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Traditional agriculture--17

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  • Fedor, Helen
    From an agrarian-ethnological point of view, it is significant that at this time, the two-field system (an older developmental stage of sowing) was still in
    Message 1 of 1 , Jun 9, 2010
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      From an agrarian-ethnological point of view, it is significant that at this time, the two-field system (an older developmental stage of sowing) was still in use. In this system, the land of the village was divided into two parts-one for growing crops and one to lie fallow (which created pastures). This system survived because of local soil and climate conditions, in places where it was not feasible to grow winter grain, precluding the classic three-field system. The second reason it survived was a lack of meadows and pastures. For these reasons, the two-field system survived for a long time in Hont, Tekov < http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Slovakia_Tekov.jpg/250px-Slovakia_Tekov.jpg >, and Orava.

      On the other hand, other factors that accelerated the extinction of the three-field system were primarily the breakdown of the traditional large family and the Hungarian inheritance system, which resulted in such small pieces of land for farming, that individual families found it impossible to leave one-third of the pieces fallow.

      Regional variations also played a role in the raising of root crops and their gradual incorporation into farming systems. Various types of beets were a common. Edible beets were grown as well as beets used for fodder. Potatoes, without which we in the 20th century cannot even imagine agriculture in some Slovak regions, moved from the landlords' gardens into the peasants' fields only in the 19th century. This transfer took place earlier in northern Slovakia.

      In most of Slovakia, all work related to the growing of potatoes was done by hand. Potatoes were either planted in holes dug with a hoe (which was also used to cover the planted potato), or planted behind a plow, in a furrow. Various types of arable tools (plows, cultivators) were first used to grow potatoes in now-Slovakia in the first half of the 20th century.

      In areas where conditions made it possible to switch to a system of crop rotation, this process took place in the 19th century. In places where such conditions did not exist, the three-field system survived as late as the 1920s. In 1934, there were still 631 villages in Slovakia that used the three-field system. In 1940, it was even necessary to issue a law strictly forbidding it.(3)


      H
      All opinions my own


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