- Various folds [pens] were used in a salas~ (kos~iar) to hold farm animals. The oldest type was made of small felled pine trees (or whole pine trees) placed around the edges of the land to be penned (zat'aty' kos~iar, zaru'bany' kos~iar). Later, pens were built of horizontal poles tied to upright posts. The newest form of pen was a kos~iar made of light-weight components (lesa, treslo, stavianec, dranga) that could be moved around and that was used in field penning.
The milking place (strunga) was an important functional part of the kos~iar. In addition, pig sheds and calf pens (ca'rok) were also built in the salas~. Wooden troughs for watering the cattle were built near the water source.
In areas with individual cattle pasturing, salas~e (farms) on remote pastures had a different character. Here, there were seasonal sheds and herdsmen's shelters. These were adapted mainly to breeding milk cows and processing the milk. Such buildings were widespread in the areas of Javorni'ky (bac~ovy), the Mala' Fatra, Upper Orava, Lower Liptov (kraviarky), Hont and Gemer (s~opy, mas~tale), and Upper Spis~ (s~opy, majdany).
In these shelters, the herdsman who pastured the cows (sometimes together with sheep), milked the cows and processed the milk into butter and cheese, staying there during the day. At night, he either stayed with the cattle, or he took the finished products back to the village.
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