields might
        > > almost vie with that of Ajax in the number of its folds."
        > >
        > > 33.-34. [Soldados de Cuera, Presidio of San Francisco,
        > 1826]. ". . .
        > > the rattling accoutrements of a Californian dragoon announced the
        > > [34.] arrival of the passport from the governor . . .
        > > I must not , however, permit the party to proceed farther
        > > without introducing to the notice of the reader the costume and
        > > equipment of this dragoon of California. As for his person, I do
        > not
        > > find it described [presumably in the notes Beechey's officers took
        > > and from which their captain wrote this account of their excursion
        > > into the country], but his dress consisted of a round blue cloth
        > > jacket with red cuffs and collar; blue velvet breeches, which,
        > being
        > > unbuttoned at the knees, gave greater display to a pair of white
        > > cotton stockings, cased more than half way in a pair of deer-skin
        > > boots. A black hat, as broad in the brim as it was
        > > disproportionately low in the crown, kept in order, by its own
        > > weight, a profusion of dark hair, which met behind, and dangled
        > half
        > > way down the back in the form of a thick queue. A long musket,
        > with
        > > a fox skin bound round the lock, was balanced upon the pummel of
        > the
        > > saddle; our hero was further provided for defence against the
        > > Indians with a bull's hide shield, on which, notwithstanding the
        > > revolution of the colony, were emblazoned the royal arms of Spain,
        > > and by a double-fold deer-skin cuirass as a covering for his body.
        > > Thus accoutered he bestrode a saddle, which retained him in his
        > seat
        > > by a high pummel in front and a corresponding rise behind. His
        > feet
        > > were armed at the heels with a tremendous pair of iron spurs,
        > > secured by a metal chain; and were thrust through an enormous pair
        > > of wooden box-shaped stirrups."
        > >
        > > Do note that the velvet breeches are in keeping with the 1772
        > > Spanish regulations that called for breeches and jacket both to be
        > > made of wool velvet, by preference, and only secondarily of wool
        > > cloth.
        > >
        > > The 1838 Regulations - the last I know of that covered California -
        > > were summarized in Nieto, Brown, and Hefter's "El Soldado
        > Mexicano"
        > > (1965). There were two uniforms, a dress and a field. You are
        > > probably only interested in the field uniform:
        > >
        > > "Their field uniform was a dark blue round jacket with deep red
        > > collar and cuffs, grey side-buttoning chaparreras (calzoneras)
        > over
        > > boots . . . round hat with white band and a dark blue cape." The
        > > drawing in the book reconstructing this uniform shows the collar
        > of
        > > the field uniform jacket with the letters "AC" (Alta California)
        > > embroidered, and stripes on the trouser legs. Just what these
        > > details are based on, they don't say, but since the saddle in the
        > > drawing is entirely wrong, these gentlemen were not infallible.
        > >
        > > You will do as you like, of course, but I would wait a bit if I
        > were
        > > you and not appear in a living history impression, especially not
        > a
        > > 1st person impression, wearing only breeches and a shirt. This was
        > > not even decent dress in public for a civilian of the period, much
        > > less a soldier.
        > >
        > > Best wishes,
        > > David
        > > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, Bruno Willinski <lordjim92704@>
        > > wrote:
        > > >
        > > > Amigos,
        > > >
        > > > I want to thank everyone for all the great advice. I am going
        > > to start out simple with some period front fly breeches, period
        > > shirt, hate, lance (I already have the head), sword, Tower pistol,
        > > and period shoes.
        > > >
        > > > My impression will evovle as time goes on. I have a good Renn
        > > seamstress and she might be albe to make the Vaqueor clothes for
        > > me. I've got to get this going.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > Fort Sutter does not have the book on their website. I will call
        > > them when I return. Google and Yahoo searches did not turn up
        > much.
        > > DGW does not have it listed nor does Old Town San Diego.
        > Hopefully,
        > > one of you can download something.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > I will keep you guys updated if something comes up.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > I did find this on Amazon
        > > > http://www.amazon.com/Vaqueros-Americas-Cowmen-Martin-
        > > Sandler/dp/0805060197/ref=sr_1_2/002-0637452-6331221?
        > > ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1187234879&sr=8-2
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > Bruce
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > John Lawrence <johnmlaw@> wrote:
        > > > John,
        > > > I got my copy from Dixie Gun Works. I am not sure
        > > > they still carry it. I need to replace my copy as I
        > > > loaned it out and it never came home.
        > > > John Lawrence
        > > > --- john navarro <jlnjake@> wrote:
        > > >
        > > > > David,
        > > > > Where would one get a copy of your Sutter's Fort
        > > > > costume manual? and are there pictures of the
        > > > > breeches
        > > > > with the triangle flap fly and the dog ear pockets?
        > > > > And are the 1820 L.A. breeches Civilian or military?
        > > > >
        > > > >
        > > > > THANKS, John Navarro
        > > > >
        > > > > --- David Rickman <drickman@> wrote:
        > > > >
        > > > > > Hello Bruno,
        > > > > > Your link just took me to a page that said that my
        > > > > > Yahoo connection
        > > > > > had timed out.
        > > > > >
        > > > > > While I think those of us who don't usually sew
        > > > > > would be better off
        > > > > > finding a tailor, such as Custom Vestments, I did
        > > > > > find one button-
        > > > > > fly breeches pattern,"French Soldiers' Small
        > > > > > Clothes, c. 1750" at
        > > > > > Wm. Booth, Draper: http://wmboothdraper.com/. I
        > > > > > don't know anything
        > > > > > about the pattern, but it could be a start. J.P.
        > > > > > Ryan, also carried
        > > > > > by this vendor, has a small-fall that is very good
        > > > > > looking - she
        > > > > > really understands the cut.
        > > > > >
        > > > > > I suggest that however someone goes about
        > > > > obtaining
        > > > > > breeches for a
        > > > > > Mexican-era impression, he follow the style I have
        > > > > > in my Sutter's
        > > > > > Fort Costume Manual. Notice that there is no
        > > > > > knee-band, but the
        > > > > > little tongue of fabric that hangs down to guard
        > > > > the
        > > > > > stockings from
        > > > > > the knee buckles is still present. Also, the legs
        > > > > of
        > > > > > the breeches
        > > > > > are open from the waistband to mid-thigh, where
        > > > > > there is a
        > > > > > functioning button, and then open from there
        > > > > > downward. The buttons
        > > > > > at the bottom of the leg do not function
        > > > > (ornamental
        > > > > > buttonholes
        > > > > > only), so the breeches were meant to always hang
        > > > > > open. My drawing is
        > > > > > based on an actual pair of breeches from the
        > > > > 1820s,
        > > > > > Los Angeles.
        > > > > >
        > > > > > David
        > > > > >
        > > > > > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, Bruno Willinski
        > > > > > <lordjim92704@>
        > > > > > wrote:
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > David,
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > Is this what you are talking about?
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > http://us.f564.mail.yahoo.com/ym/ShowLetter?
        > > > > >
        > > > >
        > > >
        > >
        > MsgId=8828_4733357_247448_2959_6866_0_75866_22047_292340872&Idx=3&YY=
        > > > > >
        > > > >
        > > >
        > >
        > 6960&y5beta=yes&y5beta=yes&inc=25&order=down&sort=date&pos=0&view=a&h
        > > > > > ead=b&box=Inbox
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > David Rickman <drickman@> wrote:
        > > > > > > Hola!
        > > > > > > I wanted to stay out of this discussion because
        > > > > it
        > > > > > is one that I
        > > > > > > have been having now for decades. Here is the
        > > > > long
        > > > > > and the short
        > > > > > of
        > > > > > > it (literally): no one makes accurate calzoneras
        > > > > > (button-sided
        > > > > > > trousers) for the Mexican Era. No one. The
        > > > > biggest
        > > > > > problem is
        > > > > > > buttons - silver ball buttons on chains. Also,
        > > > > the
        > > > > > calzoneras need
        > > > > > > to be patterned on men's trousers of the era -
        > > > > not
        > > > > > the 1880s the
        > > > > > way
        > > > > > > the old Horsefly calzoneras were. They need many
        > > > > > other details to
        > > > > > > make them accurate, not the least of which is
        > > > > that
        > > > > > they must be
        > > > > > > fully lined with printed fabric.
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > What I recommend to you is to have some breeches
        > > > > > made on the
        > > > > > pattern
        > > > > > > of the 1760s (button-fly, not narrow fall). Have
        > > > > > them custom made
        > > > > > > out of good quality blue, black, or brown (the
        > > > > > most common colors)
        > > > > > > wool. Line them with replica period pattern
        > > > > cotton
        > > > > > and get good
        > > > > > > quality all-metal buttons with shanks. Wear
        > > > > these
        > > > > > with white
        > > > > > cotton
        > > > > > > drawers that reach below your knees and you will
        > > > > > be accurate up to
        > > > > > > Gold Rush Era - especially if you are over 40
        > > > > > years of age.
        > > > > > > Calzoneras came in in 1834, but some men in
        > > > > > California kept
        > > > > > wearing
        > > > > > > breeches until the 1850s, especially if they
        > > > > were
        > > > > > older. One of
        > > > > > > these days someone will make accurate calzoneras
        > > > > > "off-the-rack"
        > > > > > but
        > > > > > > not now.
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > Now all you have to do is solve the problem of
        > > > > > accurate shoes and
        > > > > > > botas.
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > David
        > > > > > >
        > > > > > > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, Bruno Willinski
        > > > > > <lordjim92704@>
        > > > > > > wrote:
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Muchas Gracias Estaban,
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > I want to do a first-rate impression since
        > > > > this
        > > > > > will be from
        > > > > > > interpretive history.
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Bruce
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Steve Clugston <steveclugston@> wrote:
        > > > > > > > "Horsefly" was in Henrietta, Texas, if that
        > > > > > helps. Maybe
        > > > > > > they are not in business? I remember seeing
        > > > > > vaquero clothes posted
        > > > > > > with other sutlers. I'll send some contact info
        > > > > > soon.
        > > > > > > > -Steve
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Bruce Charles Willis <lordjim92704@> wrote:
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Steve,
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Can you please give me some info on swords.
        > > > > > Also, I can not seem
        > > > > > > to
        > > > > > > > locate any of the Western suppliers that have
        > > > > > the vaquero
        > > > > > > clothing.
        > > > > > > > Any help would be appreciated. Thanx
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > Bruce
        > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > --- In Soldados@yahoogroups.com, Steve
        > > > > Clugston
        > > > > > <steveclugston@>
        > > > > > > > wrote:
        > > > > > > > >
        > > > > > > > > The Californios were mostly mounted lancers
        > > > > of
        > > > > > the 1846-47
        > > > > > > period
        > > > > > > > and used whatever firearms were available.
        > > > > > Pistols were favored
        > > > > > > for
        > > > > > > > mounted use as well (Tower pistol style, for
        > > > > > exmple) as carbines
        > > > > > > > were rare, although I haven't seen
        > > > > documentation
        > > > > > on carbines,
        > > > > > > > (muzzleloading at this time) one way or the
        > > > > > other. British arms
        > > > > > > > like Brown Besses were available, however,
        > > > > most
        > > > > > of the
        > > > > > Californio
        > > > > > > > impressions do not use infantry arms or carry
        > > > > > them around. There
        > > > > > > is
        > > > >
        > > > === message truncated ===
        > > >
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        > > >
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