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## [SarfattiScienceSeminar]Repulsive Gravitational Force and Limitation of Speed

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• Repulsive Gravitational Force and Limitation of Speed Brief: In classical mechanics and relativity have been accepted that repulsive gravitational force and
Message 1 of 2 , Oct 1, 2003

Repulsive Gravitational Force and Limitation of Speed

Brief:

In classical mechanics and relativity have been accepted that repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are two separable items. But I have been believed that this opinion is incorrect. Repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are depends to each other. I will try explaining that two above items is inseparable.

Special Relativity and Limitation of speed;

There are very reasons that speed of light depends to external force. So, there is very evidence that show the limitation of universe�s speed in an inertial frame is not the speed of light. In this case we can find many articles by researching �faster than light� on net.

I found that photon forms of gravitons. When graviton is on photon, it has spin. Also photon has spin. When photon moves in vacuum in an inertial frame, it obeys of external forces that applied on it, and its speed is constant and equal c. So, spin of photon and graviton�s spin are constant. When photon arrives at a new perimeter like water, linear speed of photon decreases, so photon�s spin and spin of gravitons increase.

When the speed of photon reaches to zero, it decompose and produces other particle (remember pair production) or changes to gravitons. So, we never find photon at rest in any inertial frame.

For a graviton we can write;

gradVc=0 in all inertial frame and any space.

Suppose v is the straight speed of photon. When v=c, graviton moves by speed of light.

When v=Vc, it is gravity force. I call this particle CPH.

So, an interesting result of above relation is that we can conclude the light�s relativity principle of it. In other word the relativity of light�s principle is an especial case of above relation.

General Relativity and Repulsive gravitational Force

Newton�s universal gravitational law shows that gravitational forces were always attractive. If gravity always attracts, then it is logical to ask why the universe doesn�t collapse. Newton had answered this question by saying that if the universe was infinite in all directions, then it would have no geometric center toward which it would collapse; the forces on any particular star or planet exerted by distant parts of the universe would tend to cancel out by symmetric.

More careful calculations, however, show that Newton�s universe would have a tendency to collapse on smaller scales: any part of the universe that happened to be slightly more dense than average would contract further, and this contraction would result in stronger gravitational forces, which would cause even more rapid contraction, and so on.

When Einstein overhauled gravity, the same problem reared its ugly head. Like Newton, Einstein was predisposed to believe in a universe that was static, so he added a special repulsive term to his equations, intended to prevent a collapse. This term was not associated with any attraction of mass for mass, but represented merely an overall tendency for space itself to expand unless restrained by the matter that inhabited it.

It turns out that Einstein�s solution, like Newton�s, is unstable. Furthermore, it was soon discovered observationally that the universe was expanding, and this was

interpreted by creating the Big Bang model, in which the universe�s current

expansion is the aftermath of a fantastically hot explosion. An expanding

universe, unlike a static one, was capable of being explained with Einstein�s

equations, without any repulsion term. The universe�s expansion would

simply slow down over time due to the attractive gravitational forces. After

these developments, Einstein said woefully that adding the repulsive term,

known as the cosmological constant, had been the greatest blunder of his

life.

This was the state of things until evidence began to turn up

that the universe�s expansion has been speeding up rather than slowing

down! light from a distant galaxy may have taken billions of years to

reach us, so we are seeing it as it was far in the past. Looking back in time,

astronomers saw the universe expanding at speeds that ware lower, rather

than higher. At first they were mortified, since this was exactly the opposite

of what had been expected. The statistical quality of the data was also not

good enough to construe  ironclad  proof, and there were worries about

systematic errors. The case for an accelerating expansion has however been

nailed  down by high-precision mapping of the dim, sky-wide afterglow of

the Big Bang, known as the cosmic microwave background. Some theorists

have proposed reviving Einstein�s cosmological constant to account for the

acceleration, while others believe it is evidence for a mysterious form of

matter which exhibits gravitational repulsion. The generic term for this unknown stuff is �dark energy.�

Repulsive gravitational force and dark energy on my theory;

I will explain the repulsive gravitational force and dark energy by my theory and CPH�s principle. By consider the relation;

gradVc=0 in all inertial frame and any space.

Suppose v is the linear speed of graviton. What happens when v reaches to zero?

It never happens, but v can reaches to near zero.

When body�s gravity field was so strong, light is unable does escape of it. That is a black hole.

Black hole absorbs particles and objects. Its density increases, so gravity force does strongly so much. When v reaches to zero, in other word all motions of CPH had been changed to spin, body takes critical conditions.

If this black hole absorbs other objects or to reaction with other body, CPHs do not obey of external force and black hole explodes. And a part of universe does expanding.

All objects feeling that itself is the center of this explosion. And every observer seems that all bodies are speeding away from each other. So there is no observer saw that two bodies travel toward each other.

Suppose another explosion happens other space of universe. Many bodies start their travel toward the bodies of last explosion. Then observers witness colliding bodies or galaxies. Our universe was born by a black hole�s explosion. We thought there happened an explosion in all of universe. There is probability that every black hole growth and explodes, and then a new universe does born.

The center of explosion is like the center of great bodies. There external force is zero in the center of explosion. So, there interaction between particles and atoms do without the effect of a considerable external force. Also the center of explosion is an especially point. All bodies are reaction to center of explosion and receive any particles to it from bodies. In center of explosion interaction between particles produce new particles.

The center explosion�s productions start their travels toward all side of universe. Suppose A is a particle that leaves the earth toward the center of explosion. Earth takes acceleration of A. in center of explosion particles A, B, C, and D interaction with each other and produces particles A�, B�, C�, and D�. Particle A� travels toward the earth, and when reaches to earth gives a new acceleration to it.

In my theory the geometry of universe is not that Newton and Einstein propounded.

Universe is infinite in all directions, but it is part by part. Every part is a sub universe that has itself geometry.

With Sincerely

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• Repulsive Gravitational Force and Limitation of Speed Brief: In classical mechanics and relativity have been accepted that repulsive gravitational force and
Message 2 of 2 , May 5, 2004

Repulsive Gravitational Force and Limitation of Speed

Brief:

In classical mechanics and relativity have been accepted that repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are two separable items. But I have been believed that this opinion is incorrect. Repulsive gravitational force and limitation of speed are depends to each other. I will try explaining that two above items is inseparable.

Special Relativity and Limitation of speed;

There are very reasons that speed of light depends to external force. So, there is very evidence that show the limitation of universe�s speed in an inertial frame is not the speed of light. In this case we can find many articles by researching "faster than light" on net.

I found that photon forms of gravitons. When graviton is on photon, it has spin. Also photon has spin. When photon moves in vacuum in an inertial frame, it obeys of external forces that applied on it, and its speed is constant and equal c. So, spin of photon and graviton�s spin are constant. When photon arrives at a new perimeter like water, linear speed of photon decreases, so photon�s spin and spin of gravitons increase.

When the speed of photon reaches to zero, it decompose and produces other particle (remember pair production) or changes to gravitons. So, we never find photon at rest in any inertial frame.

For a graviton we can write;

gradVc=0 in all inertial frame and any space.

Suppose v is the straight speed of photon. When v=c, graviton moves by speed of light.

When v=Vc, it is gravity force. I call this particle CPH.

So, an interesting result of above relation is that we can conclude the light�s relativity principle of it. In other word the relativity of light�s principle is an especial case of above relation.

General Relativity and Repulsive gravitational Force

Newton�s universal gravitational law shows that gravitational forces were always attractive. If gravity always attracts, then it is logical to ask why the universe doesn�t collapse. Newton had answered this question by saying that if the universe was infinite in all directions, then it would have no geometric center toward which it would collapse; the forces on any particular star or planet exerted by distant parts of the universe would tend to cancel out by symmetric.

More careful calculations, however, show that Newton�s universe would have a tendency to collapse on smaller scales: any part of the universe that happened to be slightly more dense than average would contract further, and this contraction would result in stronger gravitational forces, which would cause even more rapid contraction, and so on.

When Einstein overhauled gravity, the same problem reared its ugly head. Like Newton, Einstein was predisposed to believe in a universe that was static, so he added a special repulsive term to his equations, intended to prevent a collapse. This term was not associated with any attraction of mass for mass, but represented merely an overall tendency for space itself to expand unless restrained by the matter that inhabited it.

It turns out that Einstein�s solution, like Newton�s, is unstable. Furthermore, it was soon discovered observationally that the universe was expanding, and this was

interpreted by creating the Big Bang model, in which the universe�s current

expansion is the aftermath of a fantastically hot explosion. An expanding

universe, unlike a static one, was capable of being explained with Einstein�s

equations, without any repulsion term. The universe�s expansion would

simply slow down over time due to the attractive gravitational forces. After

these developments, Einstein said woefully that adding the repulsive term,

known as the cosmological constant, had been the greatest blunder of his

life.

This was the state of things until evidence began to turn up

that the universe�s expansion has been speeding up rather than slowing

down! light from a distant galaxy may have taken billions of years to

reach us, so we are seeing it as it was far in the past. Looking back in time,

astronomers saw the universe expanding at speeds that ware lower, rather

than higher. At first they were mortified, since this was exactly the opposite

of what had been expected. The statistical quality of the data was also not

good enough to construe ironclad proof, and there were worries about

systematic errors. The case for an accelerating expansion has however been

nailed down by high-precision mapping of the dim, sky-wide afterglow of

the Big Bang, known as the cosmic microwave background. Some theorists

have proposed reviving Einstein�s cosmological constant to account for the

acceleration, while others believe it is evidence for a mysterious form of

matter which exhibits gravitational repulsion. The generic term for this unknown stuff is "dark energy."

Repulsive gravitational force and dark energy on my theory;

I will explain the repulsive gravitational force and dark energy by my theory and CPH�s principle. By consider the relation;

gradVc=0 in all inertial frame and any space.

Suppose v is the linear speed of graviton. What happens when v reaches to zero?

It never happens, but v can reaches to near zero.

When body�s gravity field was so strong, light is unable does escape of it. That is a black hole.

Black hole absorbs particles and objects. Its density increases, so gravity force does strongly so much. When v reaches to zero, in other word all motions of CPH had been changed to spin, body takes critical conditions.

If this black hole absorbs other objects or to reaction with other body, CPHs do not obey of external force and black hole explodes. And a part of universe does expanding.

All objects feeling that itself is the center of this explosion. And every observer seems that all bodies are speeding away from each other. So there is no observer saw that two bodies travel toward each other.

Suppose another explosion happens other space of universe. Many bodies start their travel toward the bodies of last explosion. Then observers witness colliding bodies or galaxies. Our universe was born by a black hole�s explosion. We thought there happened an explosion in all of universe. There is probability that every black hole growth and explodes, and then a new universe does born.

The center of explosion is like the center of great bodies. There external force is zero in the center of explosion. So, there interaction between particles and atoms do without the effect of a considerable external force. Also the center of explosion is an especially point. All bodies are reaction to center of explosion and receive any particles to it from bodies. In center of explosion interaction between particles produce new particles.

The center explosion�s productions start their travels toward all side of universe. Suppose A is a particle that leaves the earth toward the center of explosion. Earth takes acceleration of A. in center of explosion particles A, B, C, and D interaction with each other and produces particles A�, B�, C�, and D�. Particle A� travels toward the earth, and when reaches to earth gives a new acceleration to it.

In my theory the geometry of universe is not that Newton and Einstein propounded.

Universe is infinite in all directions, but it is part by part. Every part is a sub universe that has itself geometry.

With Sincerely