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Vychodna Festival 2013

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  • Ron
    I start Slovak school tomorrow and left Krakow Friday on my way to Bratislava / Modra. I had a choice of long distance direct bus or winding my way through the
    Message 1 of 8 , Jul 6, 2013
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      I start Slovak school tomorrow and left Krakow Friday on my way to Bratislava / Modra. I had a choice of long distance direct bus or winding my way through the country. I chose the latter and headed to Zakopane,PL, where I spent some hours waiting for my connecting bus to Poprad, but met many friendly and helpful people. The town itself is terribly crowded and busy, and I highly recommend the Slovak side of the Tatras.

      I didn't want to spend the night in Poprad as that is too close to home, perhaps 50 km from the families I am so familiar with, so I caught a train pretty promptly to Liptovsky Mikulaus, am in a fine hotel at the moment, after breakfast. I have to pack and catch the 11:00 train to Bratislava and then bus to Modra today, Sunday.

      Yesterday I headed to the oldest folk festival in Slovakia, I believe, at Vychodna, on the southern slopes of the High Tatras. It is between here and Poprad, half an hour on the train. I was late, the train was late, I asked a man if it stopped at Vychodna and he asked me to sit in their cabin and get off with them. So we had an interesting if somewhat difficult chat along the way. I got there just as the train did, so I rode without a ticket, figuring the fine would be worth two additional hours at the festival.

      I have never seen as many folk costumes as I did at the folk festival. Men's costumes as well, worn by most vendors as well as performers. The vendors were nice people, there was mostly high quality stuff for sale, and it was a very good atmosphere. It was like a US county fair in many ways. It is a village fair as well and I had the luck to take a break from the festival and performances on multiple stages and walk through the town, where most noticeably they had traffic control citizens at many places to keep parking at the designated area and life / presentation in the village pleasant. And the village does present itself quite well. Many places display colorful and folded linens in the windows, costumes, or dolls and ??. There is also a 'traditional house', one of the old log houses, outfitted with old furnishings and full costumes on hangars and interior details to admire, including two wood burning old clay ovens, one of which heated two rooms. I stumbled upon the assembly point for the village parade of performers and happily there was a tavern there with good beer and better views of the assembly, which took some time and the groups performed among themselves, either in practice, warmup or for the fun of it. It was quite colorful, musical and fine to experience and enjoy from the shade in the tavern porch with a good beer to liquify my body with.

      I then followed them up the street, through the village as they paraded and performed on their way to the festival. This is one of many serendipitous happenings over the last weeks I have enjoyed.

      Of the many excellent vendors and displays, there was an active blacksmith who serves as a good example. He was set up with a nice display and an active forge, in costume and with just the right attitude to really add to they joy of the fair. Or is it festival, or both? He invited kids and rotated them through his forge, some working the bellows, some hammering the hot iron (with him putting on the defining finishing blows) one girl in particular did a fine job. It was great for the kids, families, photos and hopefully the blacksmith.

      I am glad I took the long way to Bratislava and gambled on getting to the fair. Now to pack up and catch the express train.

      Oh, I looked for S-W member Vlad Linder, but my cell phone was discharged and I didn't locate him or his car. Perhaps another time.
    • Florian C. Simala, Jr.
      Our grandson is currently visiting cousins in Trstena, Orava and is scheduled to go to the Vychodna Festival today.  He was met by the cousins at John Paul II
      Message 2 of 8 , Jul 7, 2013
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        Our grandson is currently visiting cousins in Trstena, Orava and is scheduled to go to the Vychodna Festival today.  He was met by the cousins at John Paul II Airport, Balice outside of Krakow last Sunday.  The group then went to Krakow's Market Square where we viewed them on a live web cam feed waving US and Slovak flags!  Since then it has been a non-stop introduction to Goral culture, food and drink in Orava, Slovakia, and Orawa and Podhale, Poland and visits to attractions in Poland and Slovakia.  He goes back to John Paul II Airport tomorrow for a flight to Riga, Latvia where he will stay a week, followed by another week in Berlin before returning to the USA.  Some kids got all the luck! :-)

        Florian

        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Ron
        I was walking the roads and trails where my aunt and cousins live in the Czech Republic and I thought one or two of you might be interested in some vicarious
        Message 3 of 8 , Jul 23, 2013
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          I was walking the roads and trails where my aunt and cousins live in the Czech Republic and I thought one or two of you might be interested in some vicarious experiences. A strong tendency among children of immigrant is to think of the Old Country as it was when grandma and grandpa emigrated, that the culture and land hasn't changed. Of course that is much the same as making the same assumption on life in America over the same period of time.
          I was walking along one trail that was a road in 1948. Today it peters out and ends at a solar farm. On my first visit in 1970 it led past a completed cow barn and one under construction. Today these are used for the core of a turkey farm. There is hardly a cow to be seen.

          This is the former Sudetenen Land, which has been a topic now and then on S-W. The last topic I remember is when someone mentioned Slovaks were forced to come here under the communists, and I
          replied that the immigration started in 1946 and was a free choice. It was an attractive offer for the same reason others emigrated to America from Slovakia - lack of jobs and potential facing everyone back where they grew up. My aunt did clarify one thing, however. The land was not given freely, but was more of what I see from the American experience as a homesteading opportunity. Land and house had to be bought for cash or paid in sweat equity repairs and monthly cash payments over time. That does not address how the program may have changed over time or when the communists took over and changed
          programs nationwide, but this was the case when my aunt and my uncle both brought their families over in 1946.

          I headed to Krakow on the night train and spent a few days in Krakow for the first time. I joined an American Rusyn who's family comes from the north slope of the Carpathians while mine comes from the
          south bank of the Poprad River. We spent a few days together exploring the mountain areas, villages old wooden churches, WW I cemeteries, and it was a rich time for both of us. We share an interest in history, life, connections in the mountains and the way of life and the cottage industry and small industry that existed in these rural areas. Our families were 30 or 40 miles apart and under two different governments within A-H.

          We both have long term experiences on multiple trips and the exchange of ideas and experiences was rich for both of us. We got into Slovakia twice in about 5 days, once hiking over the mountain ridge to Cigelka, where we had a fine time refreshing ourselves with a good Sharish beer while chatting with a Gypsy woman who was relaxing over ice cream with a bunch of kids she was caring for. I was amazed
          at how gentle the mountain slopes were, and how short the hike between the Polish and Slovak villages.

          This trip to Poland was a new experience and on the way out of the mountains extended my stay in Krakow a few nights, it is such an interesting and beautiful city. It has replaced Vienna on my 'golden
          triangle' with Budapest and Prague.

          I am finishing up Slovak Language school now and expect I will consolidate some notes and write about other experiences as well. I am in Europe for the summer, with Slovakia as my main interest.
        • Ron
          Finished up the second weekend before the third and last week of the language course at Modra-Harmonie put on by the University Komenskeho (Capernicus). It is
          Message 4 of 8 , Jul 23, 2013
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            Finished up the second weekend before the third and last week of the language course at Modra-Harmonie put on by the University Komenskeho (Capernicus). It is a good three week course and serving
            as a good refresher for me with good exercise in speaking and using the language. This is great for those of us who don't get to speak the language between visits to Slovakia. There are a lot of beginning
            students and advanced students coming from all over to learn the language or polish their skills so they can study in Slovakia. I had a chance to tour western Slovakia for three days this last week and see new places, and was all fired up for it until I realized that would be three days away from classes. The tour was only €108 more, but I couldn't afford the time away from enforced practice. Three weeks only has 15 class days as it is!

            What I did worked much better for me in any case. I have known Helena Cincebeaux for years and known of her "Slovak Treasure Tours". She was kind enough to invite me to join her and her group after school
            from Friday to Sunday morning, and it was a great experience for me. Getting together was a bit adventurous, as Plan A was scratched when bus #1 arrived 2 minutes after bus #2 left to Beckov Castle.

            Plan B worked well getting Piestany, but as I wa carefully watching village signs for Krakovany, a helpful woman on the bus tapped me on the shoulder and had me get off a village too soon! Walking around
            the village for an hour (remember, men do not ask directions unless desperate) didn't help, but another woman took me to her folk-lorist friend, and they set me off on the back, short path to the other village and set me off when the church spire was in view. It is impressive the extent people will go to to help someone!

            Once I got to Krakovany I passed an old baba in her kroy, and she sent me down the road to "the second left". Before I got to the "second left" I met a fellow in front of a house with full folk costume, and upon asking him, I was told I was the first to arrive and was invited in. All of this was on a hot day with the worry I would not find Helene's group, so I entered and sat in the shade to cool off. Boy did this early arrival give me a foot up on who and how these folk performances are put together!

            * * * * *
            I found myself warmly greeted and in a beautiful farmer's courtyard with long tables set up for the bus load of people Helene was leading, with most everybody in full, beautiful costume. A 5 person band was there practicing their music just for the joy of it, and there were about 7 other fully dressed, mostly all young people full of life and energy and enjoying what they were anticipating. This is the local Krakovany Folk Group, and the evening promised entertainment put on from the heart and not just from performers.

            Helene's group arrived and came in bit by bit, being greeted with bread and slivo, music playing and then being formally greeted, entertained and quite well fed with a delicious dinner. What followed was an entertaining reenactment of a traditional wedding, with all of the tomfoolery and fun that goes on at a genuine wedding. This is where the skeptic in me was pleasantly surprised. Rather than seeing some hokey presentation put on by entertainers, this was a re-eanctment put on by a group who really loves what they do and enjoy their parts. This and the rest of Helene's programs I can highly recommend as a great way to get to experience Slovakia in the short time most Americans have to experience the country. I expect to exceed it only if I ever get an invitation to a family wedding. (come on kids, get busy!)

            Later there were various dances, and I was hooked into joining in the men's hat dance. I have admired this dance when I have seen it, a men's game of musical chairs played with hats, accelerating music, and the challenge of being last man with a hat. Being a White Man who can't dance, I figured I would be out in short order. I had the fun of holding out to last man out, losing to Josef, the good spirited co-guide who works so well with Helene to keep the tours organized, entertaining and fun.

            In the evening I joined in with the tour group, full of interesting people, Americans and Canadians, who were wrapping up their exciting trips with Helene and Josef. Many had stories of getting in touch with families on the tour, and seeing the villages and walking the streets their grandparents came from. Many turned out to be from neighboring villages from my own area around Stara Lubovna. I'll be up there myself in about two weeks.

            People have talked about Helene's tours before, but this was my first exposure, the result of her

            graciousness invitation to join in, since I was in the neighborhood. Saturday morning she had a local

            guide show us around Bratislava before the heat of the day set in, and then we had hours to explore ourselves, and headed off to explore ancient Devin Castle. Some enjoyed wine or beer in the shade and some enjoyed a walk up into the castle with beautiful view of the Danube and Morava Rivers joining below the castle. It was then off to a village on the far side of town and a fine dinner in a local cafe, again in the courtyard, this time under a trellis with wine grapes growing above our heads. In the evening we returned to our hotel and people sat in the cool outdoor cafe socializing in between packing up for heading home the next day.

            It was quite a nice break from school and great fun with a lot of happy people. I will be recommending her tours to a friend of mine who wants to explore Slovakia a bit. The experience is a lot broader and a lot more fun under Helene and Josef that it would be with me showing the friend around. This is a big little country and there is a lot to see and experience to get to know it. These tours do that quite well!

            for any skeptics out there, this is not an info-mercial. Those who know me know my first trip to Slovakia was in 1970, and I have been back many, many times since. This is just my experience and recommendation on one way to maximize your experience if you can swing a trip over here. As for me, I have about 3 weeks in August to enjoy Slovakia, visit, tour and learn on my own, and hike a bit in the Carpathians.

            The next part of my commentary should be on the ancient history revealed in the archaeology museum in Krakow, especially interesting with the lack of information we have in the US on our ancestral neighborhood.

            PS. It is only fair that I include the link if you wish to see what Helena offers
            http://www.our-slovakia.com/slovakia-tour.html
          • Armata, Joseph R
            Hi Ron! Great post! Over 20 years ago I noticed a difference between Slovakia and Poland. As soon as I crossed the border into Poland in the mountain towns,
            Message 5 of 8 , Jul 23, 2013
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              Hi Ron! Great post!

              Over 20 years ago I noticed a difference between Slovakia and Poland. As soon as I crossed the border into Poland in the mountain towns, I saw fewer cars and a lot more horse-drawn wagons. I also saw many priests and nuns in religious garb, something I rarely saw on the Slovak side. Are those still true today in the EU era?

              One of my memories is gingerly climbing up a public trail in the Tatra mountains in a steep and tricky spot, with the assistance of spikes hammered into the rocks around. I looked up and saw coming down the trail towards me a nun in full habit with her arm in a sling! I figured if she can do it in her habit with only one good arm, I should be able to do it too.

              Joe


              -----Original Message-----
              From: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ron
              Sent: Tuesday, July 23, 2013 10:52 AM
              To: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: [Slovak-World] Starting my Tours 2013

              I was walking the roads and trails where my aunt and cousins live in the Czech Republic and I thought one or two of you might be interested in some vicarious experiences. A strong tendency among children of immigrant is to think of the Old Country as it was when grandma and grandpa emigrated, that the culture and land hasn't changed. Of course that is much the same as making the same assumption on life in America over the same period of time.
              I was walking along one trail that was a road in 1948. Today it peters out and ends at a solar farm. On my first visit in 1970 it led past a completed cow barn and one under construction. Today these are used for the core of a turkey farm. There is hardly a cow to be seen.

              This is the former Sudetenen Land, which has been a topic now and then on S-W. The last topic I remember is when someone mentioned Slovaks were forced to come here under the communists, and I
              replied that the immigration started in 1946 and was a free choice. It was an attractive offer for the same reason others emigrated to America from Slovakia - lack of jobs and potential facing everyone back where they grew up. My aunt did clarify one thing, however. The land was not given freely, but was more of what I see from the American experience as a homesteading opportunity. Land and house had to be bought for cash or paid in sweat equity repairs and monthly cash payments over time. That does not address how the program may have changed over time or when the communists took over and changed
              programs nationwide, but this was the case when my aunt and my uncle both brought their families over in 1946.

              I headed to Krakow on the night train and spent a few days in Krakow for the first time. I joined an American Rusyn who's family comes from the north slope of the Carpathians while mine comes from the
              south bank of the Poprad River. We spent a few days together exploring the mountain areas, villages old wooden churches, WW I cemeteries, and it was a rich time for both of us. We share an interest in history, life, connections in the mountains and the way of life and the cottage industry and small industry that existed in these rural areas. Our families were 30 or 40 miles apart and under two different governments within A-H.

              We both have long term experiences on multiple trips and the exchange of ideas and experiences was rich for both of us. We got into Slovakia twice in about 5 days, once hiking over the mountain ridge to Cigelka, where we had a fine time refreshing ourselves with a good Sharish beer while chatting with a Gypsy woman who was relaxing over ice cream with a bunch of kids she was caring for. I was amazed
              at how gentle the mountain slopes were, and how short the hike between the Polish and Slovak villages.

              This trip to Poland was a new experience and on the way out of the mountains extended my stay in Krakow a few nights, it is such an interesting and beautiful city. It has replaced Vienna on my 'golden
              triangle' with Budapest and Prague.

              I am finishing up Slovak Language school now and expect I will consolidate some notes and write about other experiences as well. I am in Europe for the summer, with Slovakia as my main interest.
            • Ron
              Joe, you make me think of a similar experience, finding a young man in robes high in the Tatras as well. Shortly after the communist era that was quite a
              Message 6 of 8 , Jul 23, 2013
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                Joe, you make me think of a similar experience, finding a young man in robes high in the Tatras as well. Shortly after the communist era that was quite a shock.

                Yes, there were a good number of religious to be seen in Poland, in full habit. Both of us noted that Polish auto traffic was significantly higher than was traffic in Slovakia, this in the Wisowa-Zdroj area (opposite Cigelka) to Krynica - Stara Lubovna. Driving from Krakow airport where I rented the car to Wisowa-Zdroj was no joy for traffic, and about half of that was on magnificently new freeway. My map from 20 years ago was fully obsolete. Happily the rental company gave me a good one, and the agent carefully explaines which signs to follow, I believe to Przmysal instead of Gorlice, as I would have guessed. It was a bit like driving to Toledo from Cleveland and having to choose between New York and Chicago as destination on the freeway. Most noticable on the freeways are the extremely long on and off ramps. I would guess they are about 1 km (half mile) long!

                I hardly saw any horse drawn wagons at all. Poland seemed prosperous, though much of that could be the EU money invested. Looking at the spa of Wisowa-Zdrj, I hope their business proves sufficient to support all of the new, beautiful infrastructure.



                --- In Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com, "Armata, Joseph R" <armata@...> wrote:
                >
                > Hi Ron! Great post!
                >
                > Over 20 years ago I noticed a difference between Slovakia and Poland. As soon as I crossed the border into Poland in the mountain towns, I saw fewer cars and a lot more horse-drawn wagons. I also saw many priests and nuns in religious garb, something I rarely saw on the Slovak side. Are those still true today in the EU era?
                >
                > One of my memories is gingerly climbing up a public trail in the Tatra mountains in a steep and tricky spot, with the assistance of spikes hammered into the rocks around. I looked up and saw coming down the trail towards me a nun in full habit with her arm in a sling! I figured if she can do it in her habit with only one good arm, I should be able to do it too.
                >
                > Joe
                >
                >
                > -----Original Message-----
                > From: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ron
                > Sent: Tuesday, July 23, 2013 10:52 AM
                > To: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com
                > Subject: [Slovak-World] Starting my Tours 2013
                >
                > I was walking the roads and trails where my aunt and cousins live in the Czech Republic and I thought one or two of you might be interested in some vicarious experiences. A strong tendency among children of immigrant is to think of the Old Country as it was when grandma and grandpa emigrated, that the culture and land hasn't changed. Of course that is much the same as making the same assumption on life in America over the same period of time.
                > I was walking along one trail that was a road in 1948. Today it peters out and ends at a solar farm. On my first visit in 1970 it led past a completed cow barn and one under construction. Today these are used for the core of a turkey farm. There is hardly a cow to be seen.
                >
                > This is the former Sudetenen Land, which has been a topic now and then on S-W. The last topic I remember is when someone mentioned Slovaks were forced to come here under the communists, and I
                > replied that the immigration started in 1946 and was a free choice. It was an attractive offer for the same reason others emigrated to America from Slovakia - lack of jobs and potential facing everyone back where they grew up. My aunt did clarify one thing, however. The land was not given freely, but was more of what I see from the American experience as a homesteading opportunity. Land and house had to be bought for cash or paid in sweat equity repairs and monthly cash payments over time. That does not address how the program may have changed over time or when the communists took over and changed
                > programs nationwide, but this was the case when my aunt and my uncle both brought their families over in 1946.
                >
                > I headed to Krakow on the night train and spent a few days in Krakow for the first time. I joined an American Rusyn who's family comes from the north slope of the Carpathians while mine comes from the
                > south bank of the Poprad River. We spent a few days together exploring the mountain areas, villages old wooden churches, WW I cemeteries, and it was a rich time for both of us. We share an interest in history, life, connections in the mountains and the way of life and the cottage industry and small industry that existed in these rural areas. Our families were 30 or 40 miles apart and under two different governments within A-H.
                >
                > We both have long term experiences on multiple trips and the exchange of ideas and experiences was rich for both of us. We got into Slovakia twice in about 5 days, once hiking over the mountain ridge to Cigelka, where we had a fine time refreshing ourselves with a good Sharish beer while chatting with a Gypsy woman who was relaxing over ice cream with a bunch of kids she was caring for. I was amazed
                > at how gentle the mountain slopes were, and how short the hike between the Polish and Slovak villages.
                >
                > This trip to Poland was a new experience and on the way out of the mountains extended my stay in Krakow a few nights, it is such an interesting and beautiful city. It has replaced Vienna on my 'golden
                > triangle' with Budapest and Prague.
                >
                > I am finishing up Slovak Language school now and expect I will consolidate some notes and write about other experiences as well. I am in Europe for the summer, with Slovakia as my main interest.
                >
              • Ron
                Slovakia Deep History How about 70,000 years of history in Slovakia? We have the Ganovce Man (or woman as some say from the investigations), found ooutside of
                Message 7 of 8 , Jul 26, 2013
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                  Slovakia Deep History

                  How about 70,000 years of history in Slovakia? We have the Ganovce Man (or woman as some say from the investigations), found ooutside of Poprad, a Neanderthal brain. Who came since, who stayed and who moved on are questions that are likely to be answered in generalities unless archeology goes through some miraculous changes. There doesn't seem to be much written in the scientific literature, or at least I haven't found it in English or German or noted hints in the bit of Slovak that I can muster. So I looked north of the border in Poland, where they seem to have researced and written more. I skipped the salt mine near Krakow and found a veritable gold mine instead in the "Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie", "Archaeological Museum in Krakow".

                  They have a special display on the Krakow region from 70,000 BC through 1300 AD. Yes, they still use the old designations. Sadly they define the Krakow region as extending just a bit south of Krakow. I was hoping it would extend south past the current Slovak border. Happily the map stops only 60km or about 40 miles from the Slovak border, which is not far as the stone age man wanders. So I would count their write-up and findings as indicative as to what may have been going on in Slovak territory over the same periods. This goes beyond the common writings we often find that say simply claim "my people wandered through that territory first!"

                  From the old neanderthal finds they jump forward to 21,000 BC an continue in steps through 6800, 5300, 3500, 1900, 700 and 250 BC before they jump to what is known of AD 160, 800, 1000, and finish with 1300AD. I still have to look at the book more closely, but what struck me about the exhibit is how thickly settled the area was - MANY times!

                  Perhaps I had best tabulate the approximate settlement density as I read the maps.

                  6800BC, climatic optimum of the Holocene (coH). Noticable settlements south of Krakow.
                  5300BC, (coH) beginning of permanant settlements, arrival of farmers. More thickly settled.
                  3500BC, sub-boreal period. More thickly settled. Parts densly settled.
                  1900BC, sub-boreal period. Noticably thinner settlement.
                  700BC, twilight of the sub-boreal period. Much more thickly settled.
                  250BC, sub-Atlantic period. Very thinly settled, noticably less than 5300BC.
                  160AD, sub-Atlantic period. Very thickly settled.
                  800AD, sub-Atlantic period. Very thinly settled.
                  1000AD, sub-atlantic period. Thickly settled.
                  1300AD, sub-Atlantic period. Very thickly settled.

                  I am lookiing forward to reading the book to see what detail they may offer, and hopefully how they drew their conclusions. I was hoping they would have references to scientific papers identifying specifics in their findings but I see no list. Once aware of this, however, we can start looking for source material.

                  Now to haunt some Slovak museums and see what might be found to round out th current picture in our lands.


                  I posted 3 of the photos in the album Krakow Settlements so you can see what density I am refering to. I will leave them there a while and delete them, perhaps in September.

                  Ron
                  PS. As a follow-up I am headed to Brno, Czechia for a few days to check out their info on the stone age times. They are supposed to have all of the artifacts from the Predmosti finds.


                  In both Polish and English,
                  ISBN 83-911543-3-5 "Pradzieje I Wczesne Srednioiecze Malopolski", "Prehistory and Early Middle Ages of Little POland" (dual title). Exhibition Guide and Catalogue. Cost: 70 Zloty, about $24. Includes a CD with an installable program on the displays.
                • Ron
                  The link to the three maps on Slovak World is http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Slovak-World/photos/album/1422996626/pic/list You can also google the museum and
                  Message 8 of 8 , Jul 27, 2013
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                    The link to the three maps on Slovak World is
                    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Slovak-World/photos/album/1422996626/pic/list

                    You can also google the museum and gathr other information.

                    --- In Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com, "Ron" <amiak27@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Slovakia Deep History
                    >
                    > How about 70,000 years of history in Slovakia? We have the Ganovce Man (or woman as some say from the investigations), found ooutside of Poprad, a Neanderthal brain. Who came since, who stayed and who moved on are questions that are likely to be answered in generalities unless archeology goes through some miraculous changes. There doesn't seem to be much written in the scientific literature, or at least I haven't found it in English or German or noted hints in the bit of Slovak that I can muster. So I looked north of the border in Poland, where they seem to have researced and written more. I skipped the salt mine near Krakow and found a veritable gold mine instead in the "Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie", "Archaeological Museum in Krakow".
                    >
                    > They have a special display on the Krakow region from 70,000 BC through 1300 AD. Yes, they still use the old designations. Sadly they define the Krakow region as extending just a bit south of Krakow. I was hoping it would extend south past the current Slovak border. Happily the map stops only 60km or about 40 miles from the Slovak border, which is not far as the stone age man wanders. So I would count their write-up and findings as indicative as to what may have been going on in Slovak territory over the same periods. This goes beyond the common writings we often find that say simply claim "my people wandered through that territory first!"
                    >
                    > From the old neanderthal finds they jump forward to 21,000 BC an continue in steps through 6800, 5300, 3500, 1900, 700 and 250 BC before they jump to what is known of AD 160, 800, 1000, and finish with 1300AD. I still have to look at the book more closely, but what struck me about the exhibit is how thickly settled the area was - MANY times!
                    >
                    > Perhaps I had best tabulate the approximate settlement density as I read the maps.
                    >
                    > 6800BC, climatic optimum of the Holocene (coH). Noticable settlements south of Krakow.
                    > 5300BC, (coH) beginning of permanant settlements, arrival of farmers. More thickly settled.
                    > 3500BC, sub-boreal period. More thickly settled. Parts densly settled.
                    > 1900BC, sub-boreal period. Noticably thinner settlement.
                    > 700BC, twilight of the sub-boreal period. Much more thickly settled.
                    > 250BC, sub-Atlantic period. Very thinly settled, noticably less than 5300BC.
                    > 160AD, sub-Atlantic period. Very thickly settled.
                    > 800AD, sub-Atlantic period. Very thinly settled.
                    > 1000AD, sub-atlantic period. Thickly settled.
                    > 1300AD, sub-Atlantic period. Very thickly settled.
                    >
                    > I am lookiing forward to reading the book to see what detail they may offer, and hopefully how they drew their conclusions. I was hoping they would have references to scientific papers identifying specifics in their findings but I see no list. Once aware of this, however, we can start looking for source material.
                    >
                    > Now to haunt some Slovak museums and see what might be found to round out th current picture in our lands.
                    >
                    >
                    > I posted 3 of the photos in the album Krakow Settlements so you can see what density I am refering to. I will leave them there a while and delete them, perhaps in September.
                    >
                    > Ron
                    > PS. As a follow-up I am headed to Brno, Czechia for a few days to check out their info on the stone age times. They are supposed to have all of the artifacts from the Predmosti finds.
                    >
                    >
                    > In both Polish and English,
                    > ISBN 83-911543-3-5 "Pradzieje I Wczesne Srednioiecze Malopolski", "Prehistory and Early Middle Ages of Little POland" (dual title). Exhibition Guide and Catalogue. Cost: 70 Zloty, about $24. Includes a CD with an installable program on the displays.
                    >
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