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Traditional agriculture--36

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  • Fedor, Helen
    Although the abolition of villeinage [villein = One of a class of feudal serfs who held the legal status of freemen in their dealings with all people except
    Message 1 of 3 , Jul 14, 2010
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      Although the abolition of villeinage [villein = "One of a class of feudal serfs who held the legal status of freemen in their dealings with all people except their lord."] and serfdom opened up new possibilities in the development of Slovak agrarian culture, the wine-growing industry was held back because of delays in resolving the rights of wine growers to the land, which was not part of copyhold land < http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/ManuscriptsandSpecialCollections/ResearchGuidance/DeedsinDepth/Copyhold/Copyhold.aspx >.

      In the 19th century, the northern boundary of the wine growing area moved south, and unprofitable northern vineyards folded due to economic pressures. During the 1960s in Slovakia, elements of capitalism started to find their way into the wine-growing businesses of citizens [formerly known as peasants] and farmers, and various wine growers' associations and cooperatives were founded. Production was concentrated in areas with profitable vineyards and markets.

      The development of wine growing was interrupted in the 1880s by various diseases. The most extensive damage was caused by phylloxera < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylloxera > and peronospora < http://www.kollant.it/pages/images/peronospora_vite.jpg >, reaching Slovakia from the southern areas of the Kingdom of Hungary.

      In addition to damaging the vines, these diseases caused serious social effects in areas where wine growing was the main occupation of the residents (the Male' Karpaty area) < http://slowacja.hej.pl/map_wbra_150.jpg >. The population of these villages left during that time to work abroad. Rehabilitating damaged vineyards was a long and complicated process, and the wine-growing area was never as extensive as it had been. In many areas, low-quality (but disease-resistant) hybrids began to be grown, mainly where grapes were grown for domestic consumption.

      H
      All opinions my own


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Ron
      ... Trying to read between the lines, I read that the climate changed, and the soils in the northern and mountain regions became less productive. This would
      Message 2 of 3 , Jul 15, 2010
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        --- In Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com, "Fedor, Helen" <hfed@...> wrote:

        > In the 19th century, the northern boundary of the wine growing area moved south, and unprofitable northern vineyards folded due to economic pressures.
        > H
        > All opinions my own
        >

        Trying to read between the lines, I read that the climate changed, and the soils in the northern and mountain regions became less productive. This would have made life harder in the mountains than it was during the warmer periods and less able to support the population of farmers.

        Thus we have climate change leading into (or increasing) the export of labor from the region.

        Any other ideas?

        Ron
      • Fedor, Helen
        The Wikipedia article on the Little Ice Age says that there were three
        Message 3 of 3 , Jul 15, 2010
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          The Wikipedia article on the "Little Ice Age" < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Ice_Age > says that " there were three minima<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxima_and_minima>, beginning about 1650, about 1770, and 1850, each separated by intervals of slight warming". So was Slovak territory affected by the earlier minimums? Were the crops they grew back then hardier?

          Another site < http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/little_ice_age.html > says " Farms and villages in Northern Europe were deserted because the farmers couldn't grow crops in the cooler climate. During the harshest winters, bread had to be made from the bark of trees because grains would no longer grow."

          This site < http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/little_ice_age.html > even has 2 paragraphs on wine production in England, France, and Germany.

          H
          All opinions my own


          From: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Ron
          Sent: Thursday, July 15, 2010 10:28 AM
          To: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [Slovak-World] Re: Traditional agriculture--36 Implications



          --- In Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com<mailto:Slovak-World%40yahoogroups.com>, "Fedor, Helen" <hfed@...> wrote:

          > In the 19th century, the northern boundary of the wine growing area moved south, and unprofitable northern vineyards folded due to economic pressures.
          > H
          > All opinions my own
          >

          Trying to read between the lines, I read that the climate changed, and the soils in the northern and mountain regions became less productive. This would have made life harder in the mountains than it was during the warmer periods and less able to support the population of farmers.

          Thus we have climate change leading into (or increasing) the export of labor from the region.

          Any other ideas?

          Ron



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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