- --- In SLOVAK-ROOTS@yahoogroups.com, "eppicha" <eppicha@a...> wrote:
> Was Saros in NE Slovakia once part of Galicia? I am confused when IIn so far as The Kingdom of Galicia-Lodomeria recalled the title in
> look at old maps; I was not aware of that much border change in NE
> Slovakia in the 19th century. I would value the list's opinion!
the Hungarian crown , whose origins went back to the claim of
Hungary's kings to the medieval Rus' principalities of Galicia and
Volhynia(Lodomeria), is correct.
But, the NE Slovakia-Galicia-Poland connection was more extensive than
Austria's presence in Galicia began in 1769, when Hapsburg troops
occupied the 16 Polish-held towns and villages in the Spis^ region on
the southern slopes of the Carpathians.
As a result of the partition of Poland by Russsia, Prusssia and
Austria in 1772, Austria was awarded 31,600 sqaure miles with 2.6
million inhabitants in Rus' (Galicia) and parts of Volhynia.
The new Austrian acquisition was named The Kingdom of
Galicia-Lodomeria, recalling the title in the Hungarian crown , whose
origins went back to 12th century claim of Hungary's kings to
medieval Rus' principalities of Galicia and Volhynia (Lodomeria).
From the late 1700s until the end of WW I, Poland did not exist as a
country. It was divided among the Russian, German (Prussian), and
Austrian Empires. These divisions were known as Partitions.
When Poland was restored as a country after WWI, only certain portions
of these partitioned areas were used to construct the present day
The other portion of these areas were retained by the respective
ruling government. Keep this in mind when you see
Russian-Poland,German-Poland, and Austrian-Poland on records.
By the First Partition of Poland (1792), Austria had obtained Galicia
(consisting of Red Russia, the city of Lemberg [Lwów], a part of
western Podolia, and southern Little Poland). Austria did not take
any Polish land in the Second Partition. During the Third Partition
1795) of Poland, Austria took the remainder of Little Poland and
The southern Polish territories around Kraków and Lwów were
incorporated into the Austrian Empire and renamed "Galicia".
Galicia was formerly a Austrian Crownland and part of Austro-Hungarian
Monarchy(1867-1918). Sometimes referred to as Austrian Poland.
Other names for the area were Galicja (Polish), Galizien (German),
Halychyna (Ukrainian) and Rus Halicka (Polish).
In 1918, Galicia was annexed to Poland as "Malopolska" (Little
After the 1939 partition of Poland by Germany and Russia, East Galicia
became part of Ukraine while West Galicia remained in Poland.
Its former territories are now shared between southern Poland and
Germans, Slovaks, Rusyns, Croatians, Hungarians, and Poles.
Don't know which group settled here first in 12th, 14th, and 16th
Not all people in East Central Europe who later spoke German
owed their heritage to German settlers. Many were descendants of
Germanized Slavs and in some cases Magyars whose ancestors had
intermarried with neighbors of Germanic origin.
Among the earliest German colonies were those begun in the late
12th c in Transylvania and in the mountainous area of Spis^/Zips/
Szepes county in northern Hungary near the towns of Levoc^a (Sv)/
Leutschau (G) and Kez^marok (Sk)/Késmárk (H)/Käsmarkt(G)
The Spis^ enclave was expanded through special privileges granted in
1224 and 1271.
It was at this time that the "Saxons" (actually not from Saxony but
from the Rhineland) came in large numbers.
The German colonists brought legal models that formed the basis of
their special privileged status. Called 'German City Law' these meant
that they could within their "new cities" direct their economic
govern themseleves through an elected city council.
South German Law (based on models of Nürnberg or Vienna) was adopted
for Levoc^a (Sk) Lo"cse (H) Leutschau (G), Kos^ice (Sk) Kassa (H)
Kez^marok (Sk) Késmárk (H) Käsmarkt (G), and Pres^ov (Sk) Epérjes (H)
It was during the 13th c that organized efforts were undertaken to
settle Carpathian Rus' with East Slavic farmers and shepherds from
neighboring Galicija (Poland)
Early in 15th c the 16 towns in the northen Spis^ region of central
Slovakia (including Stará L'ubovn^a and L'ubica)- near to but not
including the royal Saxon towns of Käsmark and Leutschau - were sold
to Poland, under whose rule they remained 1412-1772.