- During the Middle Ages, wine growing in Slovakia reached a high level of development and became a specialized branch of agriculture thanks to German colonists, who contributed to the special character of this wine-growing culture.
Landlords' properties, vineyard properties of peasants, and the economies of vineyard towns were developed, and many institutions and legal standards originated during that time. These standards contributed to the wine industry's prosperity (vineyard rights, the rights of wine bars, the creation of guilds) and survived for a long time, some of them even into the 20th century. However, from very early on, wine growing was also seen as a resource of revenue.
In addition to the obligatory one-ninth portion [to the landlord?] and tithe [to the church?] of the harvest, it was necessary also to pay special fees for wine growing, toll fees for transporting the harvest from a foreign estate, and specific vineyard fees or an upper[??] fee, etc. The peasants' vineyard economy also supported the development of crafts and was the cause of agricultural day-laborers becoming a social group. Many legal institutions originated before the end of the 15th century, such as wine-making guilds and self-administration organizations headed by the village mayor (pereg).
War and uprisings in the 16th and 17th centuries damaged the wine-growing industry. Its recovery during the following period is demonstrated by the large amount of land used for vineyards, which in 1720 reached 57,000 hectares in Slovakia, over four times the present area [The book was published in 1997.]. This was a result of efforts to supply local and foreign markets with production from "Upper Hungary." However, the technology did not advance, although the working environments (wine-cellar, pressing shed) did improve.
All opinions my own,
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