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Christian monastery in Turkey fights to keep land

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  • drthomas_joseph
    Wed Jan 21, 2009 8:02pm EST http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE50L08720090122? sp=true By Ibon Villelabeitia MIDYAT, Turkey (Reuters) - In a
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 27, 2009
      Wed Jan 21, 2009 8:02pm EST


      By Ibon Villelabeitia

      MIDYAT, Turkey (Reuters) - In a remote village near the Turkish-
      Syrian border, a land dispute with neighboring villages is
      threatening the future of one of the world's oldest functioning
      Christian monasteries.

      Critics say the dispute, which has become a rallying cry for
      Christian church groups across Europe, is a new chapter in the long
      history of religious persecution of the small Christian community by
      the Turkish state.

      Tucked amid rugged hills where minarets rise in the distance, a small
      group of monks chants in Aramaic, the language of Jesus Christ,
      inside the fifth-century Mor Gabriel monastery. It is a relic of an
      era when hundreds of thousands of Syriac Christians lived and
      worshipped in Turkey.

      "This is our land. We have been here for more than 1,600 years," said
      Kuryakos Ergun, head of the Mor Gabriel Foundation, surveying the
      barren land and villages from the monastery's rooftop. "We have our
      maps and our records to prove it. This is not about land. It's about
      the monastery."

      The dispute, on which a court is due to rule on February 11, is
      testing freedom of religion and human rights for non-Muslim
      minorities in this overwhelmingly Muslim country that aspires to
      join the European Union.

      The row began when Turkish government land officials redrew the
      boundaries around Mor Gabriel and the surrounding villages in 2008 to
      update a national land registry.

      The monks say the new boundaries turn over to the villages large
      plots of land the monastery has owned for centuries, and designate
      monastery land as public forest. Christian groups believe officials
      want to ultimately stamp out the Syriac Orthodox monastery.

      Their allegations come as the EU has said the ruling AK Party
      government, which has Islamist roots, needs to do more to promote
      religious freedom alongside its liberal economic and political

      "This case relates to the political criteria Turkey has to meet to
      become a member of the European Union," said Helena Storm, First
      Secretary of the Sweden embassy in Ankara, who has traveled to the
      monastery to follow court hearings.

      "It is important that freedom of religion and property rights for
      minorities are respected in Turkey," she said.

      Local government officials reached by Reuters in the town of Midyat
      and in the provincial capital of Mardin declined comment on the case,
      noting it was going through the court.

      Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan has pledged to press ahead with
      difficult EU reforms, including rights of minorities.


      In the name of Turkey's strict secular laws, authorities have over
      decades expropriated millions of dollars worth of property belonging
      to Christians. Syriacs, Armenians and Greek Orthodox Christians --
      remnants of the Muslim-led but multi-faith Ottoman Empire -- are
      viewed by many as foreigners.

      Syriacs are one of Turkey's oldest communities, descendants of a
      branch of Middle Eastern Christianity. These Christians, united by a
      language derived from Aramaic, are split into several Orthodox and
      Catholic denominations.

      There were 250,000 Syriacs when Ataturk founded Turkey after World
      War I from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire.

      Today they number 20,000. Syriacs migrated throughout the 20th
      century to Europe, fleeing first persecution by the new secular
      republic, and later to escape violence between Kurdish separatist
      rebels and the Turkish military in the southeast.

      A local prosecutor in August 2008 initiated a separate court case
      against the monastery after mayors of three villages complained the
      monks were engaged in "anti-Turkish activities" and alleged they were
      illegally converting children to the Christian faith.

      Monks say the mayors are instigating anti-Christian feelings by
      accusing Mor Gabriel of being against Islam. Villagers in neighboring
      Candarli, a settlement of 12 humble houses with no paved roads, said
      they had nothing against Christians and accused the monastery of
      taking land they need for cattle.

      "There is a continued campaign to destroy the backbone of the Syriac
      people and close down the monastery," said Daniel Gabriel, director
      of the human rights division of the Syriac Universal Alliance, a
      leading Syriac group based in Sweden.

      "These proceedings cannot take place without the sanction of the
      Turkish government. If the government wanted to protect the Syriac
      Christian community they would stop this case," he said.

      Many churches and monasteries in southeast Turkey -- known to Syriac
      Christians as Turabdin or "the mountain of worshippers" -- are now
      abandoned and in ruins.

      "You need people to have a church. Without the community, the church
      is only a building," said Saliba Ozmen, the metropolitan or bishop of
      the nearby city of Mardin.


      The Conference of European Churches, a fellowship of 126 Orthodox,
      Protestant, Anglican and Old Catholic churches from European
      countries, has said it is "deeply concerned about the threat to the
      survival of the monastery." The group has raised the issue with the
      EU and Turkish officials.

      Considered the "second Jerusalem" by Syriacs, Mor Gabriel was built
      in 397 AD near the border of today's Syria and Iraq.

      The ochre-colored limestone building has seen invasions by Romans,
      Byzantines, Crusaders and Islamic armies, and the monastery was once
      raided by the Mongol leader Tamerlane.

      After falling into disuse, Mor Gabriel was revived in the 1920s and
      today it teaches the Syriac faith and Aramaic language to a group of
      35 boys, who live and study at the monastery.

      By law, Syriacs must attend state schools where teaching is in
      Turkish, but they can be taught about their own language and religion
      outside school hours.

      Three black-clad monks, 14 nuns and a bishop live within the walls,
      preserving the ancient Syriac liturgy and tending to the orchards and
      gardens. They worship in a chapel with Byzantine mosaics. In its
      heyday, Mor Gabriel housed 2,000 monks and nuns.

      Mor Gabriel receives more than 100,000 visitors a year, many of them
      from the Syriac diaspora in Germany and Sweden.

      A trickle of Syriac families have returned in the last few years from
      the diaspora, encouraged by a drop in violence and Turkey's easing of
      language and cultural restrictions on its minorities as part of
      EU-linked reforms.

      Syriac church leader Ozmen said there are powerful conservative
      forces opposed to change in Turkey, but he is optimistic. He pointed
      to this month's launch of a once-banned Kurdish language channel on
      state television.

      "Multiculturalism has been part of Turkey since the Ottoman times,"
      he said. "It is our best guarantee for the future."

      (Editing by Sara Ledwith and Tom Heneghan)
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