Re: Tiso I and Tiso II
> Jozef Tiso is somewhat portrayed as a man who tried as bestI agree with what you say about the book, Noreen. The dispute is
> he could (while outwardly seeming to be working with the
> Germans) to shield as many Jews as he could by classifying
> them as "other" than Jews, or as Jews who were necessary to
> Slovakia in their professions.
about the phrase "as best he could". Those who defend him say he
couldn't do anything more, those who criticize him say no Jews needed
to be deported.
As to classifying people as non-Jews, that was a bill passed by
Parliament, not Tiso's decree. Slovakia did not classify as Jews
people who were/used to be members of the Jewish religion but were
married (prior to a certain date) to non-Jews, and children of such
couples. (There were additional clauses, but they applied to just a
minuscule number of people.)
As to preventing the deportation of Jews once they began, Tiso signed
waivers for (exactly) 1,111 Jews. Because with each person the whole
family was exempt from deportation, we can multiply that number by
what we assume was the average size of a family then (the actual
number has not been determined; parents/grandparents living with the
exempted person were typically exempted, too).
More Jews received waivers from various government departments that
declared them necessary for Slovakia's economy, etc. Personal
favoritism and bribery helped secure some of the waivers, too.
After all the waivers, about 58,000 people were deported in 1942.
> I seem to be forming the opinion that thereHistorians agree on that, although "how much" is a matter of dispute
> were much worse than he.
(the main point of contention is whether/to what degree the
President+Prime Minister of an authoritarian and totalitarian country
under German domination can be not-responsible for his government's
actions). Like Hungary and Italy, Slovakia's government had a more
radical pro-German/Nazi wing. Those people became more prominent/took
over in all three countries towards the end WWII. The 1944 uprising
was a specific trigger in Slovakia, but German intervention was a
factor in that in all three countries.
votruba "at" pitt "dot" edu