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4983Re: [Slovak-World] Social status in slovak village before 1848

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  • Vladimir Bohinc
    Sep 1, 2003
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      Dear Helen,
      Valla, Stupava 1592, colonus
      Vallo, Pruske 1683, colonus
      Valo, Bytcica 1626, inquilinus
      Vanso, Rajec 1688,?
      Wanczo, Pecenady, 1522, colonus

      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "Helen France" <hwfr@...>
      To: <Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2003 6:54 AM
      Subject: RE: [Slovak-World] Social status in slovak village before 1848

      > Thanks, Vladimir, for all the great information you provide for us!
      > Could you check your database for the following surnames: Valla (from
      > Laksarska Nova Ves) and Vanco/Vancso (from Veresvar).
      > I thank you for the informationl
      > Helen France
      > -----Original Message-----
      > From: Vladimir Bohinc [mailto:konekta@...]
      > Sent: Sunday, August 31, 2003 4:37 PM
      > To: Slovak World
      > Subject: [Slovak-World] Social status in slovak village before 1848
      > Dear Members,
      > Not much has been said about this topic on this list and since there are
      > some discussions about the records etc, I thought, this might contribute a
      > little to better understanding of the social hierarchy in a slovak village
      > under feudalism.
      > Almost all villages were founded out there in the woods, out of nothing.
      > A man, who had a contract with the Landlord, and was responsible for one
      > village, to bring the people there, and to oversee the construction etc,
      > called Soltys, or Locator. He was the first Mayor, and his descendants
      > inherited this right.
      > Some even took a surname Soltys. Others took the name of the place as
      > surname ( or was it vice versa? I am not sure about that) The fact is,
      > I found many old Mayors to have names the same as the place they were
      > living in.
      > After the village was established, they got a grace periond of 6 or 8
      > where they did not have to pay any taxes. They had to cultivate the land
      > bring up the livestock etc. Such a grace period is in slovak called
      > "Lehota". This is why so many places have such name Lehota.
      > Such a Soltys, or Richtar or Judex or Fojt, was the number one in the
      > village.( was A.J.Foyt, a famus Indiannapolis racer of sloavk origin?)
      > At times, there were more than one at the same time, some being ex Judex.
      > Basic agricultural and Taxing unit of land property was called "Usadlost"
      > "Sessio" or "Lan" or "Hof" or "Rola".
      > The size of it was depending upon the quality of land and varied very
      > much.It was supposed to feed one family.
      > It included the land in the village ( Intravilan)and also outside
      > (Extravilan). As many of you have already seen, slovak villages usually
      > houses alongside the main road. A standard width for a full Sessio was
      > 30 yards or steps.
      > In the beginning, every family got such a property. With time, these
      > properties (Sessio), began to divide in halfs, thirds, quarters and
      > parts, depending on number of children or for other reasons.
      > If you look at a village house today, you still can see, whether it was a
      > full sessio or what part of it. Pretty exacty,
      > A man, that had such a Sessio was called Sedliak, or Jobbagion or Colonus
      > Sessionatus.
      > In the beginning, this was the most numerous layer of population.
      > They were No.2 in the hierarchy. They had land and a home.
      > With division of Sessios, the property became smaller and smaller. If it
      > smaller than 1/8 of the full size, it was not a Sedliak any more.
      > Here we come to the cathegory No.3, which is called Zeliar, or Inquilinus
      > Hofer or Hostak or Domkar or Chalupnik.
      > They had a small house and a small piece of land.
      > Many Mayors had their "own" Inquilini on their land. So did also some
      > priests.
      > Cathegory No.4 was so called "Subinqilinus" or "Podludnik". They did not
      > have their own house and also had no land. They were living with another
      > Inquilinus as servants.
      > Craftsmen like blacksmiths or millers etc were living as Inquilini or
      > Subinquilini. They did not need land for their living.
      > A special class were "Libertini". ( Thus the surname Slobodnik)
      > They possessed papers, that gave them freedom from most of the Taxes and
      > duties to the Landlord.
      > The last one in the village was naturally a beggar or mendicus or zobrak.
      > ===============
      > In last couple of weeks I entered over 12000 oldest surnames, which I
      > in Urbar books from 16th and 17th century.
      > These are the sources of first known surnames of subjects, that were not
      > noble origin, meaning ordinary people, from the territory of present
      > Slovakia and some parts of Poland and Hungary.
      > It is very interesting to see those surnames, that probably were created
      > long before the books were written.
      > In many cases one can see surnames like Polak, Rusnak, Lengyel, Slovenec,
      > Slovak, Czech, Crawat,Valach, which indicates, that this person, or his
      > ancestor, did not have a particular surname, and was given such based on
      > country of his origin.
      > There are many examples, where the miller was called Mlinar or Molnar, a
      > fisherman was called Rybar, etc. This clearly indicates, that this surname
      > was given either to this person or to his father, probably not further
      > For a limited number of names I can have a look into the data base, to see
      > what was the original spelling and what was the location and status then.
      > many cases it can be seen, where this surname began to spread from.
      > Inquiries are welcome.
      > Another interesting fact is also, that in every Castle Estate, there were
      > always some Sessios deserted.
      > meaning, the people left to some better places. Naturally, the Landlord
      > interested to have as many as possible subjects, so there were always new
      > people coming. The history of Slovakia is full of migration.
      > best regards,
      > Vladimir
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